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much attention to the employment of the poor ; | desire to see improvement carried out—to see the has never shown favor or partiality to any one sect; luckless Celt redeemed from his debasment ; but has lived simply, and attended to his duties ; has the wanton love of bloodshed, united to the half-volnever brought an ejectment, or taken any other untary submission to beggary, has materially abated law proceedings against a tenant. What, then, the sympathy that was entertained in this country. was my surprise and horror to find an assassin The anxiety to see the law enforced in Ireland is lying in wait for me for three successive days ; growing to a feeling of impatience, which finds no and—for this is still more horrifying—that most adequate expression in the parliamentary debates ; of the people of the neighborhood where I live though symptoms of it are to be found even there have been so far from expressing joy at the escape in the speeches of independent members. In sociI have had, that they show evident disappointment ety there is a prevalent desire to witness some deat my not being shot!”
cisive course of action ; and we have reason to “A southern landlord” writes to the Times, believe that ministers would obtain from English complaining of the priestly denunciations from the and Scottish members an unusual amount of support altar, now apparently becoming systematic in Ire- in any measure having for its object the direct enland
forcement of order.-27 Nov. “Of the countless instances which have occurred, I shall only remind you of two; your paper would
The Journal des Débats announces the death of not contain the number of cases I could adduce.
Madame Aimé Martin, widow of Benardin de St. " The one was the case of a very poor man in Pierre, the author of Paul et Virginie, at St. Gerthe county Tipperary, named, I think, Callagan. maine en Laye, in her sixty-eighth year. The priest was the Reverend Mr. T- The SOULEYMAN, Napoleon's interpreter in Egypt, following is the evidence of the reverend function- died on Wednesday, in Paris.
« He was,” says ary, as given at the trials.
Galignani's Messenger, a Persian, but attached
himself to the fortunes of France, and rendered 66. Did you denounce the murdered man from the invaluable services to her army when it was led to altar?'— I did.'
the foot of the Pyramids. He lived upon a pension "When did you denounce him ??— On Sunday granted him by the French government. He had at mass.
a wife and children in Persia; to whom he wished 56. When was he murdered?'—'At five o'clock the to return, but was refused permission on account of same evening.'
his conduct in Egypt. The Persian ambassador, “ The other is the case of the late Major Mahon. now in Paris, had promised to use his influence in He was denounced by the priest on Sunday; and procuring the assent of his government to the return on the following Monday, while returning from his of Souleyman ; but death had put an end to all his
hopes. charitable office in Roscommon, he was shot dead in his carriage.
In Italy, a customs convention between Rome,
Tuscany, and Sardinia, is formally announced. “I cannot but think that these reverend minis- The preamble declares that those three states, being ters of the gospel are amenable to the laws; they “ animated by the desire to contribute by their union are clearly accessories before the fact, and the to the increase of the dignity and prosperity of Italy, crime of murder is the never-failing effect of their and being persuaded that the irue and essential unhallowed exhortations.
basis of the union of Italy consists in the fusion of "I do not know if I am right in this supposition. the material interests of the population of their
respective dominions, have agreed to form an assoIf I am, the sooner a few stringent examples are ciation on the principle of the German Commercial made, the sooner a few of these reverend plotters
League." This is true practical wisdom. The are tried, convicted, and sentenced to imprisonment, long-dreamt“ nationality of Italy” is now laid upon or in very gross cases to transportation, the quicker a solid foundation.-Spectator, 20 Nov. will be the return of this unhappy country to a A NOTICE has been issued from the post-office state bordering on civilization. Until this is done, giving the public the privilege of marking or writand done with energy and promptness, the reign ing upon newspapers sent by post, provided a penny of terror will still continue, and the minister of stamp be affixed upon them :God will remain the minister of death."-20 Nov.
