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Westminster Review, 2. The Princess, By Tennyson,
Examiner, 3. French Frigate « Psyche"-A new Shell, London Paper, 4. Mrs. Shelley, By Geo. Gilfillan,
Tait's Magazine, 5. School of Industry for Thugs,
Chambers Journal, 6. Last Years of Frederick the Great,
Quarterly Review, 7. Fugitive, Perishing, Mormons,
Col. T. L. Kane, 8. Gen. Taylor,
Journal of Commerce, 9. Plates of Boydell's Shakspeare,
N. Y. Com. Advertiser, 10. Switzerland and Italy,
Spectator, 11. From our own Correspondent at Paris,
For the Living Age, POETRY.—The Greek Slave, 440.
433 441 445 446 450 453 470 471 472 474 475
PROSPECTUS.—This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ourtwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were ex- through a rapid process of change, to some new state of cluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.
and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shal systematically and very ully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackroood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreiga criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery ; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement—10 Statesmen, Divines, Law. the sparkling Examiner, the judicious Athencum, the yers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that tian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, Nero Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsoorth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mug: day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our digvity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnoring the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies.
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WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared 10 me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind ia the utmost expansion of the present age.
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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 200.- 11 MARCH, 1848.
From the British Quarterly Review. and oppression, and famine—ay, and pestilence1. Medical History of the Expedition to the Niger. are as rife as amongst the rocks of Patagonia or in
By JAMES ÓRMISTON MWILLIAM, M. D., the delta of the Niger ; and if any there be amongst
London. 1843. 2. Is Cheap Sugar the Triumph of Free Trade ? A who are stimulated in their career of benevolence
letter to the Right Honorable Lord John Rus- rather by the thirst of fame than the pure love of
sell. By JACOB Omnium. London. 1847. humanity, we believe we may assure them that 3. Notes on Cuba. By a Physician. Boston, U.S. most people will honor them more for one personal 1844.
effort made on behalf of distress abroad-or even The late Sir Fowell Buxton's confessions re- at home-than for all the vicarious gallantry of specting the utter failure of the proceedings of which there have been from time to time such " The Friends of the African" did more credit to dazzling displays in the Strand. The most generthe candor of that gentleman than to the ability ous disregard of other men's lives and other men's and discretion of the party of which he was the interests is a claim to celebrity which, we fear, acknowledged head. In the year 1840 he frankly will always be open to question. admitted that England, after having spent at their
Before the slave-trade was declared illegal, the instigation, and under their guidance, upwards of average mortality amongst the negroes during the 15,000,0001. in her efforts to suppress the slave- middle passage was computed to be 9 per cent. trade, after having thereby seriously compromised Mr. Buxton admitted, in 1840, that the courses her friendly relations with the powers whose sub-adopted by himself and his party had increased that jects were engaged in that nefarious traffic, and ratio of deaths to 25 per cent. Slave speculators, having consigned to premature grave thousands in consequence of the augmented chances of purof her bravest sons in the performance of their suit and capture, found it their interest to carry on professional duties on the shores of Africa, had but their trade in sharper and flimsier craft, fast sailers, succeeded in aggravating the sufferings of the un- run up at little cost. They likewise considered it happy beings whom she sought to relieve. advantageous to crowd them to an incredible degree
It is not our purpose in the present paper “to with slaves, in order that one rapid and fortunate saturate the public mind with the horrors of the passage might remunerate them amply for previous slave-trade."*
We merely wish to lay before the losses by mortality and confiscation.* But no one self-elected champions of the negro a brief résumé could describe the failure of all that had been atof what they have effected on behalf of their wards, tempted, with a view of putting down this traffic leaving to their own discernment, and to that of prior to 1840, more forcibly than Mr. Buxton has the puol:0, to decide whether it will not be better himself done :that the surt of imperium in imperio—the Exeter " Millions of money and multitudes of lives have Hall influence which has up to the present day been sacrificed, and in return for all we have only pervaded the colonial counsels in Downing street- the afflicting conviction that the slave-trade is as far should cease ; that the duty of defending the weak as ever from being suppressed : nay, I am afraid and of redressing the oppressed should in future that the fact is not to be disputed, that while we devolve on the governors, clergy, and other official it has actually doubled in amount.”—The Slave
have thus been endeavoring to extinguish the traffic, servants of the colonies where such interference is
Trade, p. 171. required; and that every individual sheltered under the British flag, be he white, brown, red, black, or In the year 1791 the colony of Sierra Leone copper-colored, should henceforward be permitted was established under the same auspices, as a nuto lapse under the protection of practical govern- cleus whence the blessings of Christianity and agriment and common sense.
