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Year.

Number of Letters.

Annual Increase.
Number of Letters. Per cent. reck.

on

the nuin. for 1839.

66

aspect of the published accounts, since the increase post-office differs from the other revenue departof business causes a larger amount of balances to ments in being not only a tax-collecting office, but be left in the hands of post-masters, and thus there also a trading corporation of public carriers ; it is is a continual tendency to abate the apparent in- therefore bound to employ efficient servants. In crease in the account of the money that reaches the no department, however, has the system of patronexchequer; a tendency which will continue while age been more grossly abused by the appointment the department is in its present state of rapid growth. of persons among the subordinates wholly unfitted Another cause of apparent abatement in the rev- for the duties. At present we abstain from enterenue is, the amount of increased expense thrown ing into that branch of the subject; only noting on the department other than that due to the sim- the fact here, as causing one of the most serious ple cost of transmitting correspondence. For ex- abatements in the apparent advance of the post-office ample, to take only one item, there has been an and its revenue. immense increase in the number of newspapers The following is an estimate of the number of transmitted by post, and the expense of course chargeable letters delivered in the United Kingdom falls on the department; but the increased revenue in each year from 1839 to 1847: derived from the newspaper-stamp, which is defended as a real postage, is set down to the credit of the stamp-office. In spite of all these abate- 1839* 76,000,000+ ments, the net revenue displayed in the revenue- 1840 169,000,000 93,000,000 123 per ct. accounts for the past year was 864,0001.

1841 196,500,000 27,500,000 36 The moral taught by this steady increase both of 1842 207,000,000 10,500,000 14 letters and revenue in the post-office is, that in

1843 220,500,000 13,500,000 18 creased facilities for the public bring a correspond

1844 242,000,000

28

21,500,000

1845 271,500,000 29,500,000 39 ing increase both of business and profit to the de 1846 299,500,000 28,000,000 37 partment. But this fact comes out still more 1847 322,000,000 22,500,000 30 strongly on a scrutiny of the details. The last column in the table is particularly instructive ; it shows the annual increase per cent. in the number

M. Guizot's want of moral sense has been beof letters, as compared with the number in 1839, trayed in another affair ; not so important in itself for each of the eight subsequent years, as fol- as the pacification of Switzerland, but momentous lows

as the overt sign of a deplorable official corruption

in France. A practice has obtained of permitting 123 ... 36 14

28 ... 39 ... 37 ... 30

private persons to purchase the resignation of peoLet the reader glance at these figures while we ple in office, in order to make a vacancy for the recite two or three facts. In 1841 the whig min- purchaser. That is not all: the purchaser does istry went out of office ; and Mr. Goulburn, Sir not always pay for the vacancy to which he is Robert Peel's chancellor of the exchequer, had hard-appointed, but sometimes for another vacancy which ened his heart against faith in post-office improve

a minister wishes to fill up with a third party. In ments. His predecessor had contemplated a plan for effect, therefore, a candidate for office purchases adding to the number of rural posts ; and a first step

his place with an indirect bribe to the minister. in that direction was to have been made, at a cost And it is disclosed that M. Guizot has been a of 7,0001, or 8,0001. Mr. Goulburn rejected that party to such transactions; a M. Petit, whose plan, as "expensive ;” and in 1842–3 little was

case was brought before the chamber of deputies, done to extend post-office communication. In 1843, having twice effected such an operation. M. however, there was a parliamentary agitation ; the Guizot's defence was the worst part of the affair. post-office again began to extend its facilities; and In terms he condemned the practice ; but he exthe annual increase, which received so remarkable cused the particular bargains on the score of longa check in the two years of torpidity, again thawed continued usage, averred that there had been no into active motion. Even the commercial distress recent instance, and promised a law to prevent the of 1847 had no such effect in abating the annual abuse in future. In other words, M. Guizot is increase as the official torpidity of 1842–3. And

virtuous when found out. He acts on the maxim from what we have noted above, it may be inferred | which was the flaw in Bacon's philosophy, and that, in spite of the “expense” which Mr. Goul- probably caused his downfall—that falsehood is burn so much feared, the increased facility has been like an alloy, which makes affairs work better. profitable to the department.

