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ger of some day provoking an explosion of opinion CORRESPONDENCE OF THE LIVING AGE. that might be politically fatal to him.
Paris, 26th Jan., 1848. If Lord Palmerston were openly asserting a ROYAL speeches are either wholly unmeaning practical, firm, and generous policy in Italy, it or negatively significant; real ideas and aims are would be impossible for M. Guizot to make a sacri- sought in the arrière-pensées—the mental reservafice of Italy as a peace-offering to Austria. But tions, and the omission of particular topics. Preswe remain in the dark about Lord Palmerston's ident Polk's message is admired here for the noble course in Italy. It may be good ; it would be and happy reverse ; for its frankness, boldness and better if it were open. It is said that diplomatists plenitude; the Steward of the Union exhibits an preserve secrecy to avoid international irritations : ample, faithful, circumstantial view of its conwe do not observe that they do avoid irritations. cerns; he conceals none of his own opinions and The demeanor which disarms irritation is that transactions ; domestic interests and foreign policy which is ingenuous, courteous, and just. Such a are treated without the least reserve or artifice. demeanor is free from the opprobrium of secret It becomes, says one of the Paris editors, the chief diplomacy—that it enables the public servants to of such a republic to hold a round, peremptory lanplunge a country in a scrape before a danger is guage ; to dissemble and mince nothing, whether
But, in the present case, openness would he be right or wrong in fact or in the judgment be the more valuable, inasmuch as it would enlist of an opposition. The message has fallen, mason the right side that immense engine in France, sively, on the heads of the enemies of democracy ; public opinion.
it is, indeed, too comprehensive and copious for In the review of all these diverse fields of diplo- their anxious mood; the details for a general picmatic conflict, one fact comes out strongly—that ture too magnificent in contrast with the past, presM. Guizot is sacrificing national interests and dig-ent, and future, of the kingdoms of the old world. nity, and his own reputation as a critical statesman, We should be glad to see the American messages to the official objects of his ministry and the family lengthened by a compend of the religious, moral, intrigues of King Louis Philippe. Of Lord Pal-educational, scientific and literary statistics, of inerston nothing so positive can be predicated : it which we know less than of the political and conInight be inferred from his devious and zig-zag mercial. course, that he is not seriously bent on vindicating The British steam-packets from Vera Cruz bring any one principle—that he does not feel a grave to England atrocious stories and malignant caluminterest in the material welfare of any nation ; but nies against the American occupants of Mexico ; that he is at his old game of verbal antagonism- yet we may suppose that they experience all facilwriting for victory over M. Guizot.—Spectator, ities—the most liberal treatment-for which they 22 Jan.
make a characteristic return.
In their reports,
and in the articles of the London press, the epithet The committee of the states of the Prussian diet, Yankee is now constantly employed in the most at its sitting of the 20th Jan., on the Penal Code, opprobrious sense. It is impossible that any spirit declared in favor of the maintenance of the punish- of hostility and despite should be more venomous, ment of death, by a majority of 63 to 34.
virulent, and alert, than that of the London Times
to American institutions and affairs of whatever The French minister of commerce has just cre- description ; yet, that malignant and indefatigable ated a special commission of physicians, charged foe has a correspondent at New York, an American to give ils opinion on questions affecting the public citizen, under the signature “A Genevese Travhealth, on the measures to be taken against the eller," who industriously feeds its venom and stiminvasion of the cholera, and on the organization of ulates its vein. The supply of the materiel of the quarantine régime against the plague. war-giving aid and comfort-deserting-to an
The Moniteur publishes a detailed account of enemy in arms is treason, punishable with death, the imports and exports of France during 1845, but is not worse than the coöperation just men1846 and 1847. The month of December, 1847, tioned; it may, on the whole, be more injurious. presents a diminution in the revenue from this It deserves heavier reprobation than the party insource of more than 2,000,000fr. as compared with vectives at home, of which the London assailants the same month in 1845 and 1846. Upon the avail themselves, although that indirect aid be whole of the year 1847, there is a deficit of nearly often given in a reckless way and from impulses 20,000,000fr. comparatively with 1846. The re
unconnected with domestic patriotism. port in the Moniteur upon the commercial naviga
The French quidnuncs are amused with the tion of France is also unfavorable. While the intelligence that Mr. Doyle, the new British minnumber of French merchant vessels employed has ister, had arrived in the city of Mexico “under since 1846 been reduced by 518, those of foreign
the escort of a squadron of American cavalry." countries have been increased by 2,180.