In cases where newspapers are at present subject to the penny postage, (as when they are both posted
and delivered in the same town,) the writing or “ The murders” form the staple of the Irish marks will involve no additional charge. This privA Dublin repeal paper admits that the the newspaper itself
, and is not to extend to the
ilege, however, is to be confined io inscriptions on usual question is, “What murders are there to
cover; which, as heretofore, must contain nothing day?" Nor do they change in character, except that but the address. If additional writing be placed as an engine of terror their application is extending upon the cover, or if a marked newspaper be sent from landlords to creditors generally : the debt in- without the penny stamp, it will then be liable to curred by the purchase of a gun is “cancelled,” as the same postage as that which would be charged currency philosophers have it, by the use of the for an unpaid letter of like weight. The new reg
ulation does not apply to newspapers to or from the
colonies or foreign countries; these, when written The most marked process of change, however, upon, or when containing enclosures, will still be is that which has been taking place in the opinion liable to the treble rate of postage at present charged of England on Ireland. There is still the same upon them.-Spect.
ryski, head of the monarchical and aristocratic diFOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE OF THE LIVING AGE. vision, delivered a discourse to the Polish Literary
[There have been some vexatious delays of our letters Society suitable to their doctrines and views : the to and from Paris. In a little while we hope to be reg- democratic meetings were marked by much stronger ular. Our correspondent sends us now a few hasty mem- denunciations of the proceedings and designs of the orandums, and some translations. ]
northern monarchs, and by enthusiastic expressions Paris, 1 December, 1847. of confidence in the revival of Polish nationality. In Paris the weather of the whole month of Oc- The Poles resemble the Jews in the vitality of their tober resembled the best American Indian summer. hopes. Both put up fervent prayers, in their sevSeptember was exceedingly raw and gloomy. Last eral places of worship, for pope Pius IX. His month-November—the sun was scarcely seen; the liberalism is invoked for, or supposed to embrace, temperature, indeed, was mild; and hence straw- all the human family. Such is the charity of the berries and grapes continued fresh and abundant. Gospel. In the quantity and quality of vegetables and fruits Constitutional reforms are on the tapis in Hol -the grape included—this year has never been land. Ministerial responsibility, not to the king exceeded in France. This week the assize of alone, but to the States-General, and a direct rep bread is raised. There will be a deficiency of resentation of the people on a larger basis, are the bread-stuffs until the summer, although the last principal objects. William lends himself to them, harvest was plentiful in itself. A scarcity such as besides manifesting concern for the reëstablishment has been experienced is not supplied by the pro- of credit in his small country, too deeply indebted ductiveness of a single season. Hitherto Paris has and too heavily taxed. There is a strong opposibeen without frost. The weather is now absolutely tion to the present ministers, who are administrative vernai. If it prove moderate and bright the last not political characters, and a cry for Van-der Capfortnight of December, the display of luxury and ellens, as the head of affairs proper for the organic ingenuity in the shops of the capital will transcend changes required for better government in general. all that the world has nown. wo new and
That statesman refused office in 1841 because the spacious theatres do not seem to affect the pros- royal assent was refused to his stipulations in relaperity of the twenty or more old.
tion to them. An old Dutch party survives with Political banquets, of all the opposition parties, the principle stare super vias antiquas, and they multiply in the interior. The orators charge the have a new organ in a paper called the Holland. government with all sorts of intrigue, corruption, But now-a-days their maxim is vain, whether for and mismanagement. In most instances, the health monarchs or parties anywhere. The ancient landof the king is studiously excluded from the toasts. marks are examined, and when condemned become But Louis Philippe cares little for these demonstra- untenable. Holland needs neither royalty, aristoctions ; his health is good, his vivacity irrepressible. racy, nor hierarchy. All the royal family are in capital case. The Duke In seven cases (except one) of Brazilian vessels d'Aumale plays the viceroy at Algiers, with an sent into the French ports on suspicion of the slave annual expenditure of two or three hundred thou- trade by the French squadron of the coast of Africa, sand dollars.
