« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
to give a series of parties at the end of the season, bitter-I am touched to the heart by the testimony to compensate pleasure-hunters and tradesmen for of your sympathy, and at seeing the chamber so the loss of the fèles usual at this period. Before numerous around me.” The royal family then the funeral, prospective gayeties are promised, lest retired to the private apartments. the mercurial and inercenary should be dangerously The following biographical, sketch of Madame displeased, and loss of pleasure or profit swell the Adelaide is furnished chiefly by the Constutionguests at some reform banquet. In the midst of nelthe weeping, an eye is kept to business ; and the “Madame Adelaide, sister to the king of the unentombed king is paternally helping to establish French, was born in Paris, on the 23d of August, the future regent on a pleasant footing with the 1777; and was the daughter of Louis Philippe holiday-makers and retail dealers of his capital.- Joseph of Orleans, and Louis Marie Adelaide de Spectator, 8 Jan.
Bourbon Penthièvre. This princess, whose char
acter was ever remarkable for firmness and wit, The fears of Pius the Ninth's retrograde condi- has not figured officially in any political events ; Lion deepen ; still, we think, on insufficient evi- and yet her part has not been an unimportant one. dence. A coincidence, however, is noted between The king loses in her not only a most intelligent these reports, the arrival of Lord Minto in Rome, and devoted friend, but an invaluable adviser and a and the continued intercourse of that nobleman useful mediator. Madame de Genlis first superinwith the sovereign pontiff. Lord Lansdowne tended the early education of Princess Adelaide made an emphatic declaration, that his colleague and her twin sister, who died young. She inculhad gone to Italy for the purpose of moderating cated the ideas of Rousseau on education, which the counsels of the leaders in the movement: is it then prevailed ; and the politer arts were not forpossible Lord Minto can have been telling the pope gotten. The influence exercised by Madame de that he was going too far, and that even liberal Genlis over her pupil, and her brothers, excited England expected less of him than he was pre- the jealousy of their mother, the Duchess of Orpared to vouchsafe? Of course we can have no leans; who, after somewhat violent altercations, present answer to the question ; in the secret caused her to be dismissed. This was the cause operations of diplomacy, the mischief is all done of such profound grief on the part of the Princess before one knows anything about it. Lord Minto Adelaide, that her health suffered, and it became may truly represent his son-in-law, Lord John necessary to recall Madame de Genlis. This lady, Russell, or the gentlemen that frequent Lansdowne unwilling to submit to daily bickerings with the House ; he may ably negotiate the terms of an duchess, had the art to obtain permission to travel accredited intercourse ; but as a moderator of with her charge in England; and it was thus that counsels, we do not know what qualification he the princess first became separated from her possesses to represent the opinions of England.- mother. Spectator, 8 Jan.
“ The events of the revolution were destined,
however, to disturb the course of an existence which Death OF MAD. ADELAIDE.— The two cham- seemed out of the reach of all injuries of fortune. bers paid the king a visit of condolence. The Mademoiselle Adelaide was placed on the list of chancellor of France and the members of the emigrés. But her father, who was himself threatchamber of peers, in full costume, were received ened, soon obtained the revocation of the measure. in the hall of the throne, by the king, queen, the The princess had scarce, however, entered France Duchess of Orleans, and the princes and princesses with Madame de Genlis, when she received an of the royal family, attired in deep mourning. The order from Paris to leave the capital within twentyking replied with emotion to the address of the four hours, and the country within three days ; and chancellor. An hour later, the chamber of depu- the Duke of Chartres, her brother, hearing of the tics, headed by the president, repaired in proces- extremity in which she was placed, came from sion to the palace. All the ministers were pres- the army to her assistance, and brought her to ent, as well as the chiefs of the different sections Tournay. of the dynastic opposition-Messrs. Thiers, Du- “It was some time after this that the young faure, Billault, Remusat, and Odilon Barrot; who exile and her governess settled at Schaffhausen in united with their conservative colleagues in a joint Switzerland; where the Duke of Chartres, who expression of sympathy and deep regret. M. had in the mean while also been exiled, came to Sauzet, president of the deputies, addressing the join her. The town of Schaffhausen offering little king, merely said, in trembling accents, “Sire, we security, they were soon induced to leave it, and do not come to trouble your grief by words, but to proceed to Zurich ; which they were soon obliged associate our grief with yours, and to bring you also to abandon, to go to Zug. There, under the the lively sympathies of the country." The king name of an Irish family, they were enabled to stay wept so that his tears choked his voice ; and the for a month. deputies who were close to him could only catch “ Though the life they led was exceedingly these broken phrases : “I had hoped to-morrow retired, and seemed likely to escape