culture were to extend their ramifications over In making this suggestion, we by no means de- benighted Africa. Its motto was, “ The Bible and sire that any philanthropic body, instituted for the the Plough." Officials of every grade were examelioration of the physical or moral condition of ported fresh and fresh from England (for they died mankind, should be thrown out of work at this in very rapidly) at the expense of the government. clement season of the year. We could easily point Clergymen, schoolmasters, and missionaries, simout to them parishes in England where missionaries ple and enthusiastic men, were urged to resort are quite as much wanted as in the most unenlight- thither in abundance by sleek and voluble agitators ened group of the Cannibal Islands ; we could at home, who, saying nothing of the dangers they show them, within two days' post of London—(for we have had enough of the capital itself in a pre- of a Cowes pilot-boat,) with 297 souls on board-of the
* The captures of the Jesus Maria, of 35 tons, (the size ceding article)—whole districts where ignorance Si, of 89 tons, with 400 souls—of the Vincedora, of 16 tons, felt no call to share, announced the colony as a African population was to be attributed rather to sort of moral model farm, whose success was al- the docile and imitative disposition of that race than ready guaranteed by the energy and piety of the to any efforts made on their behalf by Europeans." powerful body that supported its interests in Eng- Wages were from 3d. to 4d. a day, and but scanty land.
and 71 souls-(Buxton)-attest too clearly the cause of * Buxton.
the increased proportion of deaths. 31
employment was to be obtained even at that low rate. The evidence given by Colonel H. D. Campbell, Capital was stated to be unknown in Sierra Leone. one of the few governors who had the good luck Money payments were rare-muskets, check-shirts, to return alive, by Dr. Madden, the government and ram having supplanted £.s. d. in the currency commissioner, who visited the colony in 1840, and of the pattern colony. by other witnesses before the parliamentary com- Its statistics, in a commercial point of view, mittee of 1842, enables us to judge with much were all in keeping. In the various florid descripaccuracy of the success with which the Friends of tions put forward by its patrons, much stress was the African have discharged the important trust generally laid on the obvious truism that all the of which they have so confidently monopolized the plants and fruits which are indigenous to a tropical duties, and which cost the mother country nearly country could be successfully cultivated there ; and 100,0001. a year. Up to that date more than as these vegetable productions are looked upon as 60,000 settlers had at various times been poured rarities in our climate, and are only to be met with into Sierra Leone. These Africans, so prolific in the forcing-houses of the rich, these commonelsewhere, instead of multiplying, diminished in place statements tended to give an undue impornumbers—the actual population being estimated at tance to the settlement, in a commercial point of 40,000; of whom 80 were Europeans—of these view, in the minds of the ignorant and the sanbut six were women. White children born in the guine. In 1842, the industry, or rather indolence, colony invariably died. Insurance offices charged of 40,000 settlers, all either agriculturists or idlers, an additional 25 per cent. on persons about to pro- raised produce for exportation to the value of ceed thither. Colonel Campbell, on reaching the 45771.-something under 2s. 6d. per head per seat of his government, which he had been in- annum for each individual. Coffee to the amount structed was
a great annoyance to the colonial of 201. was exported in 1836 : rum, tobacco, and office, in consequence of the abuses and vile sys- sugar were amongst the imports. For fourteen tem there," describes a social state which we be- years no progress had been made in production ; lieve has not been equalled by that of any other and this in a country whose advances in civilization tropical colony in the worst days of slavery. He were, according to the manifestos of the Strand, found “ the colonial chaplain totally ignorant of the unimpeded by the avarice and cruelty of speculastate of religion and education," whilst Mahomedantion, or the cold-blooded selfishness of trademissionaries were making such numerous proselytes where the soil and climate were originally stated that the white