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SPLENDID PICTORIAL PUBLICATION THE WORKS OF EMINENT MASTERS.

TOMB OF NAPOLEON.-40 BEAUTIFUL ENGRAVINGS, EXECUTED IN THE FIRST STYLE OF ART !!

OOTOBER 1, will be published, price SIXPENCE,

THE WORKS OF EMINENT MASTERS,

PART III. This Part will contain Specimens of the skill of the celebrated Artists to whom has been entrusted the erections and embellishments' of the TOMB OF NAPOLEON I. under the Cupola of the Invalides. There will be upwards of Forty Illustrations, including specimens of the sculpture of some of the Great Masters of the reign of Louis XIV., as well as Etex, Pradier, &c. They are engraved in the first style of art. Among them are the following :-External View of the Dome of the Hotel des Invalides-Section of the Church, the Dome, the Crypt, and the Tomb-General View of the Entrance of the Crypt and of the Tomb, with the Tombs of Duroc and Bertrand on either side-Entrance to the Tomb, with the two funeral Genii—Interior View of the Crypt and Tomb-Several beautiful Caryatides with their entablature-Ten fine Bas-reliefs–Entrance and Interior of the Reliquary-Statue of Napoleon—The Sarcophagus-Ġround Plans, Mosaics, &c. &c. With a detailed description of the whole, carefully drawn up from authentic documents.

THE WORKS OF EMINENT MASTERS, PART I., price SIXPENCE, contains the following named Engravings :-Portrait of Jan Steen, and Seven Specimens

of his Works, namely, The Skittle Players—The Aged Invalid-Grace before Meat—The Dancing Dog-The Parrotalso, the Cascade di Terni, by J. M. Turner ; Landscape, after R. Wilson; Dogs, from Sir E. Landseer ; Sancio and the Physician, from J. Leslie; Dogs, from Desportes; the Proscribed Royalist, from J. E. Millais; and two from W. Hogarth; with Biographical Notices of the Artists, &c.

THE WORKS OF EMINENT MASTERS, PART II., price SIXPENCE, contains a Portrait of PAUL BRIL, and Four Specimens of his Works, namely, Diana and her Nymphs-Duck Shooting-A Forest Scene-A Cottage; also, Melar sholy, by Albert Durer; Wreck of the Medusa, by Gericault ; The Beggar Boy, by Murillo ; Paul Preaching at Ephesus, by Eustace Le Sueur; Portrait of Williana Van der Velde, and Five Specimens of his Works, namely, A Calm-Rough Weather -A Flotilla-A Fresh Breeze-A Boat ; The Miraculous Draught of Fishes, by Jouvenet; A Family Scene, by Fragonard; The Orphan Bird, by Burnet; with Biographical Notices of the Artists, &c.

October 1st, will be published, the FIRST QUARTERLY SECTION of THE WORKS OP EMINENT MASTERS, containing the First Three Parts, price ls. 6d. in a neat Wrapper.

THE WORKS OP EMINENT MASTERS will, as it proceeds, reveal the Artistic treasures of Europe as contained in the various Public and Private Galleries of different Nations. Some of these Galleries are as “ fountains sealed” to the majority, and others are only accessible at the expense of much form and ceremony, and a considerable portion of time. The contents of some of them have, it is true, been published, but at a price which places them beyond the reach of the mass of the people. The object of the Proprietor and Publisher of The WORKS OF EMINENT MASTERS is to supply this desideratum ; and he rejoices that he has the means of placing within the reach of the humblest individual a Work of unparalleled beauty and excellence. His aim in this enterprise is to keep pace with the important movements recently made to beget and foster a love for the beautiful in Art-to place before the humble but aspiring art-student models which he may profitably imitate, and to encourage and stimulate the improved and improving taste of the present age.

THE WORKS OF ÈMINENT MASTERS will include Specimens of the performances of those who, at different periods, and in various countries, have distinguished themselves as Masters, whether in Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Decorative Art. These will be accompanied, in most instances, with Portraits and Biographical Notices of the Artists.