This fact exemplifies the sapience of the British
and the French oracles that predicted a disastrous The monks of St. Bernard, having refused to retreat of the American forces from the enterprise pay the amount of the fine inflicted on them, (10,- of reaching the capital, and even their speedy ex000f.,) have abandoned the monastery, which has pulsion from the Mexican territory. We had, in been taken possession of by the soldiers of the diet. the Paris Constitutionnel, long, argumentative,
tactical essays to prove the inevitableness of that If the Swiss remain united and firm—remodelling result. The Americans have their Spain, in their system, and carrying out the welfare of the Mexico, quoth the Constitutionnel; the Union, confederation according to their judgment and consaith the London Times, has an Ireland in Mexico : science they will ultimately triumph over all this, if it were barely possible, or if there existed external combinations. The very resistance of the least parity of reasoning, might, indeed, prove the great powers to their project of a national and a huge consolation for American exploits, consid- federal polity akin to our Union, is proof that the ering what the Times represents Ireland to be for change is necessary for their proper strength and Great Britain. You will remark, in the number independence. Although the Swiss radicals may of the 22d inst., a long article on the creation of not be republicans in the American and true sense, a nobility for Canada, in order to render it a coun- still their purpose of shaking off the middle ages, try fit for a gentleman to inhabit, and to counteract discarding what remains of the Gothic régime, and the influences of American democracy. The knitting the cantons closely together by the same official reports of the British committee on the institutions and spirit, is manifestly just, salutary, state of education in Wales, of which abstracts are laudable. furnished in the Times and the Chronicle, demon- M. Alexis de Tocqueville (author of the work strate that the general condition and morals of the on American Democracy) has submitted to the Welsh are worse than can be those of any body Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, a of the American negro-slaves. We might, with pious and instructive report, in a book entitled confidence, submit the point to any intelligent Democracy in Switzerland, from the pen of CherBritish exploration in our slave-holding states, if buliez, the able professor of public law in the Acadan impartial, honest comparison and report could emy of Geneva. The reporter says,
" What be expected.
passes in Switzerland is not an isolated fact. It The Paris National, of the day before yesterday, is a particular movement in the midst of that gencomes forth with, “Great news—Good news! eral movement which impels to ruin the whole Insurrection triumphant in Sicily ;-the Austrian ancient edifice of the institutions of Europe." He Ferdinand, like he of Naples, has decided and denies that anything of real republicanism has ever declared by proclamation against the claims of his existed in Switzerland. His historical survey Italian subjects ;- let Venice and Milan follow the renders this opinion extremely plausible :-revoexample of Messina and Palermo.” The Sicilians lution, or revolt from the old order of government have no distinct idea of political reforms or consti- and society, aristocratic, theocratic, oligarchical, tutions, but they hate the Neapolitans and their military. Swiss liberty is new and inexperienced, rule: the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom has not and therefore subject to disorders and anomalies. been ill-governed, but the Austrian, or rather the for- Universal law and common rights have never been eign rule is detested. At Naples, the royal palace duly organized and secured. The judicial power and the dwellings of the ministers were under the -in democracies the barrier and the safeguard at protection of artillery ; the Swiss regiments in the the same time of the people that impartial and king's employ signified that they would not fight free power which interposes between all interests against the people. The opinion prevailed with and all other powers to recall them all to respect the monarchies that republicanism, or radicalism, and obedience to the law has always been depencould not be organized formidably in any part of dent on the suffrage of the mass, on the legislature, Europe ; the Swiss case shakes their confidence or on the executive. On the whole, there was and perplexes their machiavelism.
nowhere a real sovereignty of the people. CherThe distinguished family of the Viscount d’Ab- buliez argues that this priuciple can yield no better sac, descendants and heirs of Major General Baron institutions and results than the imperfect ones in de Kalb, who perished, gloriously, in our revolu- Switzerland. M. de Tocqueville proceeds to maintion, have placed in the hands of the United States tain that, elsewhere, it has been applied and consticonsul at Paris a fine portrait of their brave ances- tuted with more experience, skill and wisdom, with tor, to be presented to congress.