Christians thought fit to check the to be “admirably suited for every species of tropiprogress of that persuasion by destroying their cal cultivation,”—and where labor was abundant mosques. The best British subjects were the at 4d. a-day. Kroomen-a race of muscular, good-tempered, la- Such was the condition of Sierra Leone, estabborious fellows—but stone-deaf in heathendom, lished and conducted under the special surveillance ardent devil-worshippers, and, says the Rev. J. of the friends of the African, after nearly half a Schön, "fearfully'' addicted to polygamy. The century of their fostering care-such was "the liberated Africans, when turned loose in the colony, glimmer of civilization,” which these doers of found themselves in such a destitute condition that good by deputy had succeeded in shedding over Colonel Campbell, on subsequently visiting the in- the country of their adoption—such their practical terior, recognized many of his former subjects, who adaptation of the Bible and the plough. Although had returned into voluntary slavery in order to in- it is a matter of surprise to us that these persons sure a subsistence. The children landed from themselves were not utterly disheartened by the slavers were apprenticed out to other negroes—deadly failures of their experiments, it is a matter “as uncivilized as the children they obtained”- of far greater that the English nation was not dismany of whom themselves had not been a year in gusted and undeceived by their proved incapacity, the colony-and were carried off into the bush, and that a ministry and a people could be found where they lived in a state of nature. The young willing to endure any longer such murderous girls were intrusted to negro-women in the town, child's-play for men's lives and fortunes. who grew rich on the wages of their prostitution. The expedition of Macgregor Laird up the In the gaol Colonel Campbell found men, women, Niger in 1836 had demonstrated that that river children, lunatics, debtors, tried and untried crim- was navigable for small steamers to a considerable inals, guilty and innocent, huddled together night distance from its mouth. The Liverpool merand day, without distinction of sex, age, or crime.* chants with whom it had originated-persons of He described the European population, small as it known capacity and humanity—were experienced was, as most degraded and immoral ; and declared, in the trade and climate of the coast ; moreover, " that what little had been done in civilizing the the principal shareholder in that daring adventure
accompanied and directed it himself. Their object * Jacob Omnium's description of a Cuban harracoon is was to ascertain the practicability of ascending the paralleled, if not surpassed, by the model prison of Free
Niger in steamers, to verify the tales rise amongst
che natives on the coast of the greater salubrity of large white crews of the steamers thus dispatched the interior, and of the abundance of ivory, gold- up the Niger at the very season described by Mr. dust, and indigo procurable there ; and to establish, Buxton himself—(Slave Trade, p. 200)—as most if the scheme appeared on examination to afford fatal to human life. Their remonstrances were promise of success, a trading settlement at the con- unheeded as those of interested meddlers ; the little fuence of the Niger and the Tchadda. Lieutenant fleet crossed the Atlantic without accident; and Allen, R. N., accompanied Mr. Laird as passen- having taken on board at Sierra Leone a sufficient ger, with a view of making a survey of the river; number of Kroomen, on the 13th of August, 1841, but the enterprise received no aid or notice what the Amelia schooner and the Albert and Soudan ever from the friends of the African or the English steamers rolled in heavily over the bar of the Nun government. Its sad results are well known. mouth of the Niger—were followed on the 15th by The two steamers Quorra and Alburkah penetrated the Wilberforce—and began the journey“ so much up the Niger as far as Rabbah ; the mercantile dreaded by the people."-(Duncan.) part of the speculation wholly failed ; and but One hundred and forty-five white men, and one eight men out of forty-eight—amongst whom hundred and fifty-eight blacks—thirty-three of Messrs. Laird and Oldfield, and Lieutenant Allen, whom were destined to be permanently located on were luckily included-survived to tell the tale. a certain model farm, the materials of which were