As a man of letters, he will write in a high hisWe have here considered only the facilities af- toric vein; as a working statesman, he accepts a forded by direct regulation—we have in fact limited

lower standard. our view to the results obtained from the partial

* The estimate for 1839 is founded on the ascertained and gradual adoption of Mr. Rowland Hill's plans. number of letters for one week in the month of NovemWe are well aware that there are auxiliary facil- ber; and, strictly speaking, it is for the year ending Deities to be afforded from measures with which Mr. The estimate for each subsequent year is founded on the

cember 5, at which time 4d. was made the maximum rale. Hill has nothing to do, and especially by the re- ascertained number of letters for one week in each calenmoval of abuses which impede the efficiency of the dar month. (Vide return to the house of commons, No. establishment. It is to be remembered that the

586, 1847.)

+ This is exclusive of about 6,500,000 of franks.

18

But this incident does not stand alone ; it be- tion of Abd-el-Kader as a soldier, politician, or longs to the same class with the affair of M. Teste Mahometan priest, it is much greater as a literary and General Cubières-another indication of the man. He is said to be as learned as an Arab can wide-spread corruption that undermines French be. Two leather trunks, containing his library, society. Those whom France has for enemies have always accompanied him, even during the will rejoice at it, since it weakens her: her last months that preceded his submission ; they strength is sapped by domestic treachery, in which also made part of his personal baggage on board. the highest of her official men partake : she can- But every one is ignorant of the real cause of his not trust her own citizens, however exalted by submission, which was love. He is another talent or station.-Spectator, 29 Jan.

Antony. After having endeavored with heroic

courage to make a passage through the Moorish A QUESTION of some interest, respecting the cus- camp, he succeeded, with a considerable number tody of an infant, was decided on Monday, in the of his followers, in sufficiently disengaging himself Bail Court, by Mr. Justice Wightman. The to be able to gain the desert ; but at the moment child, Margaret White, aged eight years, (her he was about to profit by the liberty this last coup father's name was Thurston,) was brought up de main gave him, he heard the firing which had under a writ of habeas corpus. She was ille- reached his deira. Then, like the lion of the gitimate, and the application was made on behalf desert who sees his lioness entrapped and his cubs of the mother, who alleged that the girl had been carried away, he retraced his steps and fell upon stolen from her. The infant had been originally the Moors, with the rest of his faithful followers; placed by the father and mother at nurse with a whilst the cries of his wives, whose tents the eneMr. and Mrs. Browne, with whom she lived seven my had commenced pillaging, exalted his courage. years ; Mrs. Browne being the sister of the child's Twice the emir was rolled to the ground with his father. In consequence, however, of a disagree- horse wounded under him ; twice surrounded and ment between Mr. and Mrs. Browne, which led to seized, he released himself by his extraordinary their separation, little Margaret was removed, and agility, and gained a victory by hard fighting in placed under the care of Mr. and Mrs. Bucking- the midst of a victorious retreat."

“ At ham; who, it was alleged, were bringing her up last, abandoning his deira, which enclosed all his in the Roman Catholic faith, and intended to rear affections, to our generosity, he departed, in order her for the stage. (Mrs. Buckingham belongs to to regain the south. After two nights' march, the Haymarket Theatre.) An application was made though certain of saving himself, his heart softened by Mr. Browne to the Buckinghams to give up the at the idea of his isolation, and, preferring captivity child to him, on the ground that his father and sis- with his friends, he returned to treat with us." ter believed it to be his, and were disposed on that “ The emir is still confined in his sad prison. account to leave it some money. The request was He reads the Koran to his faithful followers. refused by the Buckinghams. In November last, During the prayers, they open the windows and while the little girl was playing in Golden Square, make a large fire in the middle of the room. His she was taken away by Mrs. Browne, and con- mother cries, his wives sob, and he is almost veyed to Cambridge; hence the present proceed-broken-hearted. It is said, the only thing which ings. An attempt was made, at the suggestion consoles him is that the unfaithfulness of his enemy of the judge, to arrange the matter out of court ; aggravates his misfortune." but the parties could not come to terms. The case then proceeded. Its result appeared to turn We find the following in the Union Monarchon a long conversation which Mr. Justice Wight-lique : man held on the bench with the little girl, who

“ We have before us a letter from Toulon displayed remarkable intelligence. After this con- from which we must extract a few passages as ference, the judge expressed his opinion that Mar- likely to be interesting to our readers.