A VOLUME of The Works or EMINENT MASTERS will be completed yearly, containing the Twelve Parts issued Monthly. The materials have been selected with the greatest care, and no expense has been spared as to the machinery, or as to anything requisite for producing a Work of the higbest merit - a Work which will be sure to commend itself to every lover of Fine Art.

HISTORICAL EDUCATOR:

THE Travels of Herodotus in Egypt and the East - History of America, by Mary Howitt – History of Greece, by E. L. Godkin-Complete

Chronological Tables, &c. &c.

IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, TWOPENCE EACH. The Publication of this most interesting and important Work will commence October 1, and will be continued Weekly. It will also be insped in

Monthly Parts, price 9d., or when containing Five Numbers, ild.

THE

HISTORICAL EDUCATOR Will form a UNIVERSAL HISTORY, and will, as it proceeds, open up to the People rich stores of knowledge hitherto accessible but to a privileged few. The History of Geography, or the Discoveries made by eminent Travellers and Voyagers, will be a most interesting Department, the collection of the materials for which has engaged the labour of several years. The Engravings for the illustration of the Chapters in this course will involve an outlay of more than Two THOUSAND POUNDS. The Work will be divided into Departments, as follows:

I.-THE HISTORY OF DISCOVERY, Commencing with the Voyages and Travels of HERODOTUS, whom Cicero called the “Father of History," and whose investigations into the Origin and History of Nations, written about 450 years before the commencement of the Christian Era, caused him to be known and greatly admired throughout Greece.

II.-THE HISTORY OF AMERICA, from its First Discovery by Columbus. This portion of the Work has been entrusted to that charming and popular writer, Mrs MARY HOWitt, whose aim it will be to render it peculiarly interesting to the young, at the same time furnishing ample information to all who desire a perfect knowledge of the rise, progress, and present condition of a country allied to Great Britain by so many endearing recollections.

III.-THE HISTORY OF GREECE, ANCIENT AND MODERN.
This is entrusted to Edwin L. GODKIN, Esq., Author of the “ Popular History of Hungary," &c.

IV.-CHRONOLOGY.
This Department will comprise a compendious outline of General History, from the Creation to the present time, including Remarkable Events,
Discoveries and Inventions, and the Era, Country, and Writings of Learned Men.

V.-THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURK. This Department will be under the able cuperintendence of J. R. BEARD, D.D., and will comprise Critical and Biographical Notices of the most

Eminent English Authors.-Every Number will contain a portion of each of the above Departments. The entire Work will include the Discoveries of the most ancient Travellers and Voyagers, as well as the records of modern Travellers and Voyagers, relating to the present state of those countries which figured most conspicuously in Ancient History, and which have left upon them an impress of their greatness, exciting the almiration of successive generations.

Each Chapter of THE HISTORICAL EDUCATOR will be accompanied with copious Notes and References, obtained from sources to which few have access; and these, together with the very numerous PictoRIAL ILLUSTRATIONS, will furnish a vast amount of the most curious and instructive information.--THE HISTORICAL EDUCATOR will be uniform in size with the Fine Paper Edition of TRE POPOLAR EDUCATOR, to which Work it will form a valuable companion.

September 16 will be published, in One Handsome Volume, Super-royal ('ctavo, price 5s. 6d., in cloth boards, THE ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF HUNGARY AND THE MAGYARS,

From the Earliest Period, to the Close of the late War.

BY EDWIN LAWRENCE GODKIN. "his Volume will be Illustrated with One Hundred highly.finished Engravings, including representations of the principal Battles ; Portraits of th: early Kings, and of the Statesmen and Generale who figured in the War of independence; Costumes of the Peasantry, &c.; Views of the Ouef Towns and Fortresses, &c. ; with an accurate Description of the Manners and Customs of the People, their Literature, Commerce, Arts, &c.

This work may also be had in Twenty-four Weekly Numbers, price Twopence each, or Four Parts, One Shilling each.

