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character of the British court, upon the dwarf ! | future somewhat soften to us the sadness of the Some thought he should be lavishly supplied with event which we deplore, it is no less certain that books, and his genius left undisturbed to itself; the last fragment of the Spanish race will disappear while others contended that he ought to have the from those countries, and that with it will vanish benefit of a public education, superintended by men the remotest hope of the eventual recovery by the eminent for their acquirements. This last opinion, mother country, of the legitimate influence which it we are happy to say, was adopted by his father ; was called upon to exercise in those colonies, for who, on the invitation of the Harvard University, merly the brightest diadem in its crown of the two removed 10 Cambridge with his family, where about worlds. this time last year Truman Henry Safford was We do not wish directly to inculpate any governplaced under the charge of Principal Everett and ment whatsoever; but there has been much blindProfessor Pierce.
ness, inattention, and neglect, in so acting as to The above is compiled, so far as the facts are allow our ancient transmarine colonies to become concerned, from a long article in a Boston (Ameri- an easy prize to the haughty rival of England, incan) paper, called the “Christian Alliance and stead of having received them beneath the agis of Family Visitor."
its ancient national flag.
And if the cupidity of the American colossus From El Heraldo, of Madrid.
should be satiated with its conquests, already se
cured, these evils would be less deplorable, but its SPAIN, THE UNITED STATES, AND MEXICO.
tendency is strikingly marked. The preponderatThe events which are now taking place in the ing republic of the New World cannot complacently unfortunate republic of Mexico, unhappily concur contemplate the existence in those seas of a single to corroborate ihe sad predictions which we uttered point in which homage is paid to the old monarchia not long since, when we represented as the only cal principle; it fears, and with reason, that, mainpossible remedy in its present precarious situation, tained in her present possessions, Spain may some the establishment of a Mexican monarchy under a day wake from her extraordinary lethargy, and, Spanish prince. The colossus which was then either by supporting the monarchical idea, or de trampling it down is engaged in the consummation claring herself the frank protectress of her ancient of its work; and, although at the expense of severe provinces in their actual republican state, may struggles and sanguinary losses, there is no doubt cement with them fraternal connections, and close of its complete triumph. The ancient kingdom of against the Union those immense markets for its Montezuma will succumb, and Mexico, as a nation, commerce and industry. will fade from the political scene. Would matters For this reason the government of the U. States have reached this disinal extremity, if the Mexicans, pushes forward its plans of aggrandizement; and comprehending their real interests, had thrown them for this reason it will not desist until all those sepselves into the arms of the old mother country, and arate states are formed into one single state, under placed themselves under the shelter of its friendly the name, the laws, and the flag of the United protection? We answer, certainly not!
States ; because Cuba and Puerto Rico will then Meanwhile, one feat of arms after another is suc- be theirs; and the Union will attempt to play the cessively placing the most important places in Mex- same game in the Atlantic Ocean as Russia in the ico at the disposal of the American army; yet the Black Sea, by converting that immense sheet of United States cannot congratulate themselves on water into one large lake under its exclusive monopthe victory. Why--if it be true that they are ad-oly and arbitrary dominion. vancing from conquest to conquest—is the work of But in the badly calculated politics of the United victory found less easy of accomplishment than States, the very thing which they imagine the most there was at first reason to believe? Those who likely to contribute to their aggrandizement tends before yielded their posts without a struggle are to debilitate and diminish their power. The acquinow defending themselves, and fighting with the sition of Texas and Mexico, should the latter be ferocity of despair. An entire people are not easily realized, enfeebles the action of the government, subjugated, nor are they to be erased from the list and lessens its influence at the same time that it of nations by two or three victories.