public notice, to have had to thank the chamber for its reception they were recognized by some emigrés, and it be-that would have been sweet to my heart—I feel came necessary to seek another asylum. This was that I am giving way to my sorrow—it is very I made doubly painful, as it involved a separation between the Duke de Chartres and his sister ; he Abd-el-Kader had cut his way to the banks of the by his presence subjecting her to the severities of Moulouia ; but, finding himself surrounded on all governments and their police. Their perplexity sides, he trusted, says the governor-general's dewas great, but a lucky circumstance solved their spatch, “to the generosity of France,” and surdifficulties. General Montesquiou was at that time rendered on condition of being sent to Alexandria in Switzerland, and had done certain services to or St. Jean d'Acre. the government of Geneva, which had caused him His last exploit was an attack on the Moorish to be generally looked up to in that canton. By camp, on the night between the 11th and 12th his intervention Mademoiselle Adelaide and Mad. December. The enemy was so numerous that he de Genlis obtained leave to enter the convent of was obliged to concentrate his forces, and retire in Sante Claire, at Baumgarten ; and remained there the direction of the Moulouia and between that until the 11th of May, 1794 ; when she retired to river and the sea. The Moorish camps continued the house of the Princess of Conti, her aunt, in to draw closer the circle by which he was surHungary. From thence she went to join the rounded. Active operations were retarded for Duchess of Figueras, in Catalonia ; where she some days by the weather ; but on the 21st the remained till 1808.
emir began to transport his baggage and deira “ The Spanish war then commenced ; and, be across the river, with the view of conducting them ing obliged to fly, she commenced a wandering into the French territory, and then retreat to the Odyssey in search of her brother ; whom she found, south with all who wished to follow him. after many vicissitudes, at Portsmouth, just about "The commencement of the passage of the to embark. The delight of both at meeting is river," says the Duke d’Aumale, was the signal easily understood. They promised never to sep- for the combat; to which the Moorish Kabyles, arate from each other ;'and this promise was reli- excited by the prospect of plunder, rushed with giously kept. In January, 1809, the princess and fury; but the infantry and irregular cavalry of the the duke left England for Malta ; and some time emir, sustaining to the last their ancient reputaafter she had the joy to witness the marriage of tion, resisted throughout the entire day. Not a her brother and the Princess Marie Amelie ; who, mule, nor the smallest portion of baggage, was in marrying an exile, little thought he would be conquered from them. By nightfall they had lost come king of the French.
one half of their number; the rest dispersed. The “ With the restoration, a little repose was ob- entire deira had gained the French territory. The tained for the existence of Mademoiselle d'Orleans. Moors ceased the pursuit." The faults of the government then caused the Duke Having brought his advance into the country of of Orleans to play a distinguished part, and obtained the Mesirda, Abd-el-Kader quitted it, and sought for him an influence which the revolution of July an asylum among a fraction of the Beni-Snassen gave full effect to. Mademoiselle Adelaide did tribe who remained faithful ; and through whose not a little contribute, during the fifteen years' country he hoped to gain the south. General de struggle, to rally round her brother the divers Lamoricière, however, divined his purpose, and political influences which the restoration seemed to kept close upon his track. Still the emir could coalesce against herself. When in 1830 it became have got off; but he appears to have taken the necessary for the Duke of Orleans to declare for sudden determination which ended in a convention the acceptance or refusal of the crown, Madame with the general. On the afternoon of the 22d Adelaide bravely engaged for her brother, and December, Abd-el-Kader was received at the maroffered to come to Paris first to share the dangers about of Sidi Brahim, and in an hour was conof the Parisians. Since then, she has not ceased ducted to Nemours; where the Duke d'Aumale to share in and serve the fortunes of the king." announced to his captive that he would have to
Madame Adelaide had for a considerable time embark for Oran on the following day; to which suffered from asthma, combined with disease of he submitted, “not without emotion, and some the heart. But for some days after the commence- repngnance. It was the last drop of the cup
of ment of the attack of influenza, and even as late affliction." as the 30th December, no serious apprehensions The emir and his suite embarked at Oran on were entertained. Even on that day her royal the 25th December, and arrived at Toulon on the highness got up; merely complaining of extreme 28th. He had with him his three wives and two weakness. In the evening, she received the king sons, one of his brothers-in-law, and two trusty and the royal family; and talked of being present, officers. On the following day, Abd-el-Kader and but
sitting," at the receptions on the jour de his suite landed, and took up their quarters in the l'an. She afterwards slept in her arm-chair; and | Lazaretto. it was during this sleep, to all appearance natural, The Toulonnais describes the emir's personal that the death-struggle commenced.