It speaks garet White had not been taken away, but had of Abd-el-Kader in manner to make us believe that accompanied Mrs. Browne willingly. Indeed, it he is decidedly a very superior man. He bears was very evident from her demeanor in court, that his misfortunes with unalterable dignity and mildshe entertained a strong preference for the Brownes ness. Deceived by war, he consoles himself with over the Buckinghams. It also appeared that Mr. faith. One expression of his paints him to the and Mrs. Browne were again living together. It life. The other day, he said to an officer, the was therefore ordered that the girl should remain other world is as to this like the East to the West. with Mr. and Mrs. Browne, the mother being al- We cannot approach the one without turning away lowed access at all reasonable and seasonable times. from the other.'

A Toulon correspondent of the Times recounts INSCRIPTION FOR THE PROPOSED PYRAMID TO COMsome interesting facts respecting Abd-el-Kader. " I have seen the emir. It is quite a mistake that Punica fides ab iisdem suo more servatâ,

Regione quondam Punicâ Franco-Gallis occupatâ, his eyes are black; they are of a decided gray,

A BD-EL-KADER, shaded by very long black eyelashes. He speaks

qui sese ultro invictus dederat, very fluently ; which is a proof of high distinction amicis, exercitibus, regno, libertate, among the Arabs. Whatever may be the reputa privatus est à L. Philippo rege.-W. S. L.

MEMORATE THE CAPTURE OF ABD-EL-KADER.

It having been found necessary to suspend the ANOTHER expedition, to proceed by Behring's steam-packet service between Havre and New strait in search of Sir John Franklin, is to be York for a time, notice has been received from the immediately fitted out, under the command of director-general of the French post-office, that no Captain Sir James Clark Ross. It is to consist letters will be transmitted by that channel until of two ships, of 470 and 420 tons respectively, further notice.

which are entirely new, and are to be appropriately The return of her majesty's ship Cormorant named the “Endeavor” and the “ Resolution,

to be fitted at from the Oregon Territory has made known the fact after Cook's ships. They are that there are immense quantities of excellent coal Blackwall by the 1st of April, and will be comon Vancouver's Island, lying near the surface. missioned in a few days. They will follow up The Cormorant supplied herself with fuel at the Sir John Franklin's track to Baffin's bay. rate of 4s. a ton; the price at Valparaiso being The agricultural report for January is very sat11. 6s. The coal was worked by the natives. isfactory as regards the winter corn.

Indian cornThe celebrated French artillery-officer, Lieuten- meal has come into favor with the graziers ; and ant-general Paixhans, has, at his own request, large quantities have been taken for feeding purbeen placed upon the reserved list.

Having poses.

There is an immense quantity of hay still always been of opinion that aged officers should on hand, and cattle of all kinds fare remarkably retire to make room for those more fit for active well. The early lambing season has been very service, and having expressed this sentiment in the favorable, particularly in Sussex, Hampshire, and committee which prepared the law on the general

Dorsetshire. staff of the army, he has resigned his situation as The mayor of Boston in Lincolnshire has member of the committee of artillery.

declared his determination to preside at no public The Prussian papers give a most awful descrip

dinner where drinking customs are permitted. tion of the want and distress in some parts of A GUINEA-PIG, on which Mr. Brande had experSilesia : according to them, it is much greater than imentalized in a recent lecture on chloroform, has even in the worst parts of Ireland. A society, since died. It did not rally after the second under the auspices of Count Brandenburg, had administration of the vapor. been formed at Berlin for the relief of these

The first of the eight great iron tubes required unhappy districts.

