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inferior in size, but generally adapted to the purposes of internal navigation. Oneida, Seneca, and Cayuga are among the most important.

Lake Erie is 200 miles long, and 710 in circumference. It contains a large number of islands, and abounds with fish. It is of more dangerous navigation than the others on account of the rocks, which project into the water for many miles together, from the northern shore, affording no shelter from storms, which, at some seasons, are very frequent.

Lake Ontario is of an oval form about 160 miles in length, and 450 in circumference. Its banks are in many places precipitous. The southern shore is covered principally with beech trees, and the soil appears fertile. This lake abounds with several varieties of fish. Lake Champlain is 100 miles in length, and from 1 to 25 in breadth. Lake George is 37 miles long, and from 1 to 7 broad. On each side it is skirted by lofty mountains. Its banks are uncommonly handsome, and the water so transparent, that the bottom is visible at almost any depth. It embosoms more than 200 beautiful islands, most of which are covered with groves of pine, cedar, and hemlock. It falls into lake Champlain by a channel 3 miles in length, during which its waters descend more than 100 feet.

Oneida lake is 20 miles long, and 5 broad. From the south it receives the waters of Cazenovia lake through the Chitteningo.

Seneca lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 to 3 wide. Its outlet, the Syracuse runs north of east 12 miles, and falls into Cayuga lake near its mouth. Crooked lake is 15 miles long, and from 1 to 2 wide. A short stream connects it with the Seneca.

Cayuga lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 to 4 broad. Onondaga, or salt lake, is 6 miles long, and 1 broad. On the southwest it receives the waters of the Otisco by a stream 16 miles long, and at the north end flows through a short ɔhannel into Seneca river. Skeneateles lake, 14 miles

Mention the most important lakes.

Describe Lake Erie.- Ontario George Oneida-Seneca Cayuga.

long and I broad, and the Owasco, 11 miles long and broad, are also discharged into Seneca river.

Canandaigua lake is 15 miles long, and nearly 2 broad Chatauque lake lies 9 miles from lake Erie, and is 1 miles long and 3 broad. Its waters flow from Conewan go creek into the Allegany river. Boats go from the hea of this lake to New Orleans.

Otsego and Caniaderago lakes are the two sources the Susquehannah. The first is 9 miles long and 1 wide The other is nearly as large. Oswegatchie lake is 1 miles long and nearly parallel with the St. Lawrence.

SEC. VII. Islands. The principal island are Long Island east of the city of New York Staten Island west of New York bay; Man hattan or York Island on which the city of New York stands, and Grand Island in the Niagara river.

Long Island is about 140 miles long, and on an ave rage about 10 broad. It is separated from Connecticu by the Sound, from York island by East river, and fron Staten island by the Narrows. A ridge of hills extend through the north side, but the island is generally level The soil is poor, and in many places not worth cultiva ting.

Manhattan is 15 miles long, and from 1 to 2 in width It is separated from the Jersey shore by Hudson's, an from Long Island by East river.

Staten Island, 9 miles south of Manhattan, is 18 mile long, and from 6 to 7 broad. It is generally rough an hilly. On the south side is a considerable tract, which i level, and tolerably fertile.

Grand Island is 6 miles long and 3 broad. good soil. The south end is 4 miles from Buffalo.

It has

Describe Canandaigua Lake.- What others are mentioned VIII. What are the principal Islands belonging to this state? Describe Long Island--Manhattan--What others are men




Mineralogy. Salt Springs.
Salt Springs. Medicinal Waters.
Botany. Natural Curiosities.

SEC. 1. Mineralogy. The mineral resources of the state have, as yet, been very imperfectly investigated, and many parts of this extensive country remain totally unexplored. Wherever inquiries have been made, they have generally resulted in the most brilliant success.

Of Iron there is an inexhaustible quantity in the highlands, and in different parts of the state, as far as Indian River, or west branch of the Oswegatchie. The ore on the borders of lake Champlain, and in the highlands gives a metal of a very superior quality.

Marble of great value, on account of its quality and colour, abounds in the counties of Ulster, Dutchess, and Washington. A vein of a dove colour, full of scallops, or pectivites, has been discovered in the vicinity of Ontario in Jefferson county. Black marble, with white spots, is found at Marbletown in Ulster county, at Granville in Washington county, and at Ticonderoga.

