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power of sympathy over fallen nature, and returned | women from Lancaster were sent to the ship to the enjoyment of physical existence. A similar • Brothers' in 1823, iron-hooped round their legs success awaited the efforts of Elizabeth Fry—often and arms, and chained to each other. The comhas she been heard to relate, with modest and were not allowed to get up or down from the coach
plaints of these women were very mournful; they grateful piety, the triumphs of the gospel, in the without the whole being dragged together; some cases of hundreds of frantic culprits who, with of them had children to carry ; they received no alacrity, submitted to the yoke of truth : but her help or alleviation to their suffering. A woman fame does not rest on private narrative ; the coun- from Cardigan travelled with a hoop of iron round try resounded with her deeds ; and public testimony her ankle until she arrived at Newgate, where the was displayed, both at home and abroad, in abun- sub-matron insisted on having it taken off. In
driving the rivet towards her leg to do so, it gave dant and grateful imitation.
her so much pain that she fainted under the operaWe cannot affect to concur in her extreme opin- tion. She stated that during a lengthened imprisions against capital punishments in every case ; onment she wore an iron hoop round her waist ; but no one can ever refuse her the praise of having from that a chain connected with another hoop largely contributed, by her profound sympathy and round her leg above the knee-from which a second untiring beneficence, to that change in the general chain was fastened to a third hoop round her ankle: tone of thought and feeling which by and by re- said, two bolts or fastenings, in which her hands
in the hoop that went round her waist were, she sulted in a most marked abatement of the severity were confined when she went to bed at night, which of our Criminal Code.
bed was only of straw. Her efforts, in conjunction with the Ladies' “ Such were a few of the scenes into which Mrs. Newgate Association, were soon directed to the Fry was introduced in this department of her imcondition of the women convicts in the next steps portant labors for the good of the suffering and the of their progress :
sinful of her own sex.”-p. 445.
Not content with having cleansed the Augean " It was a custom among the female transports stable of Newgate, she directed her attention to to riot previous to their departure from Newgate, the gaols in Scotland—which seems to have been breaking windows, furniture, or whatever came within their reach.' They were generally conveyed even more deserving of the disgraceful epithet. A from the prison to the waterside in open wagons, journey on the concerns of the society, undertaken went off shouting amidst assembled crowds, and by herself and her worthy brother, Joseph John were noisy and disorderly on the road, and in the Gurney, was improved into a pilgrimage to the boats. Mrs. Fry prevailed on the governor to con- abodes of wretchedness allotted to the culprit and sent to their being moved in hackney-coaches. She the debtor, the sons of crime or misfortune. We then promised the women, if they would be quiet shrink from the terrible details of needless sufferand orderly, that she and other ladies would accompany them to Deptford, and see them on board ; ing, needless either for safety, precaution, or chasaccordingly when the time came, no disturbance tisement, inflicted on these victims ; they are took place; the women in hackney-coaches, with recorded in some notes published at the time by turnkeys in attendance, formed a procession, which Mr. Gurney; and may they long endure, and be was closed by her carriage ; and the women behaved read, as an historical preface to the victory that well on the road.”—p. 319.