the council of state in Paris has decided against the The diet of Hungary is debating on the liberty captors. With regard to six of the vessels, nothing of the press, and religious equality for the Protes-was proved to have been found on board that wartants, who are numerous in that province. A new ranted the charge of piracy, which is interpolated bill presented to the Spanish cortes, for the preser- into the law of nations by the British and French vation of order, amounts to a suppression of all conventions. The hardship of the detention of the freedom of political discussion and action. Portu- vessels and the loss of their voyages has been aggal is in a perpetual cabinet-crisis. The move- gravated by the imprisonment of their officers and ments in Italy are of most promise and dignity. crews, at Brest and Toulon, who are now petitionThere may be a glorious revival. National unity ing for enlargement. Owners and all have been and independence for twenty-four millions, gifted ruined. Several of the Paris editors consider Braand situated as are the Italians—how splendid the zil as fully entitled to retaliate by tariff-war, seeing objects and results !
that she is not strong enough to vindicate her rights French cotton goods have doubled in quantity otherwise. The articles of the London Times, and since 1834, and the prices have fallen one half the language of Lord Stanley and Mr. Hume in since that period. The gross present annual prod-parliament, on the character and effects of the Afriuct is estimated at six hundred millions of francs ; can coast system, are well worth attention. the manufacture employs about six hundred and The Swiss chargé d'affaires, Mr. Tschann, died thirty-four thousand hands; the wages of the oper- a few days ago, in Paris, suddenly. It is affirmed ative are on the average four hundred francs per by the Journal des Débats that violent chagrin at annum.
the situation of his country was the proximate The thousands of Poles of Paris have held three cause. He had been forty years a member of the several assemblages in commemoration of the insur- Swiss legation in Paris, and his national spirit had rection of November 29th, 1830. Prince Czarto- | become only the keener. Sensitiveness in relation to one's country is often heightened in proportion | new histories of the French revolution represent to length of absence. There are, we may believe, their country as having first furnished the world Americans abroad for years, whom a civil war, or with the true human rights, the doctrines and a rupture of the Union, at home, would promptly forms of political liberty which are to prevail everykill. Their pride of country would sink; their where in the end. hearts would break like that of the Swiss patriot. At a late meeting of the Paris Academy of It is therefore that soine of them dread intensely Sciences, Mr. Pouillet deposited a copy of the fifth the slavery question in Congress, and would prefer edition of his Experimental Physics and Meteorany practicable compromise to the Wilmot proviso, ology, a treatise as excellent as it has been sucwhich threatens fatal discord. How much—how cessful. The sixth and last volume of the great
work entitled Commercial Law in its relations with incalculably greater the stake than that of any Swiss or any European strife! For real philan- the Civil Law and with International Law, has just thropy itself—for productive and expansive liberty appeared. The author is Mr. G. Massé. The —the scale is on the side of the whites; our own
French Society for the Defence of National Indusrace and civilization are the first objects.
try has just put forth copious and elaborate
manifesto against the evil threatened by theories The French ministry have just lost two important elections. One of their candidates, General Dumas, results of extensive and authentic inquiries into the
and projects of the free traders. They give the is an aid-de-camp of the king. The Spanish government has issued two royal of French and British manufactures.
comparative condition, exigences, and prospects ordinances changing the duties or customs on cotton and woollen fabrics. The tariff is raised, and inju- between monarchy and republicanism for France,
Treating of Lafayette's supposed vacillations riously for the French and British. Our Paris edi- in 1790, Michelet, in his 2d volume, holds this tors complain ; they remark that England, having a language :—“Washington's authority was the completely organized system of smuggling on the great and sovereign one which would have susSpanish coast, will suffer less than France. The tained and encouraged Lafayette in his trials. He measure is deemed an expedient of the new Span- had it not at all. Washington, as the world knows, ish cabinet to get favor in Catalonia.