very different and far better effects, and he exhibits The kings of Wurtemberg and Bavaria chime as an example the state of New York, whose popuwith Austria against Swiss radicalism. His majesty lation is as large as all Switzerland. He then favorof Wurtemberg announces, in his speech to his ably expounds the political and judicial system of the chambers, that “storms are to be expected, for empire state, but does not appear to be acquainted which he will be prepared," and signalizes the prop with the new constitution. He thinks that the agandism of the German refugee radicals in Swit- Swiss compact, which the pentarchy would perzerland. It is proof of the influence of American petuate, is already changed in its essence and history in Europe that the people of Lombardy action, by the democratic advances and ascendancy; who desisted from and proscribed the consumption that it may, however, prove a difficult and proof tobacco, as a source of revenue to the Austrian longed task for the patriots to nationalize the cangovernment, did so expressly in imitation of the tons, but that the federal or general government tea case. The pope has recalled the nuncio who will be materially strengthened and grow into an abetted the Sonderbund and the Jesuits, and ad- active, diffusive, energetic authority for all Helvetia. dressed to the Swiss diet a sort of vindication and
See Galignani's Messenger of the 26th inst., protest, to which that body would make no reply. for an abstract of the highly important debate in the chamber of deputies, the day before, on the The French government has ordered one of its condition and prospects of the public finances of powerful steamers to repair instantly to the port France. M. Thiers enchained the attention of the of Naples, to receive the royal family, if they whole body, for two hours, by a wonderfully dex- should be too hard pressed by popular insurrection. terous exposition of the inordinacy of the budget British ships of war are stationed for the same and debts, and the nature and amount of the purpose. Royalty is to be sure of personal safety, deficits, threatening national bankruptcy ; new whatever may be its follies or excesses. Thus taxes impossible-reduction of the old, alike; both French and British public vessels always retrenchment out of the view, perhaps beyond the hovered on the coasts of Spain, during the civil faculty, of the ministers ; the country without any wars, to take off the vanquished of the parties regular financial resources for a serious and sudden supported by French or British favor or means. emergency
For the five years past, the French Academy of Ledru-Rollin, lately the leader of the republican Moral and Political Science has offered as a prizeparty, or extrème gauche, in the chamber of depu- question, The State of Pauperism in France, and ties, proposes a congress, to be held in Switzerland, the Means of remedying the Evil. Five dissertaof delegates from radicalism wherever it exists in tions or brochures have been presented. An able Europe. A Berlin article of the 21st, mentions committee has just been appointed to decide on the return of Baron Alexander von Humboldt to their merits. The details will equally astonish that capital, and his presence at a grand court and afflict those who suppose that the laboring ceremonial. He set out from Paris in the severest classes are in a prosperous condition. In several weather; he was every day at the library of the of the provincial cities favorably situated, the deaths Institute before nine o'clock, A. M., and remained for some years past have exceeded the births. In until late in the afternoon, busy with scientific and all of them large groups of aged paupers, and literary research; he partook of grand dinners, mendicants of both sexes and every age, are conappeared in the evening at court or in the minis- stantly to be seen, and when they " turn out” for terial or the fashionable salons, and sometimes in a customary general distribution of alms, or the the theatres, to enjoy a new comedy or opera ;- -funeral of a benefactor, the array is sufficient to all this with fourscore winters on his back; the appal an American traveller. This winter the physical man is a phenomenon, like the intellect- mortality in London is stated at five hundred and ual. He related to an American gentleman a fifty beyond the weekly average of the five years conversation between him and Mr. Jefferson, some previous; the deaths outnumbered the births. fifty or more years ago, in which the American On the 10th inst., in the Paris Academy of Sciphilosopher predicted the extension of the Ameri- ences, there was a curious report from a committee can republican system over all North America— consisting of Majendiè, Dumas and Andral, (great to the shores of the Pacific, and to the Isthmus of names,) on a memoir respecting the normal presPanama. Mr. Jefferson thought that a union ence of metals in human blood-silex, manganese, might still be maintained with three or four con
lead and copper.