extends its territories ; both acts, particularly the The proud and potent Federal Republic will latter, entail upon the Union a colossal debı, if hithdoubtless triumph over the disunited and exhausted erto free from pecuniary responsibilities, and will Mexicans, if not by force of arms, at all events by be productive of material losses; nor will the war protocols; but we repeat that, apart from the vain terminate, but continue in its most destructive form glory of satisfied pride, the annexation of this new - that of guerillas, skirmishes, and conspiracies. state to those of the Union will be found more prej. Both acts, moreover, will increase the number of udicial than useful. The territory of the U. Siates enemies excited against the United States in conseis already too extensive to allow this new acquisi- quence of their preponderating power, presenting tion to serve otherwise than as an obstacle in the an easy breach and sure instruments for the formaway of the government; and either probabilities tion of parties by intrigue and disunion ; added to will be falsified, or the eventful result will be the which, they will never attain the presence of a moral splitting up of that powerful republic into an infinite force in the conquered cities, and will continue to number of others, without the possibility of prevent- lose it in their own. Lastly, both acts will serve as ing this forcible dismemberment, which the times a lesson to other independent republics, which, for will enforce. And, if to this local reason be added their own convenience, will unite in defence of their the natural antipathy which must necessarily pre independence against the common enemy; and, vail between the conquerors and the conquered, and moreover, our own possessions will be more than the distinct habits, the difference of religion, lan- ever secure from the attacks of the colossal usurper. grage, and customs, it is not doubtful that the And here is presented a new and favorable opNorth Americans will not enjoy a single moment portunity for Spain to render her ancient children of tranquillity in their new sovereignty.
sensible of her value, and, by offering them her But even if this distant, and perhaps ill-omened protection, to gain for herself those commercial
advantages of all kinds which are now the object | per annum, drawn at home. Of the other plan he of the greedy cupidity of the Union. For the sake, speaks thus ; and we copy his remarks because the therefore, of unfortunate Mexico, and for the sake plan referred to seems to be a favorite with the of all our former colonies, it is, from every point of view, indispensable that something should be army, and with the administration :done—that negotiations should be opened—that our antecedent advantages should be made use of and
The other plan is by a military occupation of that, for our sakes, and for the sake of decorum, no cities and large towns, and such other points as
the whole country; placing garrisons in all of the other influence than that of the Spanish government should be tolerated in those distant parts of the may be necessary to the operations of the troops,
and in such force as will secure their retention, world.
and will keep open the communications between
themselves. Inviting emigrations from Europe and AFFAIRS IN MEXICO.
the United States, and furnishing the emigrants The Mexican capital must present a strange that great lever of democracy and free institutions,
with lands gratis. Establishing public schools, spectacle, judging from the paragraphs, advertise and receiving, appropriating, and disbursing the ments, &c., in the newspapers which reach us revenues of the country. The practicability of this from that city. It is but a few days since it fell is undoubted. The security this would guarantee into the hands of a conquering army ;-yet evi- to private property, private business and intercourse, dences of thriving business, conducted mainly under adding value to every species of property, would the auspices of that army, appear on every
ensure the coöperation of the mass of the influential
men in the country, if not of the national legislature, Shops of every class were almost instantly opened ; whilst the influence which would be wielded by the —theatres established ;-races, billiards, concerts, public schools under the conduct of Yankee masand amusements of all kinds are regularly attended, ters, would be such as to elevate the character of and things go on as quietly as if the city were still the people, disseminate among them seeds of repubin the hands of its original inhabitants. Mrs. Shep-licanism, which, in a few years, would break the pard issues her card, in which she “ has the honor have trammelled them for three centuries, and
bonds of ignorance and military despotism, which to inform the gentlemen of the American army” achieve a revolution : the fear of which would inthat her benefit takes place at the National :—the duce their rulers in less than five years to offer us “old Kentucky restaurant” invites epicures at the any terms of peace to get clear of us. The latter corner of San Francisco Street :-C. S. Betts is now in the spirit of the age; and for the sake of “respectfully informs the citizens of Mexico” that humanity, for the sake of this people, who would he will take their likenesses at the sign of the for the credit of the United States, it is to be hoped
be a great people if they had the opportunity, and “White Flag," adding that “ satisfaction shall be it will be adopted. To carry out these last plans given, or no charge made;" the Eagle Coffee House would require a force of sixty-five thousand (65,000) has been established “ on the American style;” men,
to conquer and retain it, allowing five thouPeter Wright offers leaden coffins" of importance sand (5000) men to be killed in accomplishing the
first. to the generals and officers of the army of the U.
