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did : 'and a monument gloomy and melancholy.* A heathen temple has a double destination : it is considered chiefly as a house dedicated to some divinity; and, in that respect, it ought to be grand, elevated, and magnificent : it is considered also as a place of worship; and, in that respect, it ought to be somewhat dark or gloomy, because dimness produces that tone of mind which is suited to humility and devotion. A christian church is not considered to be a house for the Deity, but merely a place of worship; it ought, therefore, to be decent and plain, without much ornament. A situation ought to be chosen low and retired; because the congregation, during worship, ought to be humble and disengaged from the world. Columns, besides their chief service of being supports, may contribute to that peculiar expression which the destination of a building requires : columns of different proportions serve to express loftiness, lightness, &c. as well as strength. Situation, also, may contribute to expression ; conveniency regulates the situation of a private dwellinghouse; but, as I have had occasion to observe,f the situation of a palace ought to be lofty.

And this leads to a question, Whether the situation, where there happens to be no choice, ought, in any measure, to regulate the form of the edifice? The connexion between a large house and the neighbouring fields, though not intimate, demands however some congruity. It would, for example, displease us to find an elegant building thrown away upon a wild uncultivated country : congruity requires a polished field for such a building : and besides the pleasure of congruity, the spectator is sensible of the pleasure of concordance from the similarity of the emotions produced by the two objects. The old Gothic form of building seems well suited to the rough uncultivated regions where it was invented : the only mistake was, the transferring this form to the fine plains of France and Italy, better fitted for buildings in the Grecian taste ; but by refining upon the Gothic form, every thing possible has been done to reconcile it to its new situation. The profuse variety of wild and grand objects about Inverary demanded a house in the Gothic form ; and every one must approve the taste of the proprietor, in adjusting so finely the appearance of his house to that of the country where it is placed.

The external structure of a great house leads naturally to its internal structure. A spacious room, which is the first that commonly receives us, seems a bad contrivance in several respects. In the first place, when immediately from the open air we step into such a room, its size in appearance is diminished by contrast : it looks little compared with that great canopy the sky. In the next place, when it recovers its grandeur, as it soon dotin, it gives a di

* A house for the poor ought to have an appearance suited to its destination. The new hospital in Paris for foundlings errs against this rule ; for it has more the air of a palace than of an hospital. Propriety and convenience ought to be studied in lodging the indigent; but in such houses splendour and magnificence are out of all rule. For the same reason, a naked statue or picture, scarce decent anywhere, is in a church intolerable. A sumptuous charity-school, besides its impropriety, gives the children an uobappy taste for high living.

+ Chap. 10.


minutive appearance to the rest of the house : passing from it, every apartment looks little. This room, therefore, may be aptly compared to the swoln commencement of an epic poem,

Bella per Emathios plusquam civilia campos. In the third place, by its situation it serves only for a waiting-room, and a passage to the principal apartments; instead of being reserved, as it ought to be, for entertaining company : a great room, which enlarges the mind and gives a certain elevation to the spirits, is destined by nature for conversation. Rejecting therefore this form, I take a hint from the climax in writing, for another form that appears more suitable : a handsome portico, proportioned to the size and fashion of the front, leads into a waiting-room of a large size, and that to the great room ; all by a progression from small to great. If the house be very large, there may be space for the following suit of rooms : first, a portico ; second, a passage within the house, bounded by a double row of columns connected by arcades ; third, an octagon room, or of any other figure, about the centre of the building ; and, lastly, the great room.

A double row of windows must be disagreeable by distributing the light unequally; the space, in particular, between the rows is always gloomy. For that reason, a room of greater height than can be conveniently served by a single row, ought regularly to be lighted from the roof. Artist have generally an inclination to form the great room into a double cube, even with the inconvenience of a double row of windows ; they are pleased with the regularity, overlooking that it is mental only, and not visible to the eye, which seldom can distinguish between the height of twenty-four feet and that of thirty. *

Of all the emotions that can be raised by architecture, grandeur is that which has the greatest influence on the mind : and it ought therefore to be the chief study of the artist, to raise this emotion in great buildings destined to please the eye. But as grandeur depends partly on size, it seems so far unlucky for architecture, that it is governed by regularity and proportion, which never deceive the eye by making objects appear larger than they are in reality : such deception, as above observed, is never found but with some remarkable disproportion of parts. But though regularity and proportion contribute nothing to grandeur as far as that emotion depends on size, they in a different respect contribute greatly to it, as has been explained above.

