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in his age as Moses was in his.' The same consequence must follow, whoever added the clause contained in the last chapter of Deuteronomy. But indeed was it possible, that Moses could be more than God in his own age?' If not, then every prophet and every scribe, according to the account here given, must have been at least equal to Moses. And the further distant from the death of Moses we remove the insertion of these words, the greater difficulty must they involve: as not only one prophet, but many prophets, in this sense," like unto Moses," and equal to him, had been already raised up, when they were written.-The plural number also can never accord to the prediction of Moses, "of " a prophet like unto him :" and God did not put his words into the mouth of these receivers ; 1 but they put it in the mouth, each of his successor, from age to age, according to the statement here given. It is, however, enough to ask, whether each of them, like Moses, united in himself the distinct offices of prophet, priest and king? Whether each of them was a lawgiver, and introduced a new dispensation of religion, as Moses did? And whether each of them acted as mediator between God and Israel, in establishing a covenant? It was in no wise peculiar to Moses, or to the prophets here mentioned, that what they desired of God, 'he granted them.' It is the privilege of all true believers, as far as they ask according to the will of God." Delight thyself in the Lord, and he "shall give thee the desi of thy heart." 2 Even

'Deut. xviii. 18.

2 Ps. xxxvii. 4.


Moses, when he earnestly desired and prayed that he might pass over Jordan, was refused. Samuel prayed all night against the rejection of Saul, but did not prevail. And, when Elijah impatiently prayed for death, God did not grant his request. 3

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P. 95. 1. 28. Galatians.-This whole passage (p. 95-99) requires little answer. A law concerning any particular description of persons is no law to those who are not of that particular description. The commands to parents and children, to husbands and wives, in the letter of them, are not binding on those who do not stand in these relations to others. "The woman that hath an "husband is bound by the law to her husband; "but, if the husband be dead, she is loosed from "the law of her husband."4 The same is, in the judgment of the common sense of all mankind, the case of the several laws respecting the priests and Levites, the Nazarites, the lepers, and others. This having been noticed, all the strange speeches put into the mouths of different persons introduced, as actors upon a stage, in these pages, may be left to the reader without any answer; for how can a man break a law, or fall under the condemnation of it, who never was in the situation expressly specified in it?

P. 99. 1. 29. to p. 101. 1. 9. 'Proof.-Paul,' &c. The accusation brought against the apostle, in the passage under consideration, like some others, is supported by no evidence except that of the pas

'Deut. iii. 23-26.
* 1 Kings xix. 4.


1 Sam. xv. 11. Rom. vii. 2, 3.

sage itself in Galatians, which it may be proper briefly to consider: "Abraham believed God, and "it was accounted to him for righteousness."1 This occurred above four hundred years before the giving the law. "Know ye, therefore," says the apostle," that they who are of faith, the same "are the children of Abraham. And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen



through faith, preached before the gospel unto "Abraham, saying, in thee shall all nations be "blessed. So then they which be of faith are "blessed with believing Abraham."2 What is there in this, which either an ancient or a modern Jew can disprove? "But as many," says the apostle, 66 as are of the works of the law, are under a curse; "for it is written, Cursed is every one that con"tinueth not in all things which are written in "the book of the law, to do them."3 All the curses, denounced in the remarkable chapter from which the quotation is made, are against violations, not of the ritual, but the moral law, which the apostle had principally in view: yet the letter of the several precepts adduced could not possibly involve in the annexed curse any one who was not in the situation, or relation, which it described. The verse, which Mr. C. so severely condemns, is taken from the close of the chapter, and it sums up and seals the whole. It stands in our version, "Cursed is he that confirmeth not all the words "of this law, to do them." It may be literally rendered, "Cursed is he, who shall not establish

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6. Gal. iii. 6. 2 Gen. xii. 3. Gal. iii. 7-9.

3 Deut. xxvii. 26. Gal. iii. 10.

"the words of this law, to do them:" that is, fully to obey them. Now suppose any man, in the affairs of this life, should hear it said, by the highest legal authority, concerning any law or code of laws, "Cursed is he who doth not establish the words "of this law, to perform them;" meaning by cursed, the penalty denounced against the transgressor: would that man, because the word all did not occur, ask the question, Which of the words of this law? And if he did would not the obvious answer be, All the injunctions contained in it? Should he say, I am not a clergyman, I cannot obey the law to register baptisms, burials, and marriages; must I fall under the denounced condemnation? I am not an exciseman, I cannot obey the law concerning excisemen; must I fall under the condemnation? If we did not think his intellects so far deranged as to render him incapable of attending to an answer, should we not say, You have nothing to do with these laws; nor can have, unless you take on you the office to which they refer. We should also perhaps add, There are many other laws, under which you live, and which are obligatory upon you; and several of these denounce the punishment of death against transgressors: now, if you keep some of these but not all; as, for instance, if you do not commit murder, but are guilty of forgery; you will be ex posed to this punishment. And, if you keep all for many years, yet at last break only one of them, in one instance, you will become liable to this punishment. There are also many statutes which relate to you in your particular station or profession; and these require likewise your unreserved


and persevering obedience: so that, "if you keep "the whole law, and offend in one point, you are guilty of all;" and you must continue in all "things written in the book of the law to do them," if you would escape condemnation. Would not this be very plain to the common sense of the most illiterate inquirer? And, if the person addressed had already broken some law and become liable to punishment; would it not be very intelligible, should you inform him that, if he should be dealt with according to the law, he must suffer the denounced punishment; that the law could not help him, but he must seek relief from another quarter; even from the clemency of his prince, and from a pardon granted by him? This is precisely the scope of the apostle's argument.

The law of God "is holy, just, and good;" it is "exceedingly broad;" and it is "spiritual,” taking cognizance of the heart and secret motives of our conduct. "Thou shalt love the Lord


thy God with all thy heart:" "Thou shalt love "thy neighbour as thyself." These two great commandments comprise, under their most extensive demand, obedience to numerous moral precepts which spring from them; and even to every ritual institution as long as it remains in force. Now "he who doeth these things shall live in "them; but "the soul that sinneth shall die." This is the tenour of the law: if any man hath kept the whole perfectly, and continued in this obedience to the end; the "reward is reckoned to "him as of debt," not of grace. But, if he has once failed in any one particular, in thought, word, or deed, whether by omission or commission; the

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