The annual expense would be very little, if S.;"—a soldier advertises for “two green Macki- of garrison posts across our southern fruntier. And
any, more than would be required to support a line naw blankets, lost on the 8th of September at the a feature of vast importance is, that the funds would battle of Molino del Rey,” being “ badly wounded be derived from the Mexican treasury, and suffering for the want of them ;''-and so we The amount of emigration to the United States have, side by side, remembrances of the war that and English colonies on the continent will this year has so recently rolled its bloody surges over the fourths of which may be safely set down as having
be four hundred thousand (400,000) persons, three Aztec capital, and of the business and gayety that emigrated to the United States. The offering to have followed so close on its retiring waves. give these land here, gratis, would turn the tide of
The American Star mentions the arrival there of emigration, and cause a flow that would place in the Marquis de Dufort, on a special mission from Mexico an European and American population of the French government. The object of his mis- 3,000,000 of people in five years.
The revenues of Mexico amounted, in 1840, to sion was not known.
twenty or thirty millions (20,000,000 or 30,000,000) Several proprietors of grog-shops have been ar- of dollars. The total expenditures of the governrested and punished for keeping open after 6 o'clock, ment was thirteen millions one hundred and fiftyP. M. Some of the friends of the largest liberty five thousand nine hundred and twenty-two (13,in this city would not look upon such regulations as 155,922) dollars. Eight millions (8,000,000) of a desirable extension of the area of freedom.
this was expended upon the army, which amounted The Star contains a well-written communication disbanded. The public debt amounted, in 1844, to
to forty thousand (40,000) men, but which is now on the future policy of the United States in regard little less than one hundred millions (100,000,000) to Mexico. After setting forth the nature of the of dollars, and is now over that, of which the inwar thus far, the writer proceeds to say that two ternal debt amounted to eighteen millions five hunmeasures are now proposed to terminate the war: dred and fifty thousand (18,550,000) dollars. By -one is to assume a boundary line, establish a cor- be increased, and with less oppression of the peo
judicious alterations of the tariff, the revenues could don of posts, garrison them and await the pleasure ple, whilst all deficiencies might be met by contriof the enemy. This, he says, would require an butions upon the cities or departments. —N. Y army of 50,000 men, and would cost $ 20,000,000 | Courier and Enquirer.
RUIN OF IRELAND.
mention of the murder. The Irish Thuggee tran
scends the Indian, inasmuch as it is unaccompanied [These dreadful notices and comments are copied from by a robbery to enrich the assassin. Neither is it the Spectator. During the long time in which O'Connell was drawing his large rent from the miserable men whom revenge ; for in many recent instances the victim he was deluding with hopes of repeal, we foresaw that
was an acknowledged benefactor. It is but the the despair which must ultimately come upon the land vent for a wanton delight in blood. But there is would break out in blood. The appetite for it was keenly a sort of uniformity in the overt acts, which indiexcited, and there was but one man strong enough to stay cates some organized system : by analogy it is it.
guessed to be a sort of white-boy conspiracy ; but Teaching the people how to evade the law-how to set what the exact nature of the machinery is, remains it at defiance, without incurring the penalty-was added
a mystery. Some remarkable facts, however, are to continual instruction to hate England. Against the Saxon of the present day was directed the accumulated patent to the view, and it is impossible not to put rancor of ages. Every means was employed to bring
them together. law into contempt.
On Sunday last, there was a great meeting at And the whigs, for opposition purposes ;--to gain the Cashel, to agitate the question of tenant-right : Mr. ascendancy at home ; to get Irish votes against Sir Robt. John O'Connell, would-be-leader of the party opPeel ;-lent aid and comfort to the demagogues who were posed to open “ physical force” repealers, was a pursuing their course of demoralization. Verily! they prominent spokesman ; but the most notable was have their reward ! But our worst anticipations have been exceeded. We church is such as to constitute him a type and ex:
a Roman Catholic clergyman, whose station in his feared an attempt at revolution by force : an outbreak of
At this Cashel meeting, the pent-up passions of a patriotic and deceived people. ample of his class. This has not taken place; the poison has sunk deeper. Archdeacon Laffan panegyrized “the Tipperary The war is against property. Assassination, even of men men” and vituperated
" the Saxon ;' and among who are devoting ihemselves and their property to relief his vituperative remarks was this one—“ If in the of the country, carries so much of public opinion with it, victualling department John Bull suffered one fifth that it cannot be punished—it can hardly be brought to of the privations to which the Tipperary men were trial. All the kind instincts which human nature shows elsewhere, appear to be destroyed in Ireland. Women subject, if he had courage enough, he would stand and children are murdered wantonly. And women and upon one side and shoot the first man he would children take part in murdering their benefactors, without meet with a decent coat on his back. But the pity.