humanity has achieved ! Mrs. Fry's success in respect of these unhappy
The condition of the insane did not escape her females is well known—but still we think it proper eye; nor would it, indeed, have been possible in to give more details of the system that she found one who thought and felt so much for the welfare in operation :
of the human race. Nothing," say the biogra
phers, “ left so melancholy an impression on her “ The mode in which they were brought on board mind, as the state of the poor lunatic in the cell at long continued to be highly objectionable; they ar- Haddington.” Here was before her view an inrived from the country in small parties, at irregular intervals, having been conveyed on the outside of stance of the system that then prevailed, through stage-coaches, by smacks or hoys, or any convey nearly the whole of Europe, in the treatment of ance that offered, under the care of a turnkey. In the insane! Until keys and chains and whips garsome instances their children, equally destitute as nished the person of the keeper, he could not be themselves, accompanied them; in others, their considered as fitly equipped for his ferocious work, sufferings were increased by sudden separation which, in his utter and brutal ignorance, and aided from their infants. Often did Mrs. Pryor and her by the strait-waistcoat, periodical scourgings, and friend and companion Lydia I- quit those scenes, the dark and filthy dungeon, he performed with all not to return to their own homes, but to go to Whitehall, to represent such cases, that the neces
the zeal and conviction of an inquisitor. Scotland sary letters should be dispatched without the loss now possesses many excellent institutions in which of a post, ordering the restoration of these poor science and benevolence have produced most happy nurslings to their mothers before the ship should results: there is still, however, a lamentable defisail. In addition to these evils, the women were ciency of rightful provision for the pauper
lunatic. almost invariably more or less ironed, sometimes But the excellent first report of the Scotch poorcruelly so. On board the · Mary Anne,' in 1822, law commissioners gives us reason to hope that the prisoners from Lancaster Castle arrived not merely handcuffed, but with heavy irons on their all such neglect has received its doom. legs, which had occasioned considerable swelling, It is interesting to trace, at this period of her and, in one instance, serious inflammation. Eleven) career, her discovery and estimate of those principles of management which have now become the the Society of Friends. In no one instance does standing rules of every English asylum for the care her Catholic spirit shine more brightly : but her of the insane. It is due to her fame, and to the Journal shows that she keenly felt the displeasure efforts of the Quaker body in this behalf, not to of the brotherhood, with whom “it is a rule of pass in silence her sagacious and humane observa- discipline to disunite from membership those who tions addressed to Mr. Venning, at Petersburg marry persons not members of the society. It is (" quæ regio in terris," she might well have said, very strictly enforced ; and to promote such con
nostri non plena laboris ???) for the conduct of an nections is looked upon as an act of delinquency establishment in that capital. She saw clearly and on the part of parents and guardians !” (p. 405.) experienced the power of love over the human This fact alone would be sufficient reason for the heart, whether corrupted, as in the criminal, or form of biography adopted by the editors. It stupefied, as in the lunatic. She saw that the would have been difficult for members of the benighted and wandering madman possessed and Church of England, however delicately and afcherished the remnants of his better mind, and fectionately alive to the merits of their deceased that he clung to nothing so much as to that which parent, to have composed a narrative satisfactory, all seemed to deny him—some little semblance of in all its bearings, to the sensitive apprehensions respect. Sympathy is the great secret to govern of the Society of Friends. She has been made the human race; and, whether it be in a prison, her own historian ; and the result is a record a ragged school, a madhouse, or the world at large, which, exhibiting all the workings and triumphs he that would force men's hearts to a surrender, of an ardent faith, and abounding in lessons of pamust do so by manifesting that they would be safe tient experience, is sure to be studied and prized if committed to his keeping.
by all who have any share in the spirit of Mrs. The narrative of the present volume terminates Fry. with the year 1825, and closes the account of her The rest of the work will not, we hope, be long benevolent activity down to this date by mentioning deferred. Trials of a heavy kind, we know, the commencement of her service for the benefit awaited her-increased embarrassments of fortune, of the coast guard. A simple incident, simply and the loss of her excellent son William, the joy told, paints the lifelong watchfulness :
and prop of his mother, tested and matured the “In Mrs. Fry's illness at Brighton,” say her spirit that could solemnly declare to her daughter biographers, " she was liable to distressing attacks in her lastoillness :—“I can say one thing; since of faintness during the night and early in the morn- my heart was touched at the age of seventeen, I ing, when it was frequently necessary to take her believe I never have awakened from sleep, in sickto an open window for the refreshment of the air. ness or in health, by day or by night, without my Whether through the quiet grey dawn of the sum- first waking thought being how best I might serv mer's morning, or by the fitful gleams of the tem
Lord.” (p. vii.) pestuous sky, one living object always presented itself to her view on these occasions; the solitary blockade-man pacing the shingly beach.”—p. 472.