was the head of a party which sought to strengthen Some substitutions on the side of liberalism have the unity of government in America. The head bccurred in the ministry of Naples. Santangelo, of the opposite party, Jefferson, had greatly favored who ruled, retires with the title of marquis and the outbreak of our revolution. Washington, nothonorary councillor of state ; he was hissed by the withstanding his extreme caution, did not conceal people when he withdrew from the palace. from Lafayette his wish that the movement should
A new journal, called the Resurrection, has been be checked. The Americans, though saved by established at Turin, with two of the most cele- France, feared to be carried by her too far against brated writers of Italy as its editors—Counts Balbo England, and found it prudent to concenter their and de Carour. A royal decree bearing date 26th gratitude on two individuals, Lafayette and Louis November, issued at Turin, and consisting of XVI. Few understood our situation ; many of twenty-seven articles, modifies favorably the laws them were on the side of the king against France. for the government of the press in the kingdom of Moreover, they were cooled towards us by a matSardinia. The introduction of the Journal des Dé- ter, of which we had not thought, but which inbats into the kingdom was prohibited; the interdict jured their trade-a decree or law of the national is now raised. Real liberalism will gain little by assembly respecting tobaccos and oils. The Amerthis indulgence. The Débats is
icans, however firm with England in questions of its worst
among enemies, in the guise of a friend.
interest, are weak and partial towards her in ques
tions of ideas. British literature is their literature. At a late sitting of the Paris Academy of Moral
The bitter war waged on us by the British press and Political Sciences, a report was made on the
had influence on the Americans, and, through them, memoirs or tracts presented on the prize-question of 1845, which was this—" What influence have
on Lafayette. At least they did not maintain him
in his original republican aspirations. He postthe general progress and desire of physical welfare exercised on the morals or moral condition of the poned his lofty plan; he descended—at least pro
visionally—to English notions—to a sort of bastard people ?” The memoirs were twenty-three in
Anglo-American éclectism ; he, himself American number, and five were pronounced to be worthy in theory and opinion, was yet an Englishman in of particular attention, being recommended by care- mental culture—a little even in person and aspect. ful investigation, talent, sound and various disqui- For this English ad interim system—for the syssition ; but no one of these excellent performances tem of democratic royalty or royal democracy, exactly answered the views of the committee. One which, he acknowledged, was good for some twenty had for epigraph, “The greatest possible happiness years only, he did a decisive thing, that seemed to of the greatest possible number.” Some of them arrest the revolution, but precipitated it in fact.” were to be published. It does not appear that the Louis Blane, in the second volume of his Hiscase and example of the United States of America tory of the French Revolution, treats, in his second have been considered at all ; yet they are the most chapter, of the American connection in a remarkpertinent, and the strongest The authors of the able way, and with more sense than Michelet. The following is a translation of some passages of mind, relieved on this score, could surrender his text :-“While Lord Chatham exhaled in par- itself to the emotions incident to the tidings liament his jealousy and despite at the countenance from Rhode Island; at Versailles not a few—very lent to the revolted colonies by France, Louis XVI. many—of the noblesse envied Lafayette his had already recognized the independence of the wounds. By dint of taking a lively interest in United States; a treaty had united France and those battles, of which American independence America-nations of which one fought for inde- was to be the price, the French people habituated pendence and the other was about to fight for themselves to the concern and love of liberty ; and liberty. How was the alliance brought about? the most perspicacious—those especially who felt By what infatuation or vertigo did the friends of the revolution stirring at the bottom of their hearts an absolute king stimulate him to extend his aid - thanked the minister of the treasury for having to insurgents ? France had severe mortifications found in credit the means of enabling old royalist to avenge; unpardonable humiliations——the treaty France to march under the banners of the armed of Fontainbleau, the British abuse of their success republic. To meet the