The ABD-EL-KADER.—The rumored surrender of expression of his countenance is mild, and rather Abd-el-Kader has been confirmed by the arrival mystical than warlike. His complexion has not of that chief at Toulon ; and despatches from the that perfect purity which distinguishes the Arab Duke d'Aumale and from General de Lamoricière aristocracy; his face is pitted with small marks, gives the details of the emir's last gallant struggle. which look like the traces of small-pox; and in the
middle of his forehead is a small tattoo mark. His
From the Spectator. beard is very black, but not thick. His costume
DEFENCE OF GREAT BRITAIN. is so simple that it is perhaps not quite devoid of The Morning Chronicle has put an end to all affectation.”
doubt as to the existence of the Duke of WellingColonel de Beaufort, aide-de-camp to the Duke ton's letter to Sir John Burgoyne, by publishing it, d'Aumale, arrived at Paris on Saturday evening, as follows :and presented to the king the pistol of the emir.
“ STRATHFIELDSAYE, 9th Jan. 1847. He also conveyed to Madame de Lamoricière the “ To Maj. Gen. Sir John J. Burgoyne, K. C. B., sword of the celebrated Arab chief, which had
&c. &c. been given by the Duke d'Aumale to her husband.
“My dear General—Some days have elapsed,
indeed a fortnight has, since I received your note, MODERN CHIVALRY.
with a copy of your observations on the possible The modern is to the olden spirit of chivalry results of a war with France under our present sys. what the commercial and civic knights of the day tem of military preparation. are to the knights of the round table or the pala- “ You are aware that I have for years been dins of Charlemagne. Sacrifice is not the virtue sensible of the alteration produced in maritime warof our times, but least of all sacrifice, to “ the great fare and operations by the application of steam to passion," or to a glorious love of perilous adven- the propelling of ships at sea. ture.
“The discovery immediately exposed all parts A young lady of Hanover fills a post as teacher of the coasts of these islands, which a vessel could in the family of the Hospodar of Wallachia ; some approach at all, to be approached, at all times of domestic squabble arises; and the young lady's tide and in all seasons, by vessels so propelled, royal master causes her to be whipped. The cir- from all quarters. We are in fact assailable, and cumstances do not come out clearly—the young at least liable to insult, and to have contributions lady may have been impertinent; but two facts levied upon us, on all parts of our coasts ; that is, are stated explicitly—she was a lady, and she was the coasts of these including the Channel Islands, flogged. Bad enough in the poor Wallachians ; which to this time from the period of the Norman but of course the representatives of civilized Europe conquest have never been successfully invaded. flew to her rescue? Not at all ; with difficulty a “ I have in vain endeavored to awaken the ato sort of irregular protection was obtained for the tention of different administrations to this state of girl from the British consul, and she was at last things, as well known to our neighbors (rivals in to be sent away with a trifling nioney compensa- power, at least former adversaries and enemies) as tion. The story would have made the blood boil it is to ourselves. in the veins of any man in the olden time; but “I hope that your paper may be attended with that sensation in such affairs is obsolete now. more success than my representations have been. The chief who has for sixteen years or more,
“I have above, in few words, represented our single-handed, withstood the power of France in danger. We have no defence, or hope of defence, Africa, has at last yielded to the king's son ; who excepting in our fleet. promised an honorable exile to the hero, unvan- “We hear a great deal of the spirit of the peoquished by any one man, and exhausted only by ple of England; for which no man entertains higher the overwhelming power of the great nation, made respect than I do. But, unorganized, undisciplined, to bear upon him for years. Is he not received without systematic subordination established and in France with distinction, and somewhat as the well understood, this spirit, opposed to the fire of French King John was by his English conqueror musketry and cannon, and to sabres and bayonets and that conqueror's father; and does not the of disciplined troops, would only expose those monarch hasten to fulfil his son's promise ? No ; animated by such spirit to confusion and destructhe fallen chief is lodged in a lazaretto; and as to tion. Let any man only make the attempt 10 turn the proinise made by the royal prince, the king to some use this spirit in a case of partial local disand his council" deliberate !"
turbance; the want of previous systematic organIt is discovered that the coasts of England are ization and subordination will prevent him even exposed to inroad ; that a disgrace unknown for from communicating with more than his own menial eight centuries—the hostile camp of a foreigner servants and dependants, and while mobs are in near London—is not impossible ; of course all movement through the country the most powerful England rushes to arms, without a word of grum- will find that he cau scarcely move from his own bling; and government hurries to satisfy the door. demand of the people that the country should be “ It is perfectly true, that as we stand at presprepared ? Quite the reverse ; the government can ent, with our naval arsenals and dockyards not scarcely be got to move; shrewd people ask, half garrisoned, 5,000 men of all arms could not “How much money will it cost?" and the honor be put under arms, if required, for any service of the country is at last to have a sufficient guard whatever, without leaving standing without relief only because it is proved that the want of it might all employed on any duty, not excepting even the figure ill in the profit and loss account.—Specta-guards over the palaces and the person of the sov
tor, 8 Jan.