From the Spectator. That she should have been exposed to various
D'AUBIGNÉ's GERMANY, ENGLAND, AND SCOTillnesses, the result of her toil and persevering
LAND. anxiety, can surprise no one who reads her memoir. In the spring of 1845, the historian of the “Mrs. Fry's time was occupied,” we are told, Reformation, Dr. Merle D'Aubigné, was deputed, “ to an extent of which none but those who lived with two other Protestant ministers of the contiwith her can form any idea. The letters she re- nent, to visit Germany and Great Britain. The ceived from all parts of the country were numer- object was to endeavor tc effect a union among
These letters required long and careful Christians of all denominations, except Papists, and answers." Had she lived in the days of the (as we infer) the state church of Scotland, or the penny-post, her life would have been an astonish- tractarian and “ Canterbury” part of the Anglican ment to her? “ Poor people, thinking her purse church—meaning by “Canterbury” those who as boundless as her good-will, wrote innumerable uphold the · apostolical succession. Individually petitions praying for assistance ; others sought for the ministers, especially D'Aubigné, were received counsel, or desired employment, which they im- with much attention and hospitality, from the agined she could obtain for them.” We know it bishop of London and the royal commissioner of well; the wealth of Cræsus and the patronage of the Presbyterian church, downwards : they were two prime ministers rolled into one, would not suf- welcomed as new planets at the different “ May fice to pay even one per cent. of the demands on meetings” they attended in England, and at a free any one who has acquired the name of an active kirk gathering in Scotland. It is not necessary to philanthropist. Incessant anxieties and cares, open the eyes very widely to ascertain how they watchings, and journeyings, made up in fact the succeeded in the main end of their mission ; sum of her devoted existence; and her health although such interchange of courtesies must tend could not but pay the penalty.
to soften asperities, and somewhat diminish theo She was subjected to some trial (pp. 404, 407, logical rancor, and is therefore to be encouraged. 408) by the preference her daughter manifested to On D'Aubigné’s return to Geneva, his friends and a member of the Church of England over one of flock requested him to furnish an account of what
he had seen; and in the winter of 1845-46 he Of the Romanist schism that originated with appears to have given a course of lectures or Ronge he has little hope, partly from the secret addresses on his tour, confining himself to the rationalism that prevails among the educated present time. Not satiated by what they had Romanists, partly from German mysticism, and the heard, the audience renewed their request; and in “ scientific” manner in which religion is handled the following winter the author recurred to the in Germany. A few anecdotes will illustrate his past, taking a survey of the Scottish church from view. its popish period down to the late schism. These discourses form the basis of the book before us, if ishing condition, was just forming when I passed
“At Manheim, the new church, now in a flourindeed they are not the book itself; which, in through it. It is a gay and worldly town. Why,' obedience to the original plan, is divided into two said some one to a Roman Catholic, do not you, parts, under the titles of “Travelling Recollec- who are opposed to the priests and the pope, join tions,” and “ Historical Recollections."
the German Catholic church? •For two reasons,' The Travelling Recollections differ from travels
was the reply. • The first, because I should have in general by giving no regular narrative of the the second, that I should have to give money, and
to go to church, and I had rather amuse myself ; journey. The principal places alone are men- I had rather keep it.' These are some of the tioned, not the intermediate tour ; unless the very motives that keep the adherents of the pope faithful curt account of the run from London to Edinburgh to their standard. may stand as an exception. There is as little of “While I was at Heidelberg, the new church description, which forms so staple an article with had neither priest nor minister; the members celeordinary tourists : the dense population, business, brated divine worship among themselves. “I must and activity of London—the striking site and time (a month ago) when I joined the German
own to you,' said one of these, that up to the romantic beauties of Edinburgh—are the fullest Catholic church, I had never opened the Bible ; but passages of this kind, and they are not very ample. I read it now.' This person, who had been readObservation, partly social, though chiefly religious, ing the Bible . for a month,' was a teacher in these is one great feature of the book ; but its main meetings! characteristic is disquisitional. D'Aubigné glances
“ At Stutgard, the capital of Wurtemberg, I at the history of each country he visited'; estimates attended, at seven o'clock on Sunday morning, the the character of the people ; looks more particu- There were very few women, but many men ;
worship of this new church in the Reformed chapel. larly at the state of religion, and the causes that several, no doubt, strangers like myself. I observed have produced it. In Germany, for example, very little seriousness before the service began ; almost his sole topics are rationalism, the new they were standing in groups, and even talking movement under Ronge, and the writer's hopes somewhat loudly. It was more like the commenceof a revival of Christian faith in that country; ment of a political or literary meeting than of one although, if we understand him rightly, there are
for religious worship. but three places at present where faith is preached icals in a corner of the building, came and stood
“ At length the priest, having put on his canonin the churches. In England, tractarianism and before the altar, which was somewhat shabbily the general state of the church, with some glances ornamented with garlands, tapers, and a picture. at dissenters, occupy much of his attention ; but He was a tall, stout, red-faced man, with a drawlvaried by sketches of social and national traits, ing tone and coarseness of manner which are not with accounts of meetings, and so forth. In Scot- uncommonly found in the Romish clergy. He told land there is a similar intermixture ; but as the us he knew the papacy well, for he had been a free kirk movement was then at its height, and priest twenty-five years; which was plain enough the deputation took a part in it, religion predominates still more in the visit to that country than in
As the gravest like to look in the glass, if it is the visit to England.