Next of ornaments, which contribute to give buildings a peculiar expression. It has been doubted whether a building can regularly admit any ornament but what is useful, or at least has that appear

But considering the different purposes of architecture, a fine


• One who has not given peculiar attenti will scarce imagine how imperfect our judgment is about distance, without experience. Our looks being geperally directed to objects upon the ground around us, we judge tolerably of horizontal distances : but seldom baving occasion to look upwards in a perpendicular line, we scarce can form any judgment of distances in that direction.

Chap. 4.

as well as an useful art, there is no good reason why ornaments inay not be added to please the eye without any relation to use. This liberty is allowed in poetry, painting, and gardening, and why not in architecture considered as a fine art ? A private dwelling house, it is true, and other edifices where use is the chief aim, admit not regularly any ornament but what has the appearance, at least, of use; but temples, triumphal arches, and other buildings intended chiefly or solely for show, admit every sort of orna. ment.

A thing intended merely as an ornament may be of any figure and of any kind that fancy can suggest: if it please the spectator, the artist gains his end. Statues, vases, sculpture upon stone, whether basso or alto relievo, are beautiful ornaments, relished in all civilized countries. The placing such ornaments so as to produce the best effect, is the only nicety. A statue in perfection is an enchanting work : and we naturally require that it should be seen in every direction, and at different distances; for which reason, statues employed as ornaments are proper to adorn the great staircase that leads to the principal door of a palace, or to occupy the void between pillars. But a niche in the external front is not a proper place for a statue; and statues upon the roof, or upon the top of a wall, would give pain by seeming to be in danger of tumbling. To adorn the top of a wall with a row of vases is an unhappy conceit, by placing things apparently of use where they cannot be of any use.

As to basso and alto-relievo, I observe, that in architecture as well as in

1 gardening, contradictory expressions ought to be avoided : for which reason, the lightness and delicacy of carved work suits ill with the firmness and solidity of a pedestal: upon the pedestal, whether of a statue or a column, the ancients never ventured any bolder ornament than the basso-relievo.

One at first view will naturally take it for granted, that in the ornaments under consideration beauty is indispensable. It goes a great way undoubtedly; but, upon trial, we find many things esteemed as highly ornamental that have litile or no beauty. There are various circumstances, beside beauty, that tend to make an agreeable impression. For instance, the reverence we have for the ancients is a fruitful source of ornaments. Amalthea's horn has always been a favourite ornament, because of its connexion with a lady who was honoured with the care of Jupiter in his infancy. A fat old fellow and a goat are surely not graceful forms; and yet Selinus and his companions are every where fashionable ornaments. What else but our fondness for antiquity can make the horrid form of a Sphinx so much as endurable ? " Original destination is another circumstance that has influence to add dignity to things in themselves abundantly trivial. In the sculpture of a marble chimneypiece, instruments of a Grecian or Roman sacrifice are beheld with pleasure; original destination rendering them venerable as well as iheir antiquity Let some modern cutlery ware be substituted, though not less beautiful; the artist will be thought whimsical, if not absurd. Triumphal arches, pyramids, obelisks, are beautiful forms; but the nobleness of their original destination has greatly



enhanced the pleasure we take in them. A statue, supposed to be an Apollo, will with an antiquary lose much of its grace when discovered to have been done for a barber's apprentice. Long robes appear noble, not singly for their flowing lines, but for their being the habit of magistrates ; and a scarf acquires an air of dignity by being the badge of a superior order of churchmen. These examples may be thought sufficient for a specimen: a diligent inquiry into human nature will discover other influencing principles : and hence it is, that of all subjects, ornaments admit the greatest variety in point of taste.

Things merely ornamental appear more gay and showy than things that take on the appearance of use. A knot of diamonds in the hair is splendid ; but diamonds have a more modest appearance when used as clasps or buttons. The former are more proper for a young beauty, the latter after marriage.

