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and inhaling the miasma. On one Sunday, the pedition had been so contemptuously disregarded, 23rd, says Dr. M'William, “the thermometer was proprietor of a cmall steamer which he embeing at 92° in the coolest part of the ship, ser- ployed in the African trade. He had generously vice was performed by Mr. Schön ; but what with sent out directions to her commander, Mr. Bedeath, with those that had left us at the conflu- croft, to render the queen's steamers, in any way ence, and those lying sick around us, the congre- in his power, the assistance which he foresaw they gation si emed reduced to a mere skeleton of what would require; and that officer, hearing from the it had been.” A chief came alongside in the af- crew of the Soudan that the Albert still remained ternoon with three slaves in his canoe. He turned in the river, proceeded at once in Mr. Jamieson's out to be the son of the potentate with whom the vessel, the Ethiope, in scarch of her. On the expedition had just concluded the anti-slavery trea- 13th the miserable survivors in the Albert espied ty at Iddah—a prince who, during Oldfield's visit with surprise and delight this little steamer comto his region, had, on the occasion of his broth-ing up the river to meet them. Capt. Becroft er's death, ensured to the defunct the sincere grief promptly sent his engineers on board and piloted of his family, by administering to his sixty widows them through the intricate shoals obstructing the a mortal dose, from the effects of which thirty- entrance to the Niger, with which he was well one died outright, and the twenty-nine who sur acquainted. Had it not been for his seasonable vived were
grievously griped ;” and who had, aid, the few who now survive would have in all moreover, admitted having poisoned several of probability perished dismally, aground on those Laird's people. To this murderous savage Capt. burning and pestilential sand-banks. On the Trotter, surrounded by his dying comrades, in pur- 21st of October, after their arrival at Sierra suance of his instructions, gravely read, in what Leone, Mr. Willie died, and, finally, Dr. M Willanguage we are left to guess, “ the laws relating liam's health and spirits gave way, and he lay beto slave-dealing, and also his father's treaty abol-tween life and death for three weeks. During ishing slavery forever in his dominions !” that period Capt. Bird Allen, Lieut. Stenhouse,
On the 3rd of October, being within two days' Mr. Woodhouse, assistant-surgeon, Mr. Wilmot, journey of Rabbah, Capt. Trotter himself was clerk, and many other brave proxies for the ardent assailed by fever. At that time there remained philanthropists at home, paid the debt of nature. on board capable of doing duty, Dr. M’William, - The scenes on board the Soudan, since she had Dr. Stanger, the geologist, Mr. Willie, mate, the left the model farm with her dying freight, had sergeant, and one private of marines, one seaman, been no less awful. When her 'gallant comand a hospital-assistant. It was therefore decided mander, Lieut. Fishbourne, brought her into Ferthat they should proceed no further. Dr. Stan-nando Po, he was the only efficient man on board. ger took charge of the engine, and Dr. M'Wil- The Wilberforce arrived there on the 1st of Octoliam of the ship, for the mate was compelled to ber in an equally distressed condition. give in that very evening, and all the engineers As soon as the news of these horrors reached were either dead or helpless. Two invalids, in England, it was of course decided that both the despair, cast themselves overboard—one perished. diplomatic and agricultural branches of the scheme On the 8th, Dr. M’William observes, “ Had we must be abandoned ; bu: it then became necessary run aground with a falling river at that period, the that one vessel should reäscend the river, and rescertain consequences, under all circumstances, were cue the survivors, if any, of the band who had been but too dreadful to contemplate. At this time the so strangely left on the wreck of the metropolis. anxiety of Dr. Stanger and myself for the safety Eight volunteers, six of whom had already proved of the vessel, and our mental anguish at seeing the dangers of that fatal scene, readily undertook nearly all our shipmates in a helpless condition, the humane task; and the Wilberforce, under the cannot be expressed.” On the 9th this death-ship command of Lieut. Webb, reëntered the Nun on reached the confluence of the rivers where the the 2nd of July, reached the conflux of the Niger Buxtonian metropolis of African civilization had and the Tchadda on the 18th, and succeeded in been founded, and the Amelia schooner moored. bringing out the people and the Amelia schooner On boarding her, the schoolmaster and the gar- on the 27th. During the twenty-five days they dener were found in fever in their berths; and on were thus employed, seven of this small party, shore, in the Eglintoun tournament-tent, the super- although by this time somewhat inured to the intendent lay in a dying state. These, and a few climate, were again stricken down by fever-two others, who were also sick, they took on board : died. “A great many of the colored people wished to Of the 145 Europeans who originally entered the return; but as they had previously volunteered to river-steady, sober men, carefully selected for the stop there, they were not allowed to leave.” (Dun- duty, in the prime of life, mostly seasoned by prevican.) The farm was therefore left without su- ous tropical service, and provided with every comfort perintendent, farmer, schoolmaster, surgeon, or and palliative which medical art could suggest and gardener, in charge of a negro sailor. Mr. Duncan the most lavish expenditure provide—all save one naïvely remarks, “I fear the result will not be suffered—forty lie buried on the banks of the very favorable.” On the 10th the Albert resumed Niger. And thus ended Mr. Buxton's celebrated her race for life to the coast. Mr. Jamieson, attempt to discharge what he and Mr. Stephen at of Liverpool, whose remonstrances against the ex- that time were pleased to term the national dehi