Limestone abounds in various places. Magnesian limestone is found near the city of New York. Fetid carbonate of lime in Dutchess county; also, near Ticonderoga, and the Falls of Niagara.

Clay is widely diffused throughout the state, and exists in a considerable number of varieties. Fine white Pipe Clay is found on Black River. Gypsum, (sulphate of lime,) abounds in the western country, and a large vein

1. What is said of the mineral resources of this state?- -What has been the result of inquiries?

-Mention the most im

What is said of Iron? Of Marble?portant locations. -What is said of Lime?—Of Clay?— Of Gypsum?

has been opened in the eastern, a mile above the town of Hudson, and near the river of the same name. That of Onondaga is very pure.

Native Silver has been found near Sing Sing, in a small vein. Ores of Tin have been discovered in the highlands, and in the counties of Essex and Clinton. Ores of Arsenic are found in Orange county, in the town of Warwick. Gamet, of a rose colour, exists near Fishkill.

Flint imbedded in limestone is found at Black Rock, in the Seneca prairies, and near Saratoga Springs. Quartz, of which the Esopas millstone is made, is found in the counties of Ulster and Orange. Argillaceous Slate is found in Dutchess and Ulster counties. Coal exists near the banks of the Hudson, in the town of New Marlborough.

Lead is found in the highlands, Columbia, Essex, Clinton, Herkimer, Ulster, and several other counties. Black Lead, or Plumbago, exists near the city of New York, and in the highlands 60 miles north; also, in the counties of Ulster and Jefferson, and near Lake Champlain. Emery is found in the vicinity of Lake George.

Native Allum occurs in several caverns, in which also are found beautiful samples of Calcareous, and Silicious Spar. Asbestos is found in Dutchess and Rensselaer counties. A considerable variety of Ochres, or Pigments are found in different parts of the state. Mica occurs in nunerous vaticties. Serpentine is found in New Lebanon, Rock Crystal is abundant. Beds of Silicious Sand have been discovered affording, for the purposes of manufacture, an inexhaustible supply.

SEC. II. Salt Springs. The Salt Springs occupy a conspicuous place among the mineral resources of this state, and furnish inexhaustible mines of great value. The most important

Where has Silver been found ?- Ores of Tin ?- -Of Arsenic? -Gamet, where found?- -Flint?--Quartz?--Argillaceous

Slate ?


·Eniery ?- Al


Coal? -Lead-Black Lead? - What other minerals are mentioned? 11. What is said of the Salt Springs?


are found in the counties of Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Ontario, and Genesee.

The Onondaga salt springs rise in a marsh at the head of the Onondaga, or Salt Lake. The water is remarkably impregnated with salt. Fifty gallons yield, by boiling, a bushel of salt, weighing fiftysix pounds. It contains a considerable quantity of lime. In addition to salt, the water contains carbonic acid gas, and a small quantity of sulphuric acid.

The springs most highly impregnated issue from the marsh in a group, at the foot of the declivity on which is built the village of Salina. There are many other salt springs in different parts of the marsh; some along the shores of the lake several miles farther down; and others at a considerable distance up the creek. All of these are not, however, equally impregnated with this mineral. SEC, III. Medicinal Waters. New York has long been celebrated for the superior richness and variety of its medicinal waters. Those of Saratoga are perhaps unequalled by any in the world. Of Sulphur Springs there is an almost infinite diversity, from those of Clifton, to the small sulphuretted hydrogen springs everywhere diffused over the regions of clay, shistus, and limestone. Bituminous Springs occur in Cataraugus and Allegany counties.

The Saratoga Springs rise out of a shallow vale, or marsh, by the side of a branch of the Kayadarossoras creek. The Congress, High Rock, Columbian, Red, Flat Rock, Washington, Hamilton, and President Springs are the most celebrated.

Where are the most important?

Describe the Onondaga Salt Springs.

IV. What is said of the Medicinal Waters of this state?


tion the most important.

Where do the Saratoga Springs rise?—— Which are the most celebrated?Describe the Congress Spring.

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