WORKS OF EMINENT MASTERS.

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HOUBRAKEN, who was for a short time the contemporary of

tion of a confirmed drunkard and buffoon. All those who have Jan Steen, has represented this artist to us as a free drinker, spoken of Jan Steen, since Houbraken, have, in imitation of

his biographer, repeated the jokes of the celebrated painter, so that they have become proverbial, especially in Holland. But, for want of having carefully studied his works, and in consequence of the practice, common to almost all book-makers, of copying one from the other, without making any sort of independent inquiry or research, the biographers have given us a false idea of the Dutch painter, in describing him as a man who was capable of nothing better than drinking and jesting. His private affairs, rather than his art, appear to have engaged their attention—they concerned themselves too much with what took place in his household, and did not rightly comprehend what passed in his mind.

It is, doubtless, quite true that Jan Steen lived at the ale. house, and ended by turning his own dwelling into a tavern. This view of his life should not, however, prevent us from descrying his real merits, or from allowing, that though a freeliver, he was also a philosopher, a profound and acute observer, and able to raise himself without effort to the conception of beauty. Possessed of much comic power, he was skilful in portraying diversities of character, and in reproving the follies of mankind, -not with bitterness, but gaily, as it becomes a man who laughs both at the great and petty miseries of life.

Among the numerous biographical works of Arnold Houand relates of him such numerous excesses and ludicrous braken-which are for the most part without interest, detail, traits of character as to have given him in history the reputa- or colour,-that of the life of Jan Steen is remark able. One

Vol. 1.

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B

feels that this writer, although younger than Jan Steen by was scarcely corn enough to make a cake. It was all over. twenty-four years, knew the man of whom he speaks, and

Jan Steen saw the ruin of his brewery, for a second time, with derived the elements of his biography from a good source. an undisturbed mien, and was even the first to joke about his He informs us that Jan Steen was born in 1636 at Leyden, disaster. After all, said he to himself, here is a picture all in Holland, and that he was the contemporary and friend of ready; and, remembering that he was a painter, he set to Mieris. His master was Jan Van Goyen, under whose

work and depicted in a spirited composition the disorder of instruction he made great progress. Whilst he excited the his house. This picture represents a room in which every admiration of this painter by the rapidity with which his thing is in confusion, the furniture is upset, the dog licks the talents developed themselves, he insinuated himself into his

scucepan, the cat runs off with the bacon, the children are good graces, and eventually Van Goyen became so partial sprawling on the floor, and the mother, seated in an arm-chair, to him, that he granted him entire liberty in his house, calmly contemplates this delightful scene, whilst Jan Steen and allowed him to live there on terms of the greatest stands philosophically holding a glass in his hand. intimacy. Van Goyen had a daughter, named Margaret, an This was our artist's first picture, and it is not astonishing indolent and simple, but very pretty girl, who, from being that he, a painter of what are called conversation pieces, much amused by the continual jokes of Jan Steen, came at should have taken as his subject the scene which passed before last to be far from indifferent to him. The affection of the

his eyes. Those who have the genius to observe, look first at youthful painter for the damsel being thus reciprocated, they the objects which immediately surround them. But all agreed to marry, if the consent of their parents could be

biographers are much mistaken in saying that Jan Steen obtained. It naturally became the lover's task to communi- painted himself in all his works; and that almost all his comcate with the father of the young lady; and an opportunity positions represent ale-house scenes, coarse farces or smokingwas sought to accomplish this object. When he had

rooms, full of topers. Nothing is further from the truth, as is finished his work in the atelier, he was accustomed to go proved by the works of this painter. Jan Steen has always in the evening to drink beer with Van Goyen. One day, allowed his sly humour to peep out of his pictures, but it is an finding the old man in a tolerably good humour, Jan exception when he has painted the customs of his life. When Steen gently accosted him, although not without some will the mania cease for copying from books without inquiring hesitation. “I have,” said he, “ some news to tell you into the truth of their statements ? Even in our days, that is which will surprise you as much as if you were to hear to say, in a time in which the spirit of criticism is more than the thunder rumble at Cologne. Your daughter and I, ever developed and exercised, we perceive this fault in some since it must be told, have an affection for each other;