Yet when, in 1840, with such appalling experi- stowed in the hold of the Amelia-composed the ence to deter him, Mr. Buxton, undismayed by the crews of the devoted vessels, which were comevil which he had already wrought, declared that manded by Captains Trotter, Bird Allen, and W. he had hit upon a new remedy for the slave-trade Allen, R. N. Their objects appear to have been -when, averting his eyes from the almost incredi- to penetrate up the river as far as Rabbah, ble misery, idleness, and debauchery which per- establishing new commercial relations with those vaded every corner of what had been formerly his African chiefs or powers within whose dominions pet land of promise, Sierra Leone, he issued, in the internal slave-trade of Africa is carried on, and the name of a “New Society for effecting the the external slave-trade supplied with its victims ; extinction of the slave-trade, and for promoting the the bases of which conventions were to be-first, the civilization of Africa,” his proposals that similar abandonment and absolute prohibition of the sla"eestablishments should be tried on a greater scale ; trade-and, secondly, the admission for consumpthat efforts should be made to “cultivate districts tion in this country, on favorable terms, of goods of Africa selected for that purpose, in order that the produce and manufacture of the territories subher inhabitants might be convinced of the capabil-ject to them.”—(Lord J. Russell's Letter.) They ities of her soil, and witness what wonders might were further to select a spot, “healthy, for be accomplished by their own labor, when set in Africa,” (Buxton,) on which to locate the thirtymotion by our capital and guided by our skill”- three poor wretches who had been persuaded to (The remedy, p. 336)—when, in 1840, Mr. Bux- remain and conduct the model farm which was ton ventured on this new appeal, England, sensi- “ to promote cultivation, advance civilization, difble, practical England, responded eagerly to his fuse morality, and induce attention to a pure system invitation. Lord John Russell disdained to reflect of religion throughout that quarter of the globe.”' on the fatal fatuity which had hitherto characterized It is not easy to divine by what train of reasoning the undertakings of this party : he did not stoop to Mr. Buxton had persuaded Lord John Russell that consider the state of the pattern colony which had the idolatrous, polygamic, and rum-bibbing homibeen specially committed to their charge ; and cides, whom he dignifies with the titles of "the again were the elders of Exeter Hall permitted to Sultans and Kings of Central Africa,” were likely sport with the resources of the country and the to observe, any longer than was agreeable and lives of braver if not better men than themselves. profitable to them, treaties which Lord Palmerston
Never did any previous expedition create such had over and over again pronounced, and which it a sensation as that which was prepared in 1841 for was notorious had proved, to be no better than the civilization of Africa—magnum opus ! Ample waste paper when employed to restrain the princes funds were voted by parliament, in compliance of Christian Europe from the same detestable with the wishes of the prime minister, for its outfit commerce. and maintenance ; three iron steamers were built The history of the business is a short one. The expressly for the service; the flower of the British sources from which we shall condense our sketch navy volunteered for the grand undertaking—the of it are “ The Medical History of the Niger Exofficers attracted by the certainty of promotion and pedition,” by Dr. M’William, and a brief account renown, the men by the prospect of danger and lately published in Bentley's Miscellany, by Dun
can, the African traveller, who officiated as masterIn vain did Macgregor Laird, Jamieson, and at-arms on board the Albert. On the 15th of other such men, endeavor to expose the absurdity August, two days after they entered the Nun, the and the impolicy of the attempt; the injury which river-fever struck its first victim. William Bach, it would inflict upon the increasing legitimate the mathematical instrument maker, died. commerce of Africa with England; and the inevi- “By the 4th of September, sickness of a most table mortality which awaited the unnecessarily malignant character broke out in the Albert, and
almost simultaneously in the other vessels, and of the “ Sultans of Central Africa," with whom abated not until the whole expedition was par- anti-slavery treaties were to be concluded, was alyzed."-M William.