Saxon has not the courage to do anything like a We copy but a few of the accounts. There is a horrid man." We do not know whether these words monotony in them.
would warrant a civil prosecution, because they But, before leaving the subject entirely, we wish to say may not seem to be a direct incitement to a specific a few words to party politicians in our own country. We criminal act ; but we should think that in any are not beyond the possibility of some portion of such a cup of misery. The conspiracies against property in some other province of the Romish church they would parts of our country; the nullification of South Carolina ; subject the utterer to ecclesiastical discipline. They the frequent threats of dissolving the union, made some appear to be, at the best, the manifestation of a times by one party and sometimes by the other; the genuine opinion that the Irish custom of standing wholesale, illegal, murderous expulsion of the Mormons; on one side and shooting “ the first man” whose the varied catalogue of Lynch-law proceedings; these overt act is the having " a decent coat on his back,” are matters which ought to give awful warning to us not is praiseworthy, manly, and in favorable contrast to sow the seed of contempt of law ful authority; not to with the habits of Englishmen. Monstrous and allow our opposition to laws which we do not like, to carry us to the excess of treating those who make them preposterous as such an opinion may be, we have as tyrants or traitors. Such denunciatory attacks come, no right to assume that it is affected on the part as we are well aware, from men who do not believe the of Archdeacon Laffan—that it is any other than charges they make, and who are not so bitter as they the opinion naturally arising from his education and seem; they are intended only to affect the ignorant and the common sentiment of the community among the passionate—and they are, like other electioneering which he lives. Noting the constant practice of expedients, to end with the election. But it is a bigh assassination, and the notorious practice of denuncrime thus to profane the very holiest parts of our national system. And the motive is a miserably sordid one on the ciations from the altar, we have no right to assume part of the wire-pullers—the manufacturers of public that the gentleman who bears the title of “ Vener: opinion-the organs of all parties.]
able Archdeacon” is singular in his opinion.
To apply the general opinion expressed by the Blood flows in Ireland. Victim after victim Celtic priest, the case of Major Mahon will illusfalls beneath the Celtic custom of Thuggee, which trate its practical working. Major Mahon was one really seems at present to select for its sacrifices of those few landlords in Ireland who possessed the best men in the land. So atrocious is the both the will and the means to fulfil advice frerecord of these daily crimes, as to suggest a belief quently thrown out in England, that his class that there must be exaggeration in the statements ; should strive to raise the character of agriculture but we are assured on the most trustworthy infor- on their estates, and thus elevate the condition of mation that the accounts are softened rather than their resident tenants ; at the same time providing exaggerated—that circumstances of ruffianism are for those who might be removed in the process. suppressed or passed over in silence, and that many Major Mahon did this : he removed many tenants, a dead body is thrown into a bog without even a but he set apart a large sum yearly—3,5001., we
believe—to aid them in emigrating. He had this of rent is the object of the local conspiracy, the autumn given notice of ejectment to a considerable rent ought to be exacted to the last penny, though number of tenants; the notice being delivered pro the presence of an army should be needed to enforma as a step necessary to ulterior proceedings ; force it. If the ordinary tribunals aid in concealbut it was accompanied by an intimation that the ing guilt by perverse verdicts, independent tribunals tenants should be undisturbed throughout the win- should be established. To whatever length crime ter, and that in the spring they should be aided to goes, the strength of constituted authority ought emigrate. This was quite satisfactory to the ten- to be prepared to go yet further, and to visit upon ants. Major Mahon addressed them personally the abettors of guilt a penalty aggravated in profrom his carriage, explaining his views; and they portion to their contumacy.—20th Nov. expressed their satisfaction, with Irish enthusi
On that very spot he was murdered. For, The Irish papers supply some remarkable illushowever warm the gratitude of an Irish peasant trations of the mode in which landlords are accused may be, he owes another allegiance. In a chapel of “extermination.” One case is that of Mr. of the district this beneficent landlord was de- Ussher, who has been at two periods denounced nounced as an exterminator," with many harsh from the altar, and whose case is narrated in detail expressions ; and the priest wound up his denun- by the Dublin Evening Mailciation in these words—"He is worse than Crom “ Mr. Ussher inherited from his father the estate well: and yet he lives !” Coming out of that of Ballysaggart, near Lismore. At the period of chapel, that Sunday, one of the congregation said Mr. Ussher's obtaining possession of it, he found to another—" If he lives a month after this, he is it a vast tract, principally mountain land, with a immortal!” He was shot on the Monday. frontage to the Blackwater, along the banks of
As Archdeacon Laffan's opinion is not singular, which a few acres of good land lay; the whole of so neither is Major Mahon's case. Our columns the remainder, to the amount of nearly eight thouteem with stories of bloodshed. In one case a sand acres, consisted of heath and gorse, or furs, little girl played the part of jackall to the mur- all reclaimable, but at that period in a state of naderers : this complicity of children is an old trait ture, or nearly so. Thirty years ago, Mr. Ussher of murder in Ireland ; and it shows how a training undertook the Herculean task of rendering this to Thuggee is a part of education.