only to see how they look, we will take our This mode of making use of travels as a theme remaining extracts from that part which relates to for discussion has not so dry or heavy an effect as
this country. might be anticipated. The author is earnest in his
"On approaching the capital, [on the Dover subject, thoroughly imbued with it, and he deals railway,) my wondering eyes looked down from the only with leading points. His genius is vital carriage into innumerable narrow streets of small though not vivacious; his manner is spirited, and houses, all of uniform and mean appearance, blacknovel from its foreign air, without being strange or ened with coal-dust and shrouded by a smoky extreme. In touching on history, as he often atmosphere. Such is the gloomy avenue which
leads to the delightful parks of the metropolis, its must do, there is none of the stiff and borrowed superb squares, magnificent bazaars, and rich palair of the compiler or the book-stuffer. D'Aubigné aces. recurs to it because it is essential to his argument ; " What crowds in the streets, what bustle, what and then leaves it. In like manner, his religious hurry! These carriages, public and private, almost views are distinct and philosophical; but full of as numerous as the foot-passengers; that dazzling life, and devoid of cant. He animates his disqui- display of every production of British industry, and sition by pictures of meetings and of men, as well of the most distant lands ; "those forests of ships,
motionless in their immense docks; the steamas by personal reminiscences; for D'Aubigné has boats, which, like a weaver's shuttle, incessantly been in England before, and is well acquainted ply up and down the Thames with inconceivable with Germany.
rapidity, taking up and setting down at every pier 32
a fresh cargo of breathless passengers ; everything is but the keystone of the aristocracy. This arisyou behold tells you that you are now in the cap- tocracy, also, wears its greatness well. There is ital of the commercial world.
in the manners of the great ones of England a noble“ If the German feeds upon the ideal, the prac-ness, a grace, a simplicity, an exquisite perfume of tical is the characteristic of Great Britain ; I say, sociability, and a regard for their inferiors in the Britain, because most of what I say here of Eng- social scale, which win every heart. There is land is applicable to Scotland also. Reality, action, among the English, especially among the aristocbusiness, bear sway in the politics, the industry, the racy, a physical beauty celebrated all over the world, commerce, and, I will even say, in the religion of and with which the moral beauty of the mind is often the English. Yet this practical tendency which in harmony. These nobles have not merely, like characterizes England is not selfish, as might have those of some other nations, an external polish, but been expected. The large scale on which the peo- there is within them an internal grace, a politeness ple work gives a certain scope and grandeur to the of the soul. imagination. The habit which the English have “In other respects the English aristocracy apof forming into parties, and of looking constantly at pears to me no less admirable. When we behold themselves as a nation, is opposed to a narrow sel- elsewhere the frightful tyranny which radicalism fishness; and a more elevated sentiment struggles sets up, we can understand the mischief it would with this vice in a large portion of the people. do in England if ever it were triumphant; and we
“ Perhaps one of the things that strikes a are inclined to regard the aristocracy, which there stranger the most on his arrival in London is, not exercises such strength, as one of the necessary the nobility, but the common people ; their strength, guarantees for freedom. their energy, their quickness, their skill, their civil- “Duty is an idea but too much forgotten among ity, and, above all, their calmness and silence during us, while in England it is all-important. This their unceasing activity. They are all alive to nation, so powerful and so haughty, bows before what they are about, and they are clever at it; you the thought of duty. It was Nelson's signal to his can see this in the carriages, the ships, and espe- fleet at Trafalgar, • England expects every man to cially in the railroads. The skill with which an do his duty-and every man did it. English coachman drives you through the streets "The Duke of Wellington, being asked if he of London, among thousands of vehicles, without had seen a French criticism on the fourteen volumes ever jostling you, is inconceivable.
