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FROM 1760 TO 1775.

Prospects of the Colony. Controversy relative to the New Hampshire Grants. Opposition from the settlers. Stamp Act. Congress at New York. Disturbances occasioned by the Stamp Act. Stamp Act repealed. Assembly restrained. Further attempts to tax the Colonies. Controversy with the Grants becomes serious. Parties prevented from proceeding to hostilities by the controversy with Great Britain.

SEC. I. The conquest of Canada had, for more than seventy years, been an object of solicitude with the colonies generally, but more especially with New York, which, from its local situation, was more imminently exposed to the depredations and ravages of the Indian tribes. The accomplishment of this object put a period to those hostile incursions, and gave, to the future prospects of the colony, the aspect of tranquillity, prosperity, rapid increase, and improvement, while the return of peace afforded an opportunity for repairing the embarrassed state of her finances, and augmenting her resources, which had been impoverished by a series of protracted and expensive wars.

1. What is said of the conquest of Canada?- -Of the prospects of the colony?

SEC. II. Lieutenant governor Delancey died suddenly, on the 30th of July, and Cadwallader Colden assumed the government, as president of the council. He received the appointment of lieutenant governor in August, 1761. Robert Monckton was commissioned governor, and commenced his administration in October.

Soon after his appointment, Gov. Monckton embarked to take the command of an expedition against Martinique. The enterprise was successful, and, on the fourteenth of February, the French governor, M. de la Touche, delivered up the whole island to the English on capitulation. With Martinique fell Granada, St Lucia, St Vincent, and every other place possessed by the French in the extensive chain of the Carribbee Islands. Gov. Monckton returned to New York in June, 1762, but remained only a short time in the province, During his absence, the government was administered by Mr Colden, the lieutenant governor.

SEC. III. In 1763 commenced the celebrated controversy with New Hampshire, relative to boundaries. The controverted territory comprised the country situated between Connecticut river, and Lake Champlain; and since known as Vermont.

No settlements, of any importance, had been made in this territory previous to 1760; and the subject of territorial limits had, consequently, never been examined, or called in question. The original charters of the colonies, owing to the imperfect surveys of the country, were extremely vague, indefinite, and often contradictory. A grant was made in 1664, and 1674, by Charles the second, to his brother, the duke of York, containing, among other

II. How was the administration of Gov. Delancey terminated?Who assumed the command?-Who was the next governor ?

What can you say of his administration?

III. What controversy commenced in 1763?What did the controverted territory comprise ?

What is said of the settlements in this territory?Of the original charters of the colonies?

parts of America, "all the lands from the west side of Connecticut river to the east side of Delaware bay." No other grant of the contested territory had ever been made by any preceding, or subsequent charter, and it was consequently inferred, by the government of New York, that it fell within their jurisdiction.

This territory was, however, by many supposed to fall within the limits of New Hampshire, and that government, in 1760, and several succeeding years, made large grants of land, to settlers, west of Connecticut river. The settlements progressed with astonishing rapidity, and, in 1763, one hundred and thirtyeight townships had been granted by New Hampshire, extending as far west as the shore of Lake Champlain; and to what was esteemed twenty miles east of Hudson's river.

SEC. IV. To check the proceedings of New Hampshire, lieutenant governor Colden issued a proclamation, reciting the grants of the duke of York, asserting their validity, claiming the jurisdiction as far east as Connecticut river, and commanding the sheriff of Albany county to make return of all persons, who, under the New Hampshire Grants, had taken possession of lands west of the river.

A proclamation was soon after issued by the governor of New Hampshire, declaring the grant of the duke of York to be obsolete; that New Hampshire extended as far west as Massachusetts, and Connecticut, and that the grants made by New Hampshire would be confirmed, if the jurisdiction should be altered. He exhorted the settlers not to be intimidated, but to proceed in the cultivation of their lands; and required the civil officers to exercise

From what did the government of New York infer that this territory fell within their jurisdiction?- What government made grants in this territory? -What is said of the settlements ?What was the extent of these grants?

IV. What was done to check these proceedings?
What proclamation was made soon after?

iurisdiction as far west as grants had been made, and to punish all disturbers of the peace.*

SEC. v. Application was made to the crown, and a decision obtained in 1764, by which, the western bank of Connecticut river was declared to be the boundary line between the provinces of New Hampshire and New York. The government of New York proceeded to organize the new territory, and to exercise jurisdiction.

The new district was divided into four counties. The southwestern part was annexed to the county of Albany ; and the northwestern part formed into a county by the name of Charlotte. East of the Green Mountains, two counties were formed: Gloucester on the north, and Cumberland on the south. In each of these counties, courts were regularly held. The grants of land, under New Hampshire, were declared illegal, and the settlers required to take out new charters from New York.

Some of the towns complied with the requisition, and purchased their lands the second time; but the greater part refused. Where it was not complied with, on the part of the grantees, new grants were made of their lands to such petitioners as would advance the fees which were demanded. Actions of ejectment were commenced in the courts at Albany against several of the ancient settlers. The decisions of the courts were in favor of the New York titles; but when the executive officers came to eject the inhabitants, they generally met with an avowed opposition from the possessors, and were not allowed to proceed in the execution of their offices.

When it was found that there was a combination for the avowed purpose of resisting the execution of the judgments of the courts, the militia were called out to support the

* Williams.

v. What decision was made in 1764?What was done by the government of New York?

What was required of the settlers?- -How was this complied with ?- What actions were commenced?-- -What measures were taken by the settlers? What measures were taken by the government?

sheriff; but they were rather in sentiment with the settlers, and disbanded themselves, on the appearance of an armed opposition. The actions of ejectment still went on in the courts of Albany. No attention was, however, paid to them, nor any defence made by the settlers. But when attempts were made to carry these decisions into effect, a mob was assembled to oppose their execution. As the efforts of the government were continued, the opposition of the settlers became more bold and daring, and was frequently characterised by acts of outrage and violence.

SEC. VI. 1765. Much excitement was produced by the stamp act, which was passed by the British parliament, early in the present year, for the purpose of raising a revenue from their American colonics.

This act ordained that all instruments of writing, such as deeds, bonds, notes, &c. among the colonies, should be null and void, unless executed on stamped paper, for which a duty should be paid to the crown.

SEC. VII. In October, a congress, consisting of twentyeight delegates, from the assemblies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and South Carolina, was held at New York, to consult on the common interest. They made a declaration of the rights and grievances of the colonies; petitioned the king for redress, and presented memorials to both houses of parlia


SEC. VIII. When the stamp act arrived in New York, it was contemptuously cried about

What effect had the efforts of the government?

VI. What act was passed by the British parliament in 1765?-For what purpose?- -What was required by this act?

VII. What congress met at New York? For what purpose?

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