The committee observe that gresses, (one in Mexico,) and an amphictyonic lead and copper, belong, like iron, to human organcouncil or tribunal for the whole. The baron ization and life ; legal medicine is concerned in the noticed the phrase, the halls of Montezuma, in presence of the two metallic poisons in the blood some of the American letters, with the remark of man, and their enormous variations in the midst that Montezuma never inhabited the palace to even of life : so is therapeutics, because it is to which the Americans referred.
be inferred that, from their deficiency or excess, The London Standard, true to its stipend from maladies result. The ether committee reported on the French government says: “We have heard Sedillot's experiments with chloroform and ether, that of the thirty-four millions of French, not one and had come, with him, to the conclusion that perished from want during the period of scarcity.” “the use of the former requires great care,
and Utterly untrue. Hundreds, or rather thousands, the observation of strict rules—that it is preferable perished in that way. The Paris papers of the in many respects to ether, but is infinitely more 25th, record seven deaths from starvation and dangerous in unskilful hands." cold ; men, women and children's corpses found in The thermometer has ranged in Paris, 27 Jan., lodgings scarcely fit for wild beasts. It is stated during the week, from 19 to 24 of Fahrenheit. that the number of persons in Paris in the last All the ponds of the realm are thoroughly frozen, degree of misery and destitution, is not less than and the large rivers (our Seine included) are covone hundred and ten thousand. The king, in his ered with heavy floating-ice. At the end of the replies to official addresses, boasts of the patience month, however, all severities and even appearand order of the French people in the midst of their ances of winter will, probably, have disappeared. sufferings from the scarcity. It is certain, how- It is in such weather as the present that dissipaever, that corn-riots occurred in every department tion is most active and general ; balls, public and —that many hundreds of rioters were arrested, im- private masquerades, dinners, concerts, &c. Those prisoned and sentenced that much blood was shed who would perambulate the boulevards at night, are in the conflicts with the soldiery—that the gov- driven by the cold into the theatres. On the mornernment was obliged to resort to extraordinary ing of the 26th, at 8 o'clock, a murderer was guilmeasures of every kind.
lotined in the Faubourg St. Jacques. A host of
It is sup
spectators, chiefly women, were in eager waiting. to be critically circumstanced, for the purpose of The frost delayed the action of the guillotine. propping them from his exchequer. A deputy Every one could see that the wretch, a small man read extracts from a pamphlet issued from the of about 46, was dead before it fell ; fear, or the finance-department, wherein it is argued that it icy north wind, had done the work of the execu- would be best, if it could be managed, to give the tioner.
government the monopoly of the sale of breadYesterday afternoon, 26th, the sitting of the stuffs ; and, indeed, of all kinds of food!“ You chamber of deputies lasted some five hours a wish,” continued the orator, to increase your continuation of the exciting and alarming debate army of public functionaries; you want inspectors on the finances. Thiers dwelt anew on the fic- and retailers of salt, like those of tobacco." The tions, deceptions, and enormities of the budget. Left cried, “ Yes, and controllers.” Another quarThe minister of finance defended the monster as ter, “ Yes, and supernumeraries." These are a well as he could; he is a ready, plausible and host. ingenious advocate : but he made some admissions On the 24th inst., Berryer, the eminent orator, as pregnant as the figures of the opposition. asked M. Guizot to submit to the chambers the Speaking of the reduction of the duty on salt, he documents of the British and French negotiation observed, “I do not believe it possible to find a with Rosas. The minister declined, on the ground minister rash enough to consent to expunge, at that the business which had been intermitted, owing this moment, fifty millions of francs from the re- to the dissent of the two European envoys, was to ceipts of the treasury.” The regular receipts are be resumed by fresh concert between their governfourteen hundred millions. Last year, sixty mil- ments, and with every hope of success. lions of capital were withdrawn from the chests of posed that M. Guizot has yielded to the British the savings funds throughout the kingdom. Be- plan, and that the French blockade will be raised fore, they yielded fifty millions to the treasury immediately on the arrival of the new negotiator. depot. The government has converted two hun- The chambers ought to have been enabled to judge dred millions into 3 per cent. stock, so that in case of the wisdom of the previous proceedings and of bankruptcy, the poorer classes would be robbed views of the cabinet. Lord Palmerston and M. of their deposits. Characteristic incidents enliv- Guizot can