of his Despatches, replied in the negative; and in“ The day after my arrival in London, I visited quired, . What do the French say of them? He the ancient seat of our friend M-, built in the was told that the reviewer remarked the word glory time of Elizabeth. The railroad took me a certain did not once occur, but that duty frequently did." distance, where I had to find a carriage to take me on to Park; but what on the continent might These complimentary sketches might be experhaps have occupied an hour, was here done in tended ; and there are some drawbacks, but not an instant. In less than a minute all our luggage perhaps so inany in the book as in the reality. was lifted from the train into the carriage, and the The views of D'Aubigné, well read as he is in fly was winging its way towards the park. “I observed in England one thing, that the peo- minuter points as regards this country, either from
history, cannot always be implicitly received upon ple talk much less of liberty than we do on the continent, but practise it more. This is quite natural;
haste or bias. He says that “ Popery is less a when we possess a thing, we mention it less fre- religion than a state ;” which is true, with the quently than when we are in search of it. The qualification that religion is used by the Romish young men who play so important a part in Ger- priesthood as a means to acquire temporal power. many, and even in France and other countries, do He also says, that on the Reformation, not so in England. It is not for want of spirit in the English youth—they have even rather too much ; “Many Protestant churches, depriving the pope but it is confined in the preparatory spbere of schools of the supremacy he had usurped, consented that and colleges, and does not display itself in public the magistrate or the king should take upon him business. Influential institutions satisfy this people. that jurisdiction, and thus maintain, under another The young men know that their turn will come, form, that confusion of civil and religious things and they wait quietly. Among a people deprived which is to be found in popery. The church of of public institutions, vigor is often misplaced; it Scotland, on the contrary, asserting that it was the is forced forward in youth and exhausted in riper place of Christ himself which the pope had usurped, years. In England, on the contrary, it is disci- resisted every effort made by the political power to plined in youth and exerted in manhood. On the take possession of it." continent, paternal authority is much shaken ; 'n Britain, the parents, generally speaking, know how Such is, no doubt, literally true; but, however to keep their children at a respectful distance; and averse the kirk might be to submit to the state, it this is a great element of strength for a nation. had not the least objection to play the pope over When the Bible would pronounce a threat against the state ; and it made several struggles to that a people, it says, ' I will give them children to be end.' However opposed to Episcopacy, the Prestheir princes, and babes shall rule over them.' This curse has been but too well fulfilled among many would not have had the slightest objection to make
byterian priesthood, at least under the Stuarts, nations.
“In Britain, of all the countries in the earth, the the government a dean and chapter, with a congé nobility have the most power. The king or queen d’élire accompanied by a letter- sive.
Thirty-five unpublished Letters of Oliver Cromwell. unnatural. Still had so vivid a sense of those sad
Communicated by Thomas Carlyle to Fraser's divisions survived and lingered among them, that Magazine. Parker.
the subject from father to son appears to have beThe following correspondence has been sent to come an interdicted one. “ At present all united us by Mr. Blakely, with a request that it should in kindly oblivion of those old sorrows and aniappear in the Eraminer :
mosities; but capable yet of blazing up into one THORPE HAMLET, near Norwich, Dec. 30, 1847.