barren moor a fertile district, of enclosing a park, Why should the priest regard conduct like and establishing his own residence upon it. A Major Mahon's as wicked? Marvellous as such a princely demense has been created—planting to distorted perception may seem, there does happen the extent of over a thousand acres been executed ; to be one reason : emigration removes the paymas- and one of the most beautiful residences in Ireland ters of the priests ; in that respect, Major Mahon formed. A sum little if at all short of 60,0001. was spending 3,5001. a year in reducing the num- sterling was expended in wages during that period, bers of the Romish flocks on his estates.
and from eighty to one hundred men daily employed Do not let us be misunderstood : we do not mean and punctually paid : and thus, for upwards of to insinuate that the priests incite the murder of thirty years, from five to six hundred persons have landlords to keep down emigration. What the been entirely supported by this gentleman, described facts before us seem to show is, that murder is re- now as “a plague and a curse' to his district. Mr. garded as a meritorious act, that opinion not being Ussher's efforts were not, however, confined to exclusively held by priests, but being general ; forming his own residence. He undertook the that benevolent landlords, if they are improving reclamation of the remainder of the mountain land; landlords, are obnoxious to dislike ; that they are and for that purpose, about the year 1833, he let denounced from the altar; that murder follows ; off on lease to a considerable number of persons that whole congregations, including children, are portions of the land, varying in extent from thirty accessories before the fact.
to eighty acres. The terms of the lease, in every Some law of extraordinary vigor, sternly admin-case, were these--for the first seven years of occuistered, is wanted here. It may not be possible pancy, a peppercorn rent; for the second seven to proceed against priests, as priests; but all should years, five shillings per acre; and for the remainbe made to suffer who participate in a guilty knowl- der of the term of twenty-one years (the duration edge. Lord Clarendon has already indicated pro- of the lease) a rent of twelve shillings and sixpence ceedings against those who harbor criminals ; but per acre. In many cases he constructed the houses a more extensive measure is needed, because, on those farms; in all cases he gave efficient aid where the people of a district interpose to shield in their construction. He granted them also a the particular criminal from the operation of the right of turbary to the extent of what they relaw, he can only be got at by dealing with the quired for their own use ; but, because turbary is whole community among whom he is as it were an article quickly exhaustible, he prohibited the enclosed and lost ; and this inconvenience is a fit cutting of turf for sale to strangers ; he secured penalty for the wrong-doing of that community. also for the tenants a supply of limestone free of The district which participates in crime should charge—the only thing needsul, along with their feel the disadvantages of crime. The expenses own industry, to secure the complete reclamation of pursuit should be borne by each locality in which of the soil, and the comfort and even affluence of criminals remain undetected. If the withholding the tenantry, as the land was all highly improva
hle Things went on satisfactorily enough for the owed three half-years' rent, to September, 1847 ; first and part of the second period of the term ; which is untrue, as they owed several years' rent. but, during the last two or three years of the sec- He further states, that of those three half-years ond period, which expired last year, an organized they offered a year's rent, which I refused to acsystem was got up to resist the increased rent of cept from any persons holding less than twenty the last period. The tenants, in many instances, acres of land. This is also untrue, as not one of ceased to attend to their farms, which were now in them offered me a shilling; and although I caua flourishing condition, and commenced a system tioned them on the 18th of August, and frequently of selling the turf on the moorland adjoining, to afterwards, that if they did not pay a year's rent which they had no claim whatever; thus, not only they would he ejected, they never showed the least robbing Mr. Ussher of his property, but absolutely desire to pay anything. At length I was obliged, rendering it impossible to carry further the recla- by their reckless conduct, to have the writ of habere mation of the estate, as where the surface was executed; which was not done