expense of the American -above all, the presence of an English commis- war without taxes—as Necker had said—was not sary at Dunkirk ; could the occasion be more favor- that a miracle! Every one repeated his boast ; able? The Americans, after an intrepid struggle, throughout the realm there was joy and surprise seemed to be near a definitive triumph : Burgoyne that such a contest and triumph were to cost the and his army had been captured ; at Valley Forge nation nothing in immediate contribution. If it Washington was proving how far the genius of could not be denied that the American war would patience decides human affairs. The sentiment of be onerous for future generations, yet they, unnationality in France outwitted, in a manner, the questionably, would reap the benefit. Besides, sharp-sighted minister who swayed our foreign re- the sound of revolution from across the Atlantic lations. The man who prepared the American was like a wafted promise of emancipation to war, who presented to Louis XVI. the three plen- France." ipotentiaries, Silas Deane, Franklin, and Lee, was precisely the Count de Vergennes, the same who
[TRANSLATED.) had written to Louis-In France th monarch speaks and rules ; all are subjects and all obey. Extract from a speech of M. Guizot, delivered in the So true is it that in this American war, Vergennes
Chamber of Deputies, last winter, on the Swiss was dazzled by the diplomatic phases of the case ;
question : the revolutionary escaped his vision. Besides, "Here is simply our policy-our positive and what will could resist the cry of the whole French practical policy-with regard to Switzerland. We nation? 'Let us arm for the insurgents !' In vain honor and respect Switzerland, old Switzerland, indid the old court condemn the voluntary departure finitely, and the ancient and glorious existence that of the youthful Marquis Lafayette ; all hearts were she has acquired in Europe. We believe in this enrolled the same day as his name; Franklin was great fact—that, after having obtained during five the universal admiration. His image, with Tur- centuries the approval and esteem of Europe, she got's inscription, was constantly sold under the merits the solicitude of all nations; as we respect eyes of the king. The impulse was given to every her ourselves we believe that old Switzerland is mind. The idea of insurrection became familiar an European work which Swiss hands especially everywhere; the word insurgents was accepted on should not destroy without reason. all hands; and those even who were scandalized “At the same time that this is the fact estab at the aid lent by a monarch to subjects in revolt lished, it is also the right. The basis of the Hel consoled themselves with the idea of England suf- vetic confederation, such as it exists, is the national fering punishment at length for the long-continued law in Switzerland ; now, as it was five centuries excesses of her pride. Immediately after his ar- ago, it is a confederation of independent states, rival in America, Lafayette wrote to his friends in which has vested, in common, certain interests and France—In this region, I hear nothing of king certain portions of their existence and power, but or ministers. Two sovereigns only are known and each, having reserved to itself, at the same time, cherished-glory and liberty.' France resembled certain essential rights of sovereignty, and esa slave that, through the bars of his dungeon, de- pecially of internal sovereignty. That is the nascries troops arıned against slavery. The shouts tional law or constitution of Switzerland for Europe. which reach his ears from afar, penetrate to his The fact and the law are, in this instance, in perheart; he fancies that he is fighting himself under fect unison. They are, moreover, in unison with those colors, the mere sight of which is for him a the interests of France. I shall not insist upon hope of deliverance. Contemplated from our what the honorable gentleman who spoke last has shores, the American war was one of those phe- retraced ;—it is evident that the actual federal connomena which have their appointed place and epoch stitution, with the independence of the cantons, is in the succession of events. But while it lifted up conformable to European interests, and ours in and vivified the French soul, it contributed to oc- particular ; that it produced and suits the situation casion the fatal deficit. Necker's loans were, of neutrality which has been assured to Switzerhowever, at first successful ; the gold of Europe land. It is evident that a state otherwise constflowed into the treasury of France. The public, tuted—a consolidated state—would have much
From the Paris Corsaire.
THE TAKING OF LUCERNE.
From the Paris National. more aggressive power; would be less secure for its neighboring states.