for carrying the Chester and Holyhead railway The maritime city of Augusta, in Sicily, has over the Menai strait was tested on Saturday, at been wrecked by earthquake. A first shock of Chester, in the presence of Mr. Stephenson the great violence drove the people from their houses ; projector, and a large number of engineers. All the fatal second shock then worked such destruc-support being removed, the tube had a clear span tion that only twenty-seven houses remained stand- of 400 feet, each end resting on a stone pier. ing. Where the mole lately stood the sea now The experiment was then made by running locogives no bottom at fifty fathoms. Fifty-nine citi- motives and heavily-laden ballast-wagons through ; zens had been drawn out of the ruins, wounded, one train of 28 wagons filled with iron, weighing but alive ; thirty-five dead bodies had been recov- upwards of 300 tons. The deflection of the tube ered.

was not more than a few inches. A RECENT attempt at boring for water in Venice has proved a total failure, and has been completely

THE CAB-STAND Nuisance.—In a letter to the abandoned, with a net loss to the French company Builder, Mr. F. H. Waller, an ingenious surgeon of three or four hundred thousand francs. The with a turn for practical invention, suggests what project of M. Grimaud de Caux to furnish the city would be a very great improvement in the regulawith pure river water by an aqueduct has again tion of our streets—the removal of cab and coach risen into favor, and will probably be adopted by stands. He proposes that the cab stands, like the the local authorities.

mews, be situated out of the public thoroughfare ; A LETTER from Baumes-les-Dames, on the Doubs, and that they be covered sheds, so that the vehicles states that the country round that place is infested should stand in readiness for immediate use, yet with wolves. A few days ago, as two children, with driver and horse protected from the weather. one ten years of age, and the other eight, were on “ These buildings might be so constructed as to their way home from a farm-house, they met a

insure thorough drainage, complete preservation of wolf; and on their attempt to fly, the younger afford every comfort to man and horse, and save

the product, and perfect ventilation, as well as to child fell, and was immediately carried off by the much disease and suffering to both. To render wolf into a neighboring forest. A diligent search them easy of being found, the same plan might be was made, but no trace of the child could be adopted as the admirable one now in operation for found.-Galignani's Messenger.

securing this advantage to the post-offices. The

vehicles might be arranged numerically, and all A COLONIAL community of seventy-five persons, squabbling for precedence, now so annoying, be of all professions, who will live as brothers and avoided. "The entrance of each stand might be sufwear uniform clothing, have left Havre for a dis- ficiently conspicuous, and bell-handles, labelled trict to be named Icarienne, on the Red River in coach,' .cab,' &c. Thus, a person requiring eiTexas, of nearly a million acres.

ther of these vehicles, would look for the lamp-post

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indicating the situation of the stand; he would sig- in contact. The model now exhibiting consists of nify his want by pulling the bell; and would find a small tube with a piston and indicator at each himself accommodated as rapidly and far more pleas- end. An upright plate contains the letters of the antly than at present. To ladies this system would alphabet, the first letter being at the top of the plate be a great boon: it is now no uncommon spectacle at one station, and at the bottom of the plate at the to see a female applicant for a cab or coach infested, other. Thus, if a telegraph of this description were and even insulted, by the several candidates—all laid down from London to York, the indicator, if alike anxious to secure the fare.

pointing to the letter A, would be at the top of the The improvement would be considerable in every latter. As the one piston descends, the other, from

plate at the former place, and at the bottom at the way. Constant exposure to the weather produces the pressure of the water, ascends in exact proporfrightful diseases in the drivers, fosters vicious tion, each indicator pointing to the same letter. In habits of intemperance, makes them regardless of the model, as we have stated, the plates containing personal neatness, and altogether tends to keep the the letters are placed upright; but it will be easily class degraded. Killing the horses, it makes the seen that a horizontal dial can also be used, by owners use worse animals. And turning the open to guide the indicating hand. This dial may con

means of a rack upon the piston and toothed pinion streets into stable-yards, without the conveniences tain two or more circles, into which contracted senthereof, it violates every rule of decorum and san- tences on any number of subjects can be inserted, atory law. It is curious how we moderns consent the indicator being shortened so as to meet each to keep up old barbarisms of an odious kind. We circle. If it were wanted to communicate any inboast of our conveniences, but submit to the filthi- telligence upon railways, as an example suppose est nuisances for want of a little energy of will. the contracted sentences relating to ihis subject Streets are made for transit, not for stabling ; pri- be to shorten the indicator, so that its point would