“I calculate that a declaration of war should the North Foreland and Selsey Bill) there are not probably find our home garrisons of the strength less than seven small harbors or mouths of rivers, as follows; particularly considering that one of the each without defence, of which an enemy, having most common accusations against this country is, landed his infantry on the coast, might take posthat the practice has been to commence reprisals session, and therein land his cavalry and artillery of at sea simultaneously with a declaration war, all calibre, and establish himself and his communithe order for the first of which must have been is- cation with France. sued before the last can have been published. “ The nearest part of the coast to the metropolis
“We ought to be with garrisons as follows at is undoubtedly the coast of Sussex, from the east the moment war is declared
and west side of Beachy Head and to Selsey Bill. Channel Islands (besides the militia
There are not less than twelve great roads leading of each, well organized, trained,
from Brighton upon London ; and the French army and disciplined)
must be much altered indeed since the time at Plymouth,
10,000 which I was better acquainted with it, if there are Milford Haven,
5,000 not now belonging to it forty chefs d'état majorCork,
10,000 general capable of sitting down and ordering the Portsmouth,
march to the coast of 40,000 men, their embarkaDover,
tion, with their horses and artillery, at the several Sheerness, Chatham, and the Thames, 10,000
French ports on the coast ; their disembarkation at “I suppose that one half of the whole regular named points on the English coast, that of the force of the country would be stationed in Ireland, artillery and cavalry in named ports or mouths of which half would give the garrison for Cork. The rivers, and the assembly at named points of the remainder must be supplied from the half of the several columns ; and the march of each of these whole force at home stationed in Great Britain.
from stage to stage to London. “ The whole force employed at home in Great “ Let any man examine our maps and roadBritain and Ireland would not afford a sufficient books, consider of the matter, and judge for himself. number of men for the mere defence and occupa- “I know of no mode of resistance, much less tion, on the breaking out of war, of the works con- of protection from this danger, excepting by an structed for the defence of the dockyards and naval army in the field capable of meeting and contending arsenals, without leaving a single man disposable. with its formidable enemy, aided by all the means
“The measure upon which I have earnestly of fortification which experience in war and science entreated different adminstrations to decide which can suggest. is constitutional, and has been invariably adopted “ I shall be deemed foolhardy in engaging for in time of peace for the last eighty years—is to the defence of the empire with an army composed raise, embody, organize, and discipline the militia, of such a force of militia. I may be so. I conof the same numbers for each of the three king- fess it, I should infinitely prefer, and should feel doms united as during the late war. This would more confidence in, an army of regular troops. give a mass of organized force amounting to about But I know that I shall not have these. I may 150,000 men ; which we might immediately set to have the others; and if an addition is made to the work to discipline. This alone would enable us existing regular army allotted for home defence of to establish the strength of our army. This, with a force which will cost 400,0001. a year, there an augmentation of the force of the regular army, would be a sufficient disciplined force in the field which would not cost 400,0001., would put the to enable him who should command to defend the country on its legs in respect to personal force ; country. and I would engage for its defence, old as I am. “ This is my view of our danger and our re
“ But as we stand now, and if it be true that sources. I was aware that our magazines and the exertions of the fleet alone are not sufficient to arsenals were very inadequately supplied with ordprovide our defence, we are not safe for a week nance and carriages, arms, stores of all denominaafter the declaration of war.
tions, and ammunition. “I am accustomed to the consideration of these * The deficiency has been occasioned in part by questions ; and have examined and reconnoitred, the sale of arms, and of various descriptions of over and over again, the whole coast from the ordnance stores, since the termination of the late North Foreland, by Dover, Folkstone, Beachy war, in order to diminish the demand of supply to Head, Brighton, Arundel, to Selsey Bill, near carry on the peace service of the ordnance ; in part Portsmouth ; and I say that, excepting immediately by the conflagration of the arsenal which occurred under the fire of Dover Castle, there is not a spot in the Tower some years ago ; and by the difficulty on the coast on which infantry might not be thrown under which all governments in this country labor on shore, at any time of tide, with any wind, and in prevailing upon parliament, in time of peace, to in any weather, and from which such body of in- take into consideration measures necessary for the fantry, so thrown on shore, would not find within safety of the country in time of war. the distance of five miles a road into the interior of “ The state of the ordnance, arms, ammunition, the country through the cliffs, practicable for the &c., in magazines, is in part the question of exmarch of a body of troops.