due by England to Africa, -a debt which the But, notwithstanding this melodious authority, whig ministry are now so eager to repudiate. every well-informed person is now agreed as to
Having not the least desire to deal hardly by the actual condition some few years ago of the these no doubt well-meaning gentlemen, we shall laboring population in these colonies. We will here insert the apology which at a meeting at Ex- quote on that point a witness whose sagacity and eter Hall they themselves put forward in defence motives no one can question, and then advert to it of their conduct in this business :
The late Lord Metcalfe wrote thus to “It is very unjust to press more heavily on the Lord John Russell from Jamaica on the 1st of misfortunes of pure unmixed benevolence than on November, 1841 : those of mere gain. The merchants of Liverpool were allowed, not only without blame, but with merly slaves, but now perfectly free, and more inde
“With respect to the laboring population, forcommendation for the hardihood of their enterprise, pendent than the same class in other free countries, to send forty-eight white men up the Niger, for the I venture to say that in no country in the world can development of the commercial resources of the
they be more abundantly provided with the necescountry, and to bring back eight of those men. Not only was no cry raised against them, for stay- more secure from oppression, than in Jamaica ;
saries and comforts of life, more at their ease, or ing at home while they exposed others to danger, and I may add, that ministers of the gospel for but on the contrary the loudest expressions of pub- their religious instruction and schools for the edulic approbation were bestowed on them for their cation of their children are established in all parts enterprise.”
of the island, with a tendency to constant increase.” From long observation and humiliating experience, we have unwillingly been driven to the full credit for any good which they have really
We are willing to give the friends of the African cynical conclusion that “
pure, unmixed benevolence” is almost as dangerous an agent to tamper that their motives have been generally pure-setting
brought about, and we are moreover ready to admit with as gun-cotton, unless it be freely diluted with the less transcendent qualities of practical knowledge we are quite prepared to allow that their efforts
aside, perhaps, a little vanity and want of charity. and common sense. Macgregor Laird deservedly in
somewhat accelerated the extinction of slavery in curred the admiration of the public for himself heading an expedition which might, in his opinion, have
the British dominions, and have since mainly tended led to great results both in a philanthropic and a But that slavery would have been abolished long
to raise the negro to his present enviable position. commercial point of view—his merits were none the less because his object was defeated by the cli- ere this, throughout our colonies, without their mate, the nature of which had been, until his visit, further believe, that had they been less impatient
interference, we are equally convinced ; and we reported to be far healthier than that of the coast. and impracticable, or had the government of that Mr. Buxton and his friends, however, had no
day been less susceptible to great right to be surprised that the same meed of
pressure from withpraise was withheld from them, when, in defiance out," a most wanton sacrifice of life and property of Laird's experience and repeated warnings, they advantageous results in favor of the negro and of
might have been spared, and far more permanently persisted in despatching others to succumb under
our colonies might have been insured. dangers which were then known to be insuperable,
But to proceed :—these gentlemen, elated with for purposes in the history of which the horrible
their triumphs over justice and common sense, had scarcely predominates over the ludicrous.*
not the discernment to perceive that in every counWe now propose to accompany our readers on a short visit to the beautiful islands of the Carib- try the interests of the employer and the employed bean sea, which, we have no doubt, the lawgivers must be coidentical. They settled that it was
for the good of the newly-emancipated negroes that of the Strand contemplate with far more satisfaction than the pestilential scenes of their inca- a monopoly of labor should be secured to them, and
therefore resisted all attempts at introducing addipacity which we very willingly quit. One of their “ Hymus for Public Worship” has this stan- revival of the slave-trade under another name. In
tional immigrants, especially from Africa, as a “ Hasten to some distant isle
short, they assumed it as their rule of action, that In the bosom of the deep,
whatever was advantageous to the white land-owner Where the skies forever smile
must be prejudicial to their protégés. The plantAnd the blacks forever weep!” | ers, possessing a vast capital invested in the soil, * In order that our readers may be enabled to estimate in machinery, drainage, cultivation, and cattle, were the market value which pure unmixed benevolence bore thus compelled to submit to pay an extortionate at that time in England, as compared with the same arti
rate of wages.