were in the inner circle, the first intimation would vate carriages and omnibuses must move on;"

exactly touch the words which are to be communiany nobleman whose servants should use the streets cated. If a line of pipes were laid down from any as a coachhouse and stable-yard would have to given distance, each intermediate station would be answer for the offence in a police court : but a communicated with by means of branch pipes. To special license is accorded to the lowest class of each piston a bell is attached, and the first motion vehicles to block up the streets with a squalia would sound this, putting every one on the qui vive.

If the communication were intended for the first stabling.

station, the bell would strike one, and so on for the The immense improvement that would ensue in others. Without passing any strong opinion as to the good order both of carriage and driver, if it the merits of this invention, we must say that its were made possible by the aid of shelter, need extreme simplicity struck us as an advantage of scarcely be pointed out: hackney cabs would soon great importance. The difficulties which may at get to rival private broughams in their comfort and first sight strike the observer, such as getting over appearance. - Spectator.

heights above the level of the stations, are what

upon consideration it will be seen can be got over HYDRAULIC TELEGRAPH.-We lately inspected would arise from the fact that the pipes will require

by local appliances. Perhaps the most serious a new species of telegraph, produced from the ac to be placed underground so far as to keep them tion of water, patented by Mr. Jowett, which ap- from atmospheric influence, for in the event of any pears to us very simple and ingenious, and is breakage taking place, it would be difficult indeed likely to excite some attention, both from its own

to tell the precise locality of the accident. In the merits and from the interest which is taken in this case of wires as used at present, any damage they means of communication at present. The idea of may sustain

is easily found out, and can be as easily

remedied; but in the case of underground pipes using water as a medium by which to communi- filled with water, unless, indeed, this agent be in cate from place to place arose from its well-known sufficient body to force itself to the surface, we do incompressibility, and we find Mr. Jowett quoting, not see how an accident can occur without causing in his prospectus, from Dr. Lardner, the following much labor and cost. The inventor claims for his passage, which conveys the leading feature of his plan over the present electric telegraph greater invention :

economy in construction to the extent of two thirds,

no expense whatever after the first outlay, and the “ A pressure excited on the liquid at one end of impossibility of any physical impediment interfering the tube will be communicated to any surface in with its working. The plan, whether generally contact with the liquid at the other end, whether adopted or not, is certainly well worthy of attention, the tube between the two extremities be straight, and no one can examine the model without being curved, or angular, or whether it pass upwards, struck with the principle which it so beautifully ildownwards, or in an oblique or horizontal direction. lustrates.- Post. It may be carried through the walls of a building, through the course of a river, under, over, or around any obstruction or impediment, or, in fact, according The Turkish ambassador gave a grand soirée to any course or direction whatsoever. If a tube, at which were present the principal members of the filled with water, extended from London to York, diplomatic corps, and amongst them Sir S. Canning a pressure excited on the liquid at the extremity in and Count d'Appony. His excellency was parLondon would be instantaneously transmitted to the extremity at York.” There is, perhaps, a limit to ticularly attentive to his guests, and above all to this doctrine, where curves and undulations are to the female portion of the company, to whom he be overcome, and also from the cohesive power of paid a number of Eastern compliments, in excellent the particles of water to that with which they are French.—Spect.

General FLORES.–This Spanish officer, whose be exceedingly fine and of the highest character. name became so notorious from the contemplated Mr. Blaine read a statement he had drawn up as expedition to the Equador, has arrived in London to the general nature and features of the colony, from Cuba.

the habits and disposition of the native population, THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA.— The existence of

which amounts to 100,000 persons, the capability

of the harbor, the anchorage, &c. All these, an independent republic of free blacks on the continent of Africa, comprising a population of 80,000 for the cultivation and export of cotton. The

according to his statement, were highly favorable souls, including natives who have been incorporated

chairman towards the conclusion of the proceedings into the colony, is one of the most remarkable phenomena of modern times.