until the last mopared off to the gravel no possibility existed of ment, to afford them every opportunity of avoiding reclaiming the soil left. Mr. Ussher was absent, eviction. Your correspondent further states, perfor the purpose of educating his family, for a few sons in fever, and an aged man, were dragged from years ; and on his return he found the organiza- their sick beds; which is also untrue, as I did not tion spoken of complete, and a system of wholesale turn out a single sick person; and the only aged robbery and spoliation of his estate going on. It man I saw walked quietly out of the house, and need be hardly mentioned that he resisted it, and did not render it necessary for the sheriff to have put a stop to this plunder, and also intimated his him. dragged out.'" intention of enforcing his rights to the rent reserved Mr. Gore has notified his intention to enable in his leases; offering, at the same time, however, those unable to hold farms to emigrate to America to accept a surrender from all or any of the ten- in the spring, and to provide them with habitations antry who wished to give up their farms. The during the winter. storm now broke forth ; threatening letters were A tenant of Mr. Gore's, named Walker, who is sent-denunciations from the altar poured out— also his agent in Westmeath, has likewise written and, finally, they proved, as is usual, only the a letter in confirmation of Mr. Gore's liberality and precursors to a desperate attempt to murder this kindnessunfortunate gentleman. At noon-day, almost in During thirty years,” he says, no tenant sight of the town of Lismore, a villain, hired by has been removed on any account from that propthe tenantry of the estate, made the attempt to erty by him ; nor has he ever given, in the selecshoot this gentleman.”
tion of tenants, any preference on account of the This “plagne and curse," as Mr. Ussher was religion or political feelings of the applicant. I designated by the reverend father Fogarty, provi- have frequently had occasion to apply to Mr. Gore dentially escaped the blow, and two of the persons for subscriptions and assistance towards improveengaged in the attempt were tried and found guilty ments in the neighborhood, public and private, and at the last Waterford Summer Assizes; and but also in the absence of the agent (non-resident) 10 for the intercession of Mr. Ussher would have been recommend tenants for indulgences and grants, hanged. Six more of the party are in gaol, await- owing to various causes ; and in no instance has ing their trial for being engaged in the same at- his purse ever been closed against me.” tempt. “ There is not, in fact, a particle of Mr. Walker further states, that having lately doubt but that the whole of the people around him, recommended a liberal allowance on last year's tenants and laborers, with the exception of some rent, Mr. Gore's reply was—“You know the sevsix or seven persons, were fully aware of, if not eral cases of my tenants' circumstances better than deeply implicated in, this conspiracy; and, although I can; grant them such allowance as you may the bulk of them had eaten of his bread, and lived think proper and just, and I shall be satisfied.” in comfort on-the means provided for them through "I am now,” continues Mr. Walker, “ in the his humane and truly patriotic efforts, they saw receipt of the rents; the tenants are paying well ; him depart on the morning of the day the attempt they are contented and happy with the abatements was made on his life, believing they would behold I have given ; and no party leaves me without him a corpse before night; yet no warning voice giving a blessing to their landlord.” was raised-no hint given, to turn the doomed man One of the sufferers, the Reverend John Wolsefrom his fate.”
ley, incumbent of St. Michael's, Portarlington, Another case is that of Mr. Ormsby Gore ; in King's County, sends a letter to the Times, whose proceedings were denounced in a local complaining of his hard positionpaper by “ An Observer," under the head of " Irish “For nearly twenty years I have been a minister Extermination in Leitrim,” with many violent com- of the established church ; and during that time I ments on the landlord's cruelty. One of Mr. Gore's have had nothing whatever to do with tithes, for agents, Mr. William Lawder, gives an explanation my benefice is a chapelry of 901. a year, and is of the circumstances of the ejectment at Leganom- paid partly out of land set apart for the purpose,
and partly by the ecclesiastical commissioners of “He states,” says Mr. Lawder, speaking of Ireland from a fund bequeathed to small livings by he Observer, that the tenants on the lands only Primate Boulter” “He has," he says, “ devoted