They indulged the hope that, ere cle when adulterated with sense and reflection, unselfish courage, and effective humanity, we may as well here long, reason would resume her sway, and that they state, that for the respective parts which they played in would be permitted to employ the 20,000,0001. ever ; Capi. Becroft, who saved the Albert at the risk of granted to them as compensation in procuring suffihis life, was presented with 1001.; Mr. Buxton was made cient hands from abroad to cultivate their estates; a baronet ; and Mr. Stephen is now a privy councillor. for the difficulty of inducing the creole negroes to The naval officers and men, of whose conduct it is impossible to speak too highly, were, we suppose, promoted work, of course increased in proportion to the high io the death vacancies.
wages paid to them. Their demands were based + Heard sung in full chorus by a congregation of the upou too just a principle to be directly refused ;-Church of England, in Dublin, August, 1843–so saps but for several years they were evaded, and when Mr. Thackeray.- Irish Tous, vol. ii., p. 149.
at last some slight concessions were made, they would have ultimately thriven upon the decay of were of a complicated and limited nature which the latter. The revolution of last year has, howrendered them valueless. Without entering more ever, involved all our free-labor sugar colories in fully into this branch of the subject, we shall con- one common ruin ; and, it is needless to add, the tent ourselves with stating that, five years after chiefest brawlers in the present parliament for the evidence had been given before a committee of the cheap slave-grown sugars of Cuba and Brazil are house of commons, whereof Lord John Russell the very statesmen who fifteen years ago raised was a member, which must have satisfied the most themselves to power and popularity by their unconprejudiced that the laboring population of the West trollable hostility to the existence of slavery in the India colonies were generally in the state of social British dominions. and moral prosperity described by Sir C. Metcalfe, We ourselves are not astonished at this. The Sir H. M'Leod, and Governor Light—that the con- whigs have long been notorious for their propensity dition of the African at Sierra Leone was miserable to scud before the popular breeze, and it is quite and useless*—that additional labor was urgently in character that the very minister who despatched required in the three great colonies of Guiana, the Soudan, Albert, and Wilberforce to found a Trinidad, and Jamaica—that the activity or languor city on the confluence of the Niger and the Tchadda, of the slave-trade depended entirely on the high or which by its subsequent influence was to annihilate low price of slave-sugar, and not at all on the slavery all over the world, and who did not hesitate presence of the combined squadron on the coast to offer up human sacrifices—we can use no milder —and that the only efficient weapon by which that expression with regard to the Niger expeditiontraffic could be successfully combatted was cheap free- for the sake of entering into anti-slavery treaties grown produce—five years after all this, we say, with the fuddled cannibals rejoicing in the titles of we find, that during the last four months of 1847 the Almanez of Footah-Jallow and the Sultan of upwards of 4000 slaves have been captured by our Woolli, should, now that that mania is worn threadcruisers ;—and that of these, in spite of the remark- bare and the free-trade mania has succeeded it, able report of the committee of 1842 and the prom- sententiously declare that justice and consistency ises subsequently made by Lord John Russell to have had their day, and that the only rule of his the West Indians in 1846, 2000 are known to have future commercial policy must be “the interest of been, as heretofore, apprenticed to idleness, vice, the consumer.” It is amusing to compare Lord and want in Sierra Leone, and but 300 have reached John's keen sense of justice on this question towards our West Indian colonies.