And this leads to ornaments having relation to use. Ornaments of that kind are governed by a different principle, which is, That they ought to be of a form suited to their real or apparent destination. This rule is applicable as well to ornaments that make a component part of the subject, as to ornaments that are only accessory. With relation to the former, it never can proceed from a good taste to make a tea-spoon resemble the leaf of a tree; for such a form is inconsistent with the destination of a tea-spoon. An eagle's paw is an ornament no less improper for the foot of a chair or table; because it gives it the appearance of weakness, inconsistent with its destination of bearing weight. Blind windows are sometimes introduced to preserve the appearance of regularity : in which case the deceit ought carefully to be concealed ; if visible, it marks the irregularity in the clearest manner, signifying, that real windows ought to have been there, could they have been made consistent with the internal structure. A pilaster is another example of the same sort of ornament; and the greatest error against its seeming destination of a support, is to sink it so far into the wall as to make it lose that seeming. A composition representing leaves and branches, with birds perching upon them, has been long in fashion for a candlestick; but none of these particulars is in any degree suited to that destination.

A large marble basin supported by fishes is a conceit much re- lished in fountains. This is an example of accessory ornaments in a bad taste ; for fishes here are unsuitable to their apparent destination. No less so are the supports of a coach, carved in the figure of Dolphins or Tritons : for what have these marine beings to do on dry land ? and what support can they be to a coach?

In a column we have an example of both kinds of ornament. Where columns are employed in the front of a building to support an entablature, they belong to the first kind; where employed to connect with detached offices, they are rather of the other kind. As a column is a capital ornament in Grecian architecture, it well deserves to be handled at large.

With respect to the form of this ornament, I observe, that a circle is a more agrecable figure than a square, a globe than a cube, and


a cylinder than a parallelopipedon. This last, in the language of architecture, is saying that a column is a more agreeable figure than a pilaster ; and, for that reason, it ought to be preferred, all other circumstances being equal. Another reason occurs, that a column connected with a wall, which is a plain surface, makes a greater variety than a pilaster. There is an additional reason for rejecting pilasters in the external front of a building, arising from a principle unfolded above,* namely, a tendency in man to advance every thing to its perfection and to its conclusion. If, for example, I see a thing obscurely in a dim light and by disjointed parts, that tendency prompts me to connect the disjointed parts into a whole : I supposed it to be, for example, a horse ; and my eyesight being obedient to the conjecture, I immediately perceive a horse almost as distinctly as in daylight. This principle is applicable to the case in hand. The most superb front, at a great distance, appears a plain surface ; approaching gradually, we begin first to perceive inequalities, and then pillars; but whether round or square we are uncertain : our curiosity, anticipating our progress, cannot rest in suspense : being prompted, by the tendency mentioned, to suppose the most complete pillar, or that which is the most agreeable to the eye, we immediately perceive, or seem to perceive, a number of columns : if, upon a near approach, we find pilasters only, the disappointment makes these pilasters appear disagreeable; when abstracted from that circumstance, they would only have appeared somewhat less agreeable. But as this deception cannot happen in the inner front inclosing a court, I see no reason for excluding pilasters from such a front, when there is any cause for preferring them before columns.

With respect now to the parts of a column, a bare uniform cylinder without a capital appears naked ; and, without a base, appears too ticklishly placed to stand firm ;t it ought, therefore, to have some finishing at the top and at the bottom. Hence the three chief parts of a column, the shaft, the base, and the capital. Nature undoubtedly requires proportion among these parts, but it admits variety of proportion. I suspect that the proportions in use have been influenced in some degree by the human figure ; the capital being conceived as the head, the base as the feet. With respect to the base, indeed, the principle of utility interposes to vary it from the human figure ; the base must be so proportioned to the whole as to give the column the appearance of stability.

We find three orders of columns among the Greeks, the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian, distinguished from each other by their destination as well as by their ornaments. It has been warmly disputed whether any new order can be added to these : some hold the affirmative, and give for instances the Tuscan and Composite ;

* Chap. 4. A column without a base is disagreeable, because it seems in a tottering condition : yet a tree without a base is agreeable ; and the reason is, that we know it to be firmly rooted. This observation shews how much taste is influenced by reflection.

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