very valuable books, written by regular authors no less than and, if you do not consider me unworthy, I shall be much

by amateurs. For instance, in Smith's Catalogue, so exact honoured in becoining your son-in-law.” Van Goyen, and truthful in all that concerns the description of the though rather surprised at this speech, for he had never

pictures of each master, the author, repeating what the thought of such a thing as his daughter's “falling in love,”

biographers have successively said, does not fail to obserre comprehended at once the force of Steen's argument, and

that Jan Steen was the painter of his own manners and those that his resistance would only aggravate his pupil and his of the society in which he lived. And this is even more surdaughter. So, like a good father, he acceded with a good prising, because this preliminary notice is followed by a long grace to the proposition of Jan Steen. But the latter did not

catalogue of the known works of Jan Steen, and among more find his own father, Havik Jan Steen, quite so easy to deal than 300 compositions, which are there described, only thirty with. He was a brewer, established at Delft; a practical

have drunkenness for the subject, and the ale-house for the man, less sensible to the power of love than to the value of

This master takes the subjects of his pictures almost ready money. It was long before he would consent that his

entirely from human life; we mean life considered from a son should marry at an age when he was not in a condition to

comic point of view, from the side which amuses philosophers maintain a family by his labour. However, after much en

and good-tempered observers. treaty, he at last yielded to the pressing solicitations of Jan,

Another modern writer, M. Immerzeel, * remarking, doubtand agreed that the nuptials should be celebrated. But, that

less, that the works of Jan Steen had little relation to the his son might be in a fair pecuniary position, he built a

circumstances of his life, as Houbraken and Campo Weyerman brewery at Delft, where he established the newly-married

assert, has resolutely contested the assertions of the historians couple, with a capital of 10,000 forins. Steen, finding him

of his country, without giving any other reason than the self in possession of ready money, and considering it but

tartling contrast between the habits of a dissolute man natural to spend it, thought only of leading a joyous life; and

and pictures so delicate, sometimes even so elegant, as Margaret, on her part, constitutionally indolent, neither at.

those of Jan Steen. But how are we to deny facts which tended to her domestic duties nor to her counter.

have been repeatedly affirmed and related in detail by a Je laisse à penser la vie

contemporary of Jan Steen, when such a denial is without Que firent nos deux amis.

proof, and really rests only upon presumption, in itself It may easily be imagined that affairs managed by two persons

very contestable? In short, is it inadmissible that a proof this temperament could not long continue in good condition.

fessed drinker may have refinement of mind, delicacy of “Margaret,” says Campo Weyerman, " kept no account-book ;

feeling and the talent of observation ? And even if genius all the beer that was taken on credit from the house was set

were always incompatible with the sad propensity to drunkendown in chalk upon a slate or a wooden board. Now it hap

ness, what becomes of the observation of M. Immerzeel, pened one day that, being accused of having defrauded the

opposed to the authority of a biographer, who, for more than rights of the town-due, Jan Steen was summoned by the

a century, has not been contradicted, at least on this point ? excise officer to show his books. The slate was produced,

Yes, Jan Steen was what the world calls a joyous toper, but no one could make any thing of it, not even Margaret

who went through life laughing-not with that coarse laugh Steen, who had left it all in confusion, and who was not in the

which is only the gaiety of fools, but with that delicate, habit of giving any thought to what she had written down.

intelligent, and slightly sardonic smile which is the sportiveNevertheless, a heavy fine was exacted, but, as the brewery

ness of philosophers. He passed his life in observing men for was on the eve of its ruin, Jan Steen, laughing heartily, re

his own amusement, and in painting for theirs. Nobody had minded the exciseman that, where there is nothing, the devil

a more communicative jovialty; and it is impossible to conloses his right and the king too."