the free-traders of England—the strong—with his Meantime the planters have been forced in contemptuous disregard of the same virtue towards despair to accept Coolie immigration, which from the West Indians—the weak. We believe, howthe physical debility and peculiar habits of that ever, that both the friends of the African and the people, and from the expense of bringing them friends of slave-grown sugar will discover-and from such a distant point, has proved a total that at no very distant period—by the withdrawal failure.
of capital and the diminution of produce, and, conEvery one interested in the welfare of the old sequently, of social improvement in our own colosugar colonies foresaw that a time was not very nies, and by the consequent increased price of that remote when capital would cease to flow in that produce in Cuba and Brazil, that the interests of direction, if the course of policy we have here de- the employed can no more be permanently furthered scribed was persisted in, and when the 20,000,0001. at the expense of the employer than can those of of compensation money would be absorbed in paying the consumer at the expense of the producer. extravagant wages for unremunerative and dishonest The impediments which Buxtonism hias during work.t That time has come. The high price the last ten years thrown in the way of the West of sugar rather induced speculators to make large Indian planters have effectually prevented any investments in India and the Mauritius—the in- possible competition on their part with the foreign creased distance from Exeter Hall and the abundance slave colonies. The last few packets have conof labor in those countries more than counter- veyed instructions to the tropics which will have balancing the disadvantages of heavier freight and the effect of throwing thousands of laborers out of inferior soil; and there is little doubt that if all work, and hundreds of estates out of cultivation. further supply of African immigrants had been The various legislatures will no longer have the steadfastly withheld from the West Indians, and means to supply funds for religious and civil if the free-traders had not interfered, the former education, which they have hitherto done most * Mr. Macgregor Laird, in 1836, made the following condition of the free negro population must hence
liberally, and therefore the physical and moral compntation :- Population of Sierra Leone, 50,000; Trinidad, 54,000. Value of exportable produce grown in the forward inevitably retrograde. England has virModel Colony, 3,5001. ; Trinidad, 560,0001. Imports to the Model Colony, 100,0001. ; Trinidad, 327,0001.
tually withdrawn her custom from her own colonegro, therefore, at Sierra Leone, produced annually, is. nies; she is about to deal with their opponents, 6d., and consumed 21. worth English goods ; remove who indeed sell as yet equally good articles somehim to Trinidad, he would consume 7l. 53. 4d., and pro- what cheaper. But the workmen they employ are luce 121. 88. 10d. + The wages paid by the Demerara Railway Company also Africans, and, moreover, slaves. P to October last were seven dollars and a half per
Exeter Hall must surely inquire with some veek to laborers working nine hours per day, and at that price labor was scarce.
interest how those people fare. We will endeavor
to show them. We fortunately have at hand a notice it. These had been imported within the last witness whose testimony must be satisfactory to few months. The whole island is in favor of conall parties—he is no rabid abolitionist like Turn- tinuing the trade, and, consequently no one inter
feres. It is usual to give the captain-general a bull-he is no ruined planter like Jacob Omnium. doubloon for every negro landed in Cuba.” We have selected for the scene of our inquiry a
We colony belonging to a nation celebrated for their may therefore fairly assume that the various humanity to their slaves, and for our informant, an treaties which our most astute statesmen have from avowed admirer of the slave system and enemy of time to time concluded with the court of Spain are our country. This witness is an American phy- worth about as much as those entered into with sician, author of a well-written volume descriptive the Attah of Iddah, the Almanez of Footah-Jalof Cuba. He tells the world :
low, and the Sultan of Woolli, and no more; “ Although myself a native of a slave-holding
luckily they only cost money, not life. state, my early education was received in a foreign “When brought by the slaver, they are either land, where I imbibed prejudices against the institu- landed on the coast near the plantation, for which tion of slavery that have only been removed by a the living cargoes are purchased in advance, or are Jong observance of the habits of the negro, for sent overland to the Havana, where they are divided which the practice of my profession gave me ample into their different tribes, the value of which differs means. Compared with the manufacturing and according to their physical and mental capacities. mining classes of England, they labor less, and, so Thus, the Lucomees are fine athletic men, and, far as physical enjoyment goes, are better off. I when not worried by their overseers, excellent speak of those in Cuba; those in the United States laborers, surpassing in intelligence all the other are the happiest and best governed peasantry in the negroes. They are, however, bold and stubborn world.”—Notes, p. 263.