agree to act together on American ened the sitting. An indefinite congé was asked affairs, but not on European. Lord Palmerston for the late minister of finance, Lacave-Laplagne, must notice and resent, in some way or other, the who was eliminated from the cabinet as rather contumelies and charges heaped upon him in the squeamish. A fit of the gout was the plea for his chamber of peers, by the Count de Montalembert, request. In the course of the debate, M. Thiers with the clamorous approval of that usually staid observed that if M. Laplagne was present, he and discreet assembly. Never was one govemwould confirm certain statements of the opposition ; ment so outraged in the person of a leading minisbut, unfortunately, he was absent. Several mem- ter, by another, as the British by the French in bers cried, “He has the gout." Several others this instance. M. Guizot betrayed the utmost exclaimed, “The fit has come on very apropos.” satisfaction ; Count Molé cried, excellent ! and nearly It was understood that the ex-minister did not wish all the peers, not excepting the members of the to annoy his old colleagues by honest admissions. cabinet, and the Duke de Nemours, the future The new head of the treasury proposes to render regent, crowded about Lord Palmerston's vehethe sale of salt a government monopoly, like that ment accuser, to express their assent and admiraof tobacco, mainly an engine of electoral corruption. tion. M. Guizot pursued the game by reading to A deputy, Muret de Bozt, denouncing this virtual the chamber his lordship's despatch of 1832, on restoration of the famous gabelle, said, “Whence Swiss engagements and obligations, for the purdid you derive the elements of this singular bill ? pose of convicting him of extreme inconsistency. I find that it was from Germany. Formerly, we We learn this day, (27th,) that the reading of the were rather too British ; now we are a little too notes of Austria, Prussia, and France, to the diet German, without ceasing, however, to be good produced little sensation. A committee of nine is Englishmen. I will read you a passage from to answer them, and refute the imputations cast on English history. 'In 1784, a minister, Walpole, the cause and conduct of the Swiss radicals in the or Walpoule—I do not know how to pronounce French chamber of peers, The nute of Sir this name in French.'". A loud voice was instantly Stratford Canning, Lord Palmerston's organ, conheard, “In French, it is pronounced Guizot.” tains no positive threat, and is all honey and balm ; This witticism shook the sides of all the parties, yet, as the Journal des Débats has elaborately and relaxed even the muscles of the premier, so shown, it amounts to the same interference, looks often accused in the journals of having adopted the to the same end, as the others. Were I a Swiss Walpole policy. A speaker of authority men- patriot, I should be more suspicious of the counsels tioned that if the Emperor of Russia had not taken and blandishments of Lord Palmerston, than afraid the stock offered to him by the Bank of France, of the menaces and pretensions of the continental this institution must have been reduced to the last meddlers. There is no instance in history, of any extremity. You will see that the emperor caused real aid and protection afforded by the British govan inquiry to be made into the situation of some ernment to the struggles of freedom. What have large mercantile houses of St. Petersburg, believed Spain and Portugal become under its tutelary aus
pices. We may hope that the Swiss diet will can missionary, Mr. Lowrie, who was assassinated understand Sir S. Canning, and Italy my Lord in the environs of Chapou, that is beyond the Minto, the soft adviser or monitor of the reforming limits prescribed to foreigners by the treaties. governments and persevering liberals of the penin- The whole of the official correspondence indicates sula. The army of the king of Sardinia is aug- that the Celestials are sincere in the assurances mented to fifty thousand ; the Austrian force, to of their wish and resolve to maintain friendly one hundred thousand. Italy has more enlightened, and courteous relations with the Christian barbarireflecting men, ready to carry out her proper aims ans. The emperor was troubled with two rebelthan any other area of the continent with the same lions in distant provinces ; so much disquietude numbers, (twenty-two millions.) Mr. Cobden bore and commotion was occasioned by rumors of emphatic testimony to this fortunate circumstance his death that his ministers compelled him in a in one of his first speeches, on his return to Eng- manner to appear in public, to hold levees in his land from his grand tour. Our intelligence from palace, and so forth. Our Louis Philippe and his Sicily, by the way of Marseilles, is that, though cabinet are in the same predicament. The recepthe garrison of Palermo had been carried to thir- tions at the Tuileries have begun anew; no trace, teen thousand troops, the insurrection made pro- except the sable costume, is perceived of the death gress. The impetus of the Sicilians is hatred of of the royal sister, Madame Adelaide ; all the the Neapolitan rule.