visited for that purpose by Capt. Trotter.* ArOn the 10th of September the four vessels rangements had been previously made for drawing reached the locality sagaciously pointed out for up the compact between his majesty and Queen the establishment of the model farm. In “The Victoria ; all his ministers and judges were sumRemedy'' (written after the results of Laird's as- moned to attend, as also the commissioners of the cent haa been published) these words were actually African Society and the officers of the ships comput forth :-"Where the confluence of the Tchadda posing the expedition. Suitable presents having with the Niger takes place is the spot to erect the been selected, the representatives of her majesty capital of our great African cstablishments. A went ashore, and mounted six ponies belonging to city built there, under the protecting wings of Great his majesty. Mr. Duncan, master-at-arms of the Britain, would ere long become the capital of Af- Albert, attired as a full private of the Life Guards, rica. Fifty millions of people, yea, even a greater to which regiment he had formerly belonged, and number, would be dependent on it." (p. 355.) This carrying a union-jack, headed the procession. chosen scene had now been reached. On the 11th They entered the “ imperial tent” by a hole about they conimenced discharging their “farm-house three and a half feet high, which the ex-lifefurniture, carts, ploughs, and harrows, and all guardsman observes “was very awkward for 3 sorts of farming implements.” The place they man of six feet three inches, with cuirass and helselected had been a large town about two years met, particularly with a boarding-pike and flag atbefore, but this had been destroyed by a hostile tached to it.” Here they found the sultan squatted tribe, the Felatahs. The high rank grass cov- jon a bench, looking very stern, surrounded by his ered the streets, the ruins of the huts, and the court, and dressed “much," says Duncan, "like gardens. At every step a reptile of some sort the Guy Fawkes' effigies in London on the fifth was trodden on. After remaining on this eligible of November. He, however, readily accepted the site for two days, during which time they buried presents-promised everything they asked, on cona man named Powell, they discovered that it was dition that they should aid him in his squabbles not as well calculated for their settlement as they with the neighboring kings and sultans of Central at first supposed, and therefore, to their great mor- Africa-ceded a portion of his territory to his sistification, they were compelled to reëmbark all ter the Queen of England—and was very anxious their stores. One mile higher they again landed that Mr. Duncan should exchange his helmet for 'neir farming paraphernalia, including “ the famous a damaged elephant's tooth. His ministers evinced Eglintoun tournament-tent as a temporary residence great delight at being presented with some red for the farmer and his servants.” But here again nightcaps, spectacles, and needles ; and darkness death began to make rapid strides :
coming on before the completion of this interna
tional treaty—(only second in importance and util“We lost,” says Mr. Duncan,“ in the Albert ity to that which Lord John Russell has lately had alone 7 men in one week, and had 18 sick. We the good fortune to conclude with the Republic of remained here until the 19th ; during this period, men were falling ill almost every hour, consequently the Equator)—it was signed and sealed by the it was determined that all the sick should be placed light of a bit of calabash saturated with palm-oil
, in one vessel, the Soudan, and sent down the river blazing in a British frying-pan, which the King of 10 Ascencion, although it was very clear that most Iddah was in the habit of using as a candelabrum. of them would be consigned to the deep long ere That monarch never spoke during the interview, they reached that place. The lamentable and aw- but merely from time to time nodded his woolly ful spectacle can scarcely be imagined,
head.t Sunday the 19th, all the sick, or at least those not expected to recover, from all three ships, were
On such fool's errands as these were gallant crammed on board the Soudan, with very indiffer- men despatched to certain death, in the nineteenth ent accommodation, nearly all being on deck like century, by the friends of the African and the cattle.
government of England. “ We had still seven men sick, after sending four- The Albert hurried on her desperate attempt to teen on board the Soudan ; out of 21 white men, reach Rabbah. On the 22nd Capt. Bird Allen the crew of the Soudan, 19 were dangerously ill. and Messrs. Fairholme and Webb, mates, sickThe sick from the three vessels amounted to 40, a great number out of 75 men.
It was arranged for ened.
On Sundays they lay at anchor all day, the Albert and Wilberforce to proceed up the river
“doing nothing but attending divine service,"the following day, but unfortunately on the afternoon of the 19th and morning of the 20th a great * Under the head of "Facilities for making Treaties," number of the remaining officers and men fell sick. Mr. Buxton informed the public, on the authority of Gor In fact we had scarcely a sufficient number out of ernor Rendall, that thirty-nine kings, including the Al
manez of Footah-Jallow and the Sultan of Woolli, had hoth vessels left to take one steamer up the river ; consented to abolish the slave-trade, in consideration of consequently it was arranged that the Wilberforce a yearly subsidy of 3001., or about 71. 138. 10d, a piece. should follow the Soudan, and the Albert proceed + “The treaty made with the Attah of Iddah has been up the river."
ratified by government, except that her majesty declines
the sovereignty of any territory in Central Africa, or the During the ascent from the mouth of the Nun proprietary interest in any land agreed by the Atlah to be
ceded to her majesty."--Proceedings of the African Cir. to the model farm station, the King of Iddah, one (ilization Society.