if injudiciously treated, and having been in their It will be at once conceded that this “ physician" country at the head of the warlike tribes, if already
arrived at manbood when brought from the coast, is no longer under the prejudices of the puling are most disposed to resist undue oppression from philanthropist ; indeed, he admits in the same page their masters. They are very prone to commit suihis approval of “the lash, the stocks, and the cide, believing, with all Africans, that after death chain for the inveterate runaway.”
they shall be re-transported to their native country. It appears that he at first experienced some
One of my friends, who had purchased eight newly interruption in his free progress from the lieuten-chastise slightly one of them. The punishment of
arrived from the coast, found occasion soon after to ant-governor of Guines, a small town about forty the whip is applied to the delinquent lying on his miles from the Havana, with which it is connected face; and when he was ordered io place himself in by a railroad, in consequence of his being supposed that position the other seven lay down with him, to be a member of a nation whose name had hith- and insisted on being also punished. I continue erto been synonymous with hostility to slavery. the narrative in the words of my friend, although I As soon, however, as he had satisfactorily purged cannot give his graphic description of the scene that himself from the foul stigma of being an English- breakfast
, and I had not long been seated to that
ensued. The boy was punished,' he said, before man,
and all doubts of his American citizenship meal when the contra-mayoral (a negro overseer) had been removed, he was “courteously treated,” came to the door and advised me to go to the and during two winters wandered about the island, negroes, for they were greatly excited, and were enjoying its beautiful climate-to which Ameri- singing and dancing. I immediately seized my pis can invalids resort as ours do to Madeira-living tols, and, getting my horse, rode with him to the chiefly among the coffee and sugar estates, and spot. The eight negroes, each one with a rope compiling the agreeable and instructive volume directions in search of trees on which to hang them
round his neck, on seeing us, scattered in different from which we purpose to enlighten our readers selves. Assisted by the other slaves, we made all as to the past and present condition of the Cuban haste to secure them, but two succeeded in killing slaves.
themselves; the rest, having been cut down before It seems that the surveillance of our cruisers life was extinct, recovered. The captain of partido only tends to enhance the prime cost of “bozal” was summoned to hold his inquest over the dead negroes, as those freshly imported are called, and bodies, which he examined minutely to see if the in no degree checks the supply when the price of nately for me, there was not a single one, or I
marks of the whip could be discovered, but, forteproduce is sufficiently high, as it has been and will should have had to pay a heavy bill. The rest recontinue to be since the last alteration in the sugar fused to work; and I asked the captain, if I punduties, to enable the planter to pay a remunerating ished them, and they committed suicide, would I price for the article. The “Physician,” (p. 254,) be chargeable ? He answered that I certainly with reference to this traffic, observes :
would be if he found the smallest sign of injury or
the bodies. My neighbors then offered to take “In 1841, 300 slaves were openly carried on the each one home, but they would not consent to be deck of a steamboat from Havana to Matanzas; separated, and I was quite at a loss what to do. their owner, an Italian, was my fellow-passenger, when I determined to run the risk of the law, and and I learned that he had made 800,000 dollars by punished all the six. They went to work immedithe trade, and intended to continue it until he had ately; they are now in the gang, and are the best accumulated a million. In the spring of 1843, behaved of all my negroes.'” 2000 were congregated in and near Havana for sale, or had been sold at its marts, and much anx- The cool, deliberate, unconscious brutality of iety was felt by the slavers lest the English should this story we have seldom seen equalled. All the
officers of the government in Cuba are Spaniards | ple of a milder treatment of the negro by foreign from the old country: and the anxiety of the residents in Cuba, the annual loss by death was captain of partido, or police magistrate, to ascer
fully 10 per cent., including, however, new slaves, tain whether the negroes had died from punish- many of whom died from change of climate. *
On some plantations on the south side of the island, ment, proceeded from a habit which they have of the custom still prevails of excluding all female slaves; making every infringement of the laws an oppor- and even on those where the two sexes are well protunity for exacting money from the Cuban proprie- portioned, they do not increase. On a sugar estate tors, and from no desire of protecting the slaves. employing two hundred slaves, I have seen only
three or four children. That this arises from mis“ The chief object in Cuba seems to be never to management, is proved by the rapid increase on a let them remain idle; and I have excited the aston- few estates where the negroes are well cared for. ishment of many a creole by stating the quantity of The Saratoga sugar estate, which, with the Carleisure our slaves enjoy after their daily tasks are lotta, belongs to a highly-intelligent merchant of over; they could not believe they would remain Havana, is noted for the great number of children disciplined. Nor was their astonishment lessened, born on it, while several coffee estates, where the when I told them that in my native state, South Car- slaves are deprived of sufficient rest, are also unproolina, some planters paid missionaries to preach to ductive.”—p. 153.* their slaves, and even sometimes exhorted them them
* During the winter, when the labor is very great, selves in the absence of clergymen! The laws in many of the slaves abscond, and lead a roving life in Cuba regulating slavery are, however, very liberal the woods. They are often very formidable to those to the slave. Thus by them every owner is bound who, with bloodhounds, make it a business to ferret to instruct his slaves in the principles of the Cath- them out of their retreats.”—p. 262. olic religion after the labor of the day has been finished, to the end that they may be baptized and par
The American doctor's account of these dogs take of the sacrament.”