strangers of quality in the capital, and the AmerAll of a sudden, the English have been seized icans not the least, are anxious for the period of with a panic about French invasion ; the journals presentation and court balls. of every description teem with warnings, calcula- Punic faith seems to have crossed the Meditions, horrors; the French editors exult, and are terranean. Ab-el-Kader is confined in a dreary sarcastic: “You ridiculed and pitied us for being fortress, and it remains doubtful whether the so earnest and prodigal in fortifying our capital, stipulations of the Duke d’Aumale and the French twice occupied by invaders since 1813; now, though commander, to whom ho surrendered on condition less exposed than we are, you are impatient—in of being transported without delay to St. Jean the utmost trepidation—for expensive defences d'Acre, or to Alexandria, will be regarded by this along all your coasts—reörganization and multi-government. The duke affirms, in his bulletin, plication of your forces—every possible expedient that the emir might have escaped into the desert. of alarm and danger.” It is suggested that the It is contended by some of the oracles of the British government has no apprehension of a con- press that the son of the king ought instantly to test with France—no dread of invasion as even resign his post of governor-general, if his royal possible—but foments or favors the panic as a pledge should be violated. On the other hand, pretext or occasion for additional military and naval the reason of state, the peril of exposing the preparation, in reference to a probable general con- French rule in Algeria to the return of the emir, vulsion in Europe. Cordier, a deputy and a learned is pronounced above all considerations of delicacy engineer of much experience and repute, has pub- and ordinary observance of engagements by govlished in the Gazette de France, of the 18th inst., ernors and commanders. We hear of a deportaan article of nearly four columns, in which he tion to Senegal. This would be worse than the labors to demonstrate the practicability of a French martyrdom of Napoleon at St. Helena. Abd-eldescent on England, and in particular on Ireland, Kader is a genuine hero, and deserves as much whose western coasts are defenceless, and whose sympathy and admiration as any champion of the inhabitants were so disaffected and desperate as independence and integrity of a race that ancient they are now and must remain. He counts on or modern annals recommend to those emotions. the purchase of a fleet of steamers in the United We shall be much disappointed in case he do not States to be navigated into French ports by Ameri- appear in Paris.
He draws a splendid outline of the facul- The Compte Rendu of the Academy of Moral ties, energies and tendencics of our Union. and Political Sciences for last month contains a me
An officer of the French African squadron, just moir, by Bonoiston de Chateauneuf, of sixty-five returned from the coast, relates a dreadful mor- curious and impressive pages, on the condition of tality in the thirty vessels ; he mentions that all women and young girls, confined in the prisons, or the officers have paid the tribute of the fever; he enlarged after undergoing their terins. Between considers the treaty made by the Duke de Broglie 1826 and 1816, nearly four millions of persons as a bad one for France-worse, indeed, than the were brought before the courts of justice ; of the old conventions. A ship has brought home three condemned, the sentences of more than one half hundred sick. To judge from the language of the did not exceed small fines and a few days' imprisLondon editors and their correspondents, the Brit-onment. Seven volumes of Historical and Miliish and French are both sick of the cruising plan itary Memoirs by the late Marshal Massena, are for the abolition of the slave trade.
in the press ; so, an extensive work on present We have information from China down to the Spain, by Duflot de Mofras. The author of the 28th Nov. last. The English and Chinese were Reign of Louis XV. is the Count de Tocqueville, settling their little quarrels by mutual concessions. father of M. Alexis de Tocqueville. The excelIt is mentioned that the authorities of the province lent book is ascribed, in the British and American of Che-Kiang had, after three months' indefati- reviews, to the distinguished son. gable pursuit, arrested the murderers of an Ameri