knew not what fierce contradictions, should the Dear Sir,-Having attentively read your “ Life question be renewed.” Does the reader find that of Oliver Cromwell," and being anxious to meet family picture incredible ? We do not. For let with any further relics of that great man, I was us keep all the circumstances in mind. Crommuch delighted to find a long article in • Fraser” well's whitewashing has been of very recent date. for December, containing a number of his letters, It is not five-and-twenty years since a worthy gensaid to have been communicated to you in a very tleman applied for permission to superadd the name romantic manner, and the whole account bearing
of Cromwell to that of Field, and was flatly reyour signature. Since reading that article, to which I myself gave implicit credence, I have fused permission by George the Fourth, that prince heard the matter frequently discussed, and even of gentlemen. It is hardly as many months since pronounced to be a clever joke of the editor's. it was decided down at Whitehall, by a party of
This has induced me to trouble you upon the point, educated people, that though Cromwell might be and if it is not making too great a demand upon tolerated as a “general,” ears polite or senatorial your valuable time, I should esteem it a great honor to receive a communication from yourself on the
had nothing to do with him as “ Lord Protector." subject.
Don't let us be too incredulous of dozing dwellers I have the honor to remain, yours faithfully, by ancient cathedrals. The world outside dozes
Edw. T. BLAKELY. over greatness, too, and with a dulness quite as To T. Carlyle, Esq., Chelsea.
amazing. This family we have been describing CHELSEA, 1st January, 1848. were not in the least likely to set the safer or Sir, I am sorry any person whatever should greater store by such old family papers as had fancy I would put my name, publicly or privately, been preserved among them, because it happened to a fiction, and, giving it out as a fact, call the op- that, in the course of those moth-eaten, dusty, eration a good“ joke."
dreary, old brown papers, Oliver Cromwell's name Your first impression, which I think is more hon
occurred pretty frequently. orable to your sense of veracity, was the correct one, and will have to become the universal and final
Matters stood thus when Mr. Carlyle's noble one. The thing I printed and put my name to, is collection of Cromwell's (elucidated) Letters and true ; deliberately set forth as my record of a fact, Speeches appeared, and found its way into the and meant to be accepted by all the world as such. cathedral close aforesaid. The family were at
I remain, yours very truly, this time represented by a worthy and honorable To Mr. Edw. T. Blakely. T. CARLYLE.
gentleman of middle age, whom we shall call A. Whatever hereafter may be said for or against B. How further to describe A. B. is not easy. the authenticity of the letters in question, Mr. In very truth a gentleman, we gather from the vaCarlyle here settles the question of his own au- rious facts of the case ; a simple, honorable, not in thenticity. He is neither forger, nor abettor of any manner literate or wise, but robust and honest forgery. He is the first most flagrant dupe, if any man; inheriting strongly the family peculiarities imposition has been practised. On this latter head hinted at, with others of his own grafted on them ; we have a few remarks to offer. We shall pre- hunted by the shadows, the Eumenides that had face them with an account of how the letters came plagued his race, yet occasionally turning round to be printed, and what they chiefly contain. with lion-face to hunt them; and on the whole, as
Mr. Carlyle published them six weeks ago in with all the clearness the courtesies will allow he Fraser's Magazine, with a very explicit testimony is characterized by Mr. Carlyle, of the kind called to their genuineness from himself, and as explicit “ half-mad." We are to suppose the effect, upon a narrative as he could give of the “ singular cir- such a mind sunk in such strata of habit and speccumstances and conditions” under which they had ulation, of the revealments in Mr. Carlyle's book ; come into his hands. Our account is scrupulously and the reader must do this as he can, for we have drawn from the materials thus furnished by Mr. not time to help him. What concerns us here are Carlyle, and of course rests on the assumption of the results through which it showed itself. Moved their perfect veracity.
by that sincere strong will which was clearing off It would seem, then, that there has been living the blinding mists from the figure of a hero for several generations, in one of our cathedral which so strangely was substituting for the rebelcities, a certain family of respectable condition lious bugbear that had haunted our family of A. which had actively engaged itself, in the persons B.'s, an august great soul radiant with heavenly of its then representatives, both on the Royalist splendors-shall we wonder if the moth-eaten and the Roundhead side, in the great civil war. contents of the family chest were turned to with In this family those feuds had left many sorrowful a feeling, not hitherto suggested, and with even traditions, as was natural ; and these had descended the wish to ascertain what exact part the A. B. to even the present day, as with worthy people liv- ancestors had taken in those past rebellious transing in a venerable cathedral close was perhaps not actions. Then came into light those dreary