said, that in all probability Mr. Blaine would put The above estimate

himself in communication with Lord Grey as to of population is given by Gov. Roberts in his inaugural address, Jan. 3, 1848, and is no doubt

the desideratum of immigration to the colony, and essentially correct. In this growing colony, which begged, on the part of the directors, to thank him now extends 300 miles along the coast, the English

for his very interesting communications.— Times. language is that which will ultimately prevail, and GRAVITATION OF THE ELECTRIC FLUID.—Mr. is already spoken to a great extent. The free Lake, of the Royal Laboratory, Portsmouth, has colored men of the United States, and even their communicated to the Lancet the results of a sinwhite Abolition brethren, after abusing the colony gular experiment, which appears to show that the without mercy for many years, are beginning to electric agent is really fluid ; and that when collook upon it with a considerable degree of favor, lected so as not to exert its powers of attraction and will probably become in due time its fast and repulsion, it obeys the laws of gravitation like friends. Why should they not? They profess to carbonic acid and other gases. The electric fluid be the friends of the colored man—and the world was received in a Leyden jar insulated on a glass does not afford another example so honorable to plate. At the lower part of the jar was a crack his character and so cheering to his hopes. They in the side, of a star-like form, and from around profess to abhor the slave trade, and this much this the metallic coating was removed. On chargabused colony has done more to repress that trade, ing the jar, it was observed that the electric fluid than the combined navies of England, France and soon began to flow out in a stream from the lower the United States. They profess (some of them) opening; and, on continuing the working of the to love the religion of the Gospel, and this colony machine, it flowed over the lip of the jar, descendis doing more to spread that religion in its purity ing in a faint luminous conical stream, (visible only over the benighted regions of Africa, than all other in the dark,) until it reached the level of the outhuman instrumentalities put together. Having side coating, over which it became gradually difbecome independent, it will for the present be less fused, forming, as it were, a frill, or collar. When an object of jealousy to foreign powers. Being the jar was a little inclined on one side, there was less dependent upon the Colonization Society than a perceptible difference in the time of its escape formerly, it will be less an object of jealousy to over the higher and lower part of the lip, from the the enemies of that society at home and abroad. latter of which it began to flow first. On disconThe practical wisdom of the colonization enterprise, tinuing the working of the machine, the fluid first and the far-reaching sagacity and benevolence of ceased to flow at the lip of the jar, and then at the its founders, now begin to stand out in bold relief : lower aperture. On renewing the operation, it first and as that infant republic shall expand its frame, reäppeared at the lower aperture, and afterwards and extend its influence over the whole African at the mouth. This very ingenious experiment continent, becoming alike the asylum and the glory appears to establish the fact, that the electric fluid of the free colored man, even Garrison, or his is material, and is influenced, under certain cirdescendants, if any such there be, will be con- cumstances, by the laws of gravitation. Mr. Lake strained to confess that hostility to African colo- proposes for it the name of pyrogen ; but this is nization, is hostility to the colored race. - Journal inconvenient, because it is already applied to cerof Commerce.

tain chemical products.--Medical Gazette. Port NATAL FOR THE CULTIVATION OF Cor

A ROYAL ordonnance, dated the 26th Feb., conTON.—At a special meeting of the Board of Di- tinues the prohibition of the exportation of potatoes rectors of the Chamber of Commerce held at

up

to the 31st of July next. Manchester on Thursday last, Mr. Blaine was introduced by the president. This gentleman,

A Letter from Rome of the 18th says :who has resided in the colony for four or five

“General Gabrielli, formerly an officer in the years, and taken a great deal of pains to make him- French army, has just been named by the pope

This nomination of a laic to a self acquainted with its capabilities, &c., produced minister of war. a variety of specimens of cotton grown there, some ministry has produced an excellent effect. It is of them indigenous, and some cultivated from seed the best commentary on the motu proprio relating brought from America, China, the Mauritius, and to the organization of the council of ministers. other parts. All these specimens were approved by the very competent judges to whom they were Mexico.—There are some important points in submitted, and some of them were pronounced to the following letter with which we have been fa

39

CCII.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XVI.

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