will be read with much interest by zoologists, and The “Physician” remarks, however, that none ex-philanthropic members of the Society of Friends, of the said laws are ever observed, save those who are reconciling themselves to slave-grown pro
duce :relating to baptism and burial.
We will now accompany him to a cafetal, or “ The celebrated bloodhound is a peculiar breed coffee estate, and hear what he says of its propri- of dogs, somewhat of the build of the mastiff, with
a longer nose and legs. He is naturally exceedingly
fierce and dangerous, but owes all his habit of trac“He does not amass as large a fortune as the ing the runaway slave to education. When nearly sugar-planter, but he witnesses no over-tasked labor grown he is chained, and a negro is sent daily to of his slaves. Well fed, with sufficient time al- worry him by whippings and other means, not lowed them for rest, and the care of their own live enough, however, to frighten him, the dog being stock of fowls and hogs, compared with the desti- permitted occasionally to bite at the negro. After tute of even our own northern states, they are hap- a long training, and when the dog has acquired a pier, and many are enabled to save enough money perfect hatred of his tormenter, the latter whips him to purchase their freedom, which is not unfre- severely, and then runs a considerable distance and quently done."-p. 144.
climbs a tree. The dog is now let loose, and fol
lows his track; nor will be leave the tree till the The “ Physician” then describes the hours of negro descends. I have cause to believe that much Jabor, merely from 14 to 15 hours per diem at very cruelty is practised on the human victim. One well light work, and how the gang, of whom 80 were taught, on smelling the clothes of the runaway slave, men and 40 women, were comfortably locked up will trace him for miles through fields and forests, together in their barracoon at night; he adds silently pursuing the chase until he sees it. The “No attention is paid to the matrimonial compact, made a business by some persons, who thus gain
training them, and pursuing absconded slaves, is some being polygamists, and others making mutual their livelihood.”—p. 312. exchanges of their wives when tired of them"like English noblemen in French melodrames.
The “Physician" is no friend to the English, Jacob Omnium's account of these proceedings proving clearly—in his own opinion at least—that rather shocked us at first ; but after having made all their exertions and pretended sacrifices in the ourselves acquainted with the social state of Sierra cause of abolition have entirely proceeded from
He also maintains that Leone, we suppose we were over-squeamish, and motives of self-interest. that it is all right. The male negroes are more
we have an eye to the occupation of Cuba ; and over hired out during the sugar-crop to the Inge
as he is generous enough to concede to us the nios—whither we shall follow them, that the merit of being excellent “keepers”—citing Gibralsensitive British public may clearly understand on tar and Malta—he sensibly enough proposes that what terms they are (for a time) to enjoy cheap his own countrymen should thwart our designs by
laying hold of it first. sugar :
In a brief appendix he adds, that since he first “A sugar plantation, during the manufacture of sugar, presents a picture not only of active industry * Advertisements similar to the following appear daily but of unremitting labor. The oxen are reduced in the Havana newspapers;—“Se vende una negra criolla, towards the end of the season to mere skeletons, parida de 15 dias con su cria, o sin ella, con muy buena y many of them dying from over-labor.
The negroes circumstancias y por haber estado dedicada a manejar are allowed but five hours' sleep. * Before niños ; muy ligera en el servicio a la mano--sana y sin the introduction of the steam-engine, and the exam-tachas en $ 450.- Calle de Villegas, No. 202."