template one of his pictures without feeling one's heart The artist-brewer was on the point of being forced to close

expand. He was the first to laugh at that bottle which he his house when his father came to his assis:ance. But this

kept continually by his side, and which doubtless sustained only delayed the ruin of Jan Steen. Margaret confessed one morning to her jovial husband that there was absolutely no- * De levens en werken der hollandsche en vlaamsche Kunstthing left in his cellar, neither beer nor casks, and that there schilders. Amsterdam, 1842.

scene.

his Rabelaisian humour, although continually emptying and Quiering, Brackelenkamp, and Jan Lievens were among those refilling it. And it is remarkable that, when he happened to who resorted there, day and night ; for Jan Steen never shut represent drunken people, he never failed to ridicule their his door, that he might show his friends that he was not afraid, drunkenness; thus he seemed to preach temperance with the and because, having little to lose, he could laugh in the face glass in his hand. Take, as an example of this us fact, of thieves. His cellar being soon emptied, he was obliged to the celebrated picture, which was in the celebrated collection take down his sign. In this extremity the painter came to of Mr. Beckford; it is entitled, "The Effects of Intemperance." the help of the tavern-keeper. The wine-merchant not being The artist has there painted himself, with his interesting and willing to give him credit any longer, Steen presented him pretty wife, in the state of drowsiness which follows too with a little picture-in Holland every one likes paintingfrequent libations. She, dressed in a red jacket edged with and the merchant sent a purcheon of wine in exchange. The ermine, over a silk petticoat, is seated in the middle of the sign re-appeared-Steen's friends re-assembled to listen to his room, as it becomes the mistress of the house. While the

facetious stories, and the band of painters, who had turned husband and wife sleep, others profit by their intoxication. out, hastened back, resolved not to leave the place while a The children are searching in their mother's pocket, and drop of liquor remained in Master Jan's taps. But the cask already a little boy has pulled forth a piece of money, which did not last long, and this time it was necessary to close the he holds aloft in his hand with a triumphant air ; another tavern entirely. holds a glass in his hand, which he appears about to dash to Campo Weyerman, a facetious writer, who has sought out the ground and shiver in pieces. The servant of the house sarcastic expressions, some of which are marked by the grossest hastens to profit by so favourable a moment to declare his triviality, has enlarged upon the life of Jan Steen, and related passion to a young girl, sliding into her hand some money, numerous anecdotes, interspersed with coarse jokes, in which which no doubt he had also stolen. The dog seizes upon a

the piquancy especially consists in the unpolished language. pie; the cat breaks a china vase, in endeavouring to spring After having exhausted his facetiousness, he accuses his preupon a cage containing a bird ; the monkey amuses himself

decessor Houbraken of borrowing his anecdotes of Jan Steen with some parchments and books; on the ground, scattered from the Almanack of Liége, and of retailing a litıle story, as pell-mell, are silver dishes, broken glasses, a violin, a Bible, dry as sca biscuit at the line, and as probable as the travels of a china plate, and, as if the elements themselves must inter

Pinto, about some incredible supply of bread made to the fere, the fire is burning a goose which is on the spit.

family of the painter. These censures have not prevented Jan Steen has treated this subject several times, and a Campo Weyerman from relating many anecdotes himself; different version of it may be found among the valuable A little story," says hc, “ will show that the kitchen and pictures in the collection formed by the late Duke of Wel. cellar of Jan Steen were not so abundantly supplied as the lington, at Apsley House. The monkey in this instance plays hotels on the quay of Y, or the Lion d'or at the Hague. Once, with the clock, as if, says Dr. Waagen, to show that the

towards midnight, the famous Jan Lierens (pupil and friend happy do not count the hours. But such a lesson given to of Rembrandt) knocked at Jan Steen's residence, and the drunkards has nothing pedantic, thanks to the good humour door being only latched, according to custom, he entered with which the painter has represented himself. Jan Steen, without ceremony. Who's there?' demanded Jan, waking being a witty man, who wishes to continue amusing, bears on

up with a start. It is I, dear brother,' said Lievens, 'I am his own back the burden of human caprices and follies.