There is then, for us, a We doubt very much if the republic of Mexico great national concern to maintain the actual polity will be gainers by rejecting the negotiations offered of Switzerland and the basis of her confederation.” by the American commissioner. It may seem hard
for Mexico to give up New Mexico and the two
Californias, but that is already done, and in refus
ing to acknowledge this to be the case, she runs The capture of this little town, which the Swiss States. On the other hand, it must be agreed that
a risk of losing the indemnity offered by the United radicals have just entered as conquerors, is the
the pretensions of the Mexicans were perfectly topic of the day in Europe. What is this taking ridiculous in the respective situations of the belliof Lucerne? Is it the expulsion of the Jesuits ?
gerent parties. On reading the instructions given No. It is the republic at our doors, and in the centre of old Europe. In fact, the Swiss radicals be led to believe that it treated with a conquered
by the government to its commissioners, one would have not been at Lucerne to drive out a few black
people. Therefore we shall cite but two articles. gowns. The instinct of royal governments is not Mexico demands on one side, to be entirely indemdeceived. The question in Switzerland is of a nified for all the damages sustained by her during the republican federative constitution like that of the
war, United States, and the creation of a national dition that the boundary shall be the Rio de Las
and will not recognize Texas but on the conunity.
Nueces instead of being extended as far as the Rio Now, the republic at our very gates is a serious del Norte. Now it is precisely the territory comaffair ; we could get along with twenty-two frag-prised between these two rivers that is the object ments of a republic, but a complete republic is an- of contest between the two states, and Santa other thing. The cholera, which is advancing Anna insists on obtaining from the victorious rapidly, is nothing in comparison to this sort of Americans that which they would scarcely concede contagion. Remark, also, that with us the repub
if they had been beaten. We can now lican party begins to distance the out-of-breath
comprehend why the negotiations have miscarried, party of Mr. Barrot. What are the banquets of
when the starting points are so completely at vaOrleans, Lille, and Dijon, if not republican? The
riance; it will be extremely difficult for Mr. Trist ministry, indeed, tells us by the mouth of the Dé- and the Mexican commissioners to come to any bats that it is satisfied with the banquet of Orleans, decision. However, let the result of the war be satisfied with the banquet of Lille, and still more what it may, Mexico has lost ground. Her capsatisfied with that of Dijon. It will end by being ital and principal ports of entry are in possession so much satisfied as to be too much so.
of the United States. Her only source of revenue, Will there be intervention in Switzerland ? No. For there is no right to intervene ; the five powers be at an end. The guerillas, the rancheros, may
properly speaking, her custom-house duties, will are not agreed among themselves ;-Switzerland, without doubt cause the Americans some loss; united by a war of liberty, will renew upon her
but a few nen killed, a few baggage-wagons carown territory our conflicts, and our triumphs, of ried off, will not destroy the army. The prolong'94.
ing of the struggle will have no other effect than We have set officially forth, and sufficiently
to render it more difficult to treat with the United commented upon, the principles of non-intervention. States ; and as definitively Mexico will be obliged We are bound by it. England, it is well known, to give up, the best thing she can do is to sell, for will only offer a friendly mediation, and, finally, the best possible price, that which will be taken a hundred thousand rifles in the mountains of without any payment if longer protracted. We Switzerland will offer food for reflection. What
have given this advice from the commencement of is to be done then? There is only one solution
the war, but we fear that even if it is followed to such a question ; to raise monarchy above the
now it may
be too late. republic polity by good government. Without that there is no salvation. Hopes founded upon Extract from a Review in the Paris Moniteur Universel, Sept. the continuation of a war in the small cantonsupon the collision of the radicals with the king of Prussia-all that is an illusion. We must go on ; The evil is done. In France, religion has, un—the floods rise—all the world hears them—we fortunately, lost all its influence upon the mass of must anticipate them.
the nation ; real piety is scarcely to be found anyThe Gazette de France adds—" The Corsaire is where among the French people; they have forright. It is only true representative monarchy gotten the practice of any religious duties. In which can neutralize the republican movement in several of the towns a return towards religious France. The diet will now reply to the pentarchy observances has been manifested by some of the --We have settled our affairs; what have you to laboring classes, but it is precisely among those do with us, or on our soil, or at Neuchâtel? We who are the least degraded of the population, and claim what we shall defend-national sovereignty among those who have had the advantage of some and independence."
education, and who continue to receive it.
RELIGION IN FRANCE.