come to bring you a couple of chickens, as fat as strong The picture called the “ Young Gallant” (page 4) gives us Brunswick beer, as white as the white of an egg, and as tenthe whole style and manner of Jan Steen in a single composi- der as the leg of : pheasant.' 'Are they roasted ?' asked tion. It consists of six figures, sitting or standing round a Steen. 'No, king of the universe,' replied Lievens, 'they are table, on which are some eggs in a dish. A man in a chair at raw ; but I have resided in several courts, and there I learned the left-front of the picture is talking to a dog, while on the to cook; I pray you, then, get up, and I will serve you up a opposite side a young fellow comes dancing in from the open dish in my own way.' Jan got up, lighted his lamp, and doorway, holding a mackerel up by the tail, and carrying a

calling Corneille, his eldest son, who was his waiter, ordered few young onions in the other hand. The mistress of the house

him to prepare every thing for the repast. But some of the looks smilingly up from her seat, and another woman, stand- ingredients in the worldly pleasures of our two painters, who ing at the table, desists from her household duties, and looks especially regretted the absence of wine and tobacco, were a smiling welcome to the young gallant. A man standing by wanting. In spite of the reluctance of Corneille to ask for the bedside points to another going out at the door, probably credit, Steen sent him to the wine merchant, Gorkens, to beg the “good man" of the establishment. The entire composi- him, for the last time, to advance some wine, for which he tion--the candle-chandelier, decorated with flowers in token

should be paid in paintings. “That done,” added the father, of the summer weather; the pipe stuck in the hat of the sitting 'you will go to Gerard Vander Laan, and ask him for a penny. figure, in the way our waggoners wear them even in this day; worth of leaf-tobacco, with a couple of little pipes, and you the heavy close-curtained bed, the bare room, the expectant will swear in my name that my gratitude will be eternal.' dog looking up to the susper...ed fish, and the sunlight stream- Whilst Corneille ran through the town to awaken the tradesing in from window and garden doorway, bespeak a thought- men and to execute his commissions, Jan Lievens set to work, fulness for general effect and picturesque arrangement entirely without losing a moment, plucked his fowls and placed them Jan Steen's. This has been considered one of the best of his on a broken gridiron, which was buried in the peat dust to genre paintings.

preserve it from rust; and Jan Steen, on his part, prepared a In 1669, after his ill success as a brewer, he set up as a highly-flavoured sauce with pepper, mustard, vinegar, and tavern-keeper. Old Havik Jan being just dead, Jan Steen butter. When the fowls were scarcely cooked through, the came into possession of a house at Leyden. This induced him two companions began to devour them with such an appetite, to leave the town of Delft, and to establish himself under the that poor Corneille, returning quite out of breath, with his paternal roof; and there it was that he opened his tavern. supply of wine and tobacco, only found, upon the earthenware He placed a sign-post before his door; and, as if he wished to dish, a head and a-half and three black feet. The wine and effect a reconciliation with his creditors, he painted as the the packet of tobacco, which had just arrived, were now all sign, a picture representing the figure of Peace, holding an that remained to be consumed, and this did not occupy long. olive-brarich. Houbraken tells us he was his own best custo- After Steen and Lievens had thus satisfied their appetites, mer, and that he did not succeed better in this new occupation they went to take an airing outside the Porte-aux-Vaches, and as brewer and tavern-keeper, though he possessed all the walked along talking morality like true disciples of Pythagaiety, all the animation, which attracts customers to an ale- goras. But Jan Steen paid dearly for the carelessness with house. He was, probably, better able to induce them to drink which, relying always on Providence, he ventured from home, than to pay.

Most of those who frequented his house were leaving the door on the latch, as is the custom in the little painters as poor as himself. Franz Mieris, Ary de Vos, towns of Westphalia. Wlulst he slept, all his clothes, as well

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