pense, and perhaps in some degree one of time. “ That in that space of coast (that is, between “I would recommend to have an alphabetical list of the stores examined by a committee, and them to postpone those measures absolutely necesmade out in form, as upon the enclosed half-sheet sary for mere defence and safety under existing of paper, by ascertaining what there was in 1804, circumstances ; forgetting altogether the common and what there is in store now, of each article, and practice of successful armies, in modern times, imthe difference between the two accounts.
posing upon the conquered enormous pecuniary “I have taken the year 1804 as the standard, contributions, as well as other valuable and ornaas that was the year in which the invasion was mental property. threatened. It was previous to the employment “ Look at the course pursued by France in Italy of the armies in the Peninsula or North America ; | and Russia! at Vienna repeatedly, at Berlin, at in short, as nearly as possible similar to the polit- Moscow-the contributions levied, besides the subical circumstances in which we stand at this mo- sistence, maintenance, clothing, and equipment of ment, excepting that we are now at peace with the army which made the conquest! Look at the France we were then at war.
conduct of the allied army which invaded France “A fourth column would be the estimate of the and had possession of Paris in 1815! Look at the expense of bringing the magazines to the state in account of the pecuniary sacrifices made upon that which they were in 1804.
occasion, under their different heads of contribu“With this information before him, the master- tions, payments for subsistence, and maintenance general could give the government accurate infor- of the invading armies, including clothing and mation of the wants of ordnance, arms, ammunition, other equipments, payments of old repudiated state and stores in the magazines of the country. debts, payments of debts due to individuals in war
“ You will see from what I have written, that in the different countries of Europe, repayment I have contemplated the danger to which you have for contributions levied, and movable and immovreferred. I have done so for years. I have drawn able property sold in the course of the revolutionto it the attention of different administrations at ary war. different times.
“ But such an account cannot be made out “You will observe, likewise, that I have con- against this country. No! but I believe that the sidered of the measures of prospective security, means of some demands would not be wanting. and of the mode and cost of the attainment. Are there no claims for a fleet at Toulon in 1793 ?
None for debts left unpaid by British subjects in I have done more. I have looked at and con- France, who escaped from confinement under sidered these localities in great detail, and have cover of the invasion in 1814 by the allied armies ? made up my mind upon the details of their de- Can any man pretend to limit the amount of the fence.
demands on account of the contributions de guerre ? “ These are questions to which my mind has “ Then look at the conditions of the treaties of not been unaccustomed. I have considered and Paris—1814, 1815. provided for the defence, the successful defence, of “France having been in possession of nearly the frontiers of many countries.
every capital in Europe, and having levied contri“You are the confidential head of the principal butions in each, and having had in its possession defensive part of the country. I will, if you and or under its influence the whole of Italy, Germany, the master-general of the ordnance choose, converse and Poland, is reduced to its territorial limits as or otherwise communicate confidently confiden- they stood in 1792. tially ?) with you upon all the details of this sub- “ Do we suppose that we should be allowed to ject ; will inform you of all that I know, have seen, keepcould we advance a pretension to keep and think upon it, and what my notions are of the more than the islands composing the United Kingdetails of the defensive system to be adopted and dom ; ceding disgracefully the Channel Islands, on eventually carried into execution.
which an invader had never established himself “ I quite concur in all your views of the danger since the period of the Norman Conquest ? of our position, and of the magnitude of the stake “ I am bordering upon seventy-seven years of at issue. I am especially sensible of the certainty age, passed in honor. I hope that the Almighty of failure if we do not, at an early moment, attend may protect me from being the witness of the :0 the measures necessary to be taken for our de- tragedy which I cannot persuade my contemporatence, and of the disgrace—the indelible disgrace ries to take measures to avert. -of such failure.
“ Believe me ever yours sincerely, “ Putting out of view all the other unfortunate
“ WELLINGTON.” consequences, such as the loss of the political and social position of this country among the nations The Globe publishes a short tract entitled of Europe, of all its allies, in concert with and in “ Thoughts on National Defence,” which is signed aid of whom it has in our own times contended “ W. B.,” dated on the 3d instant, and is said to successfully in arms for its own honor and safety have been written by Admiral Bowles, a lord of and the independence and freedom of the world. the admiralty under the late administration. It is
“When did any man hear of allies of a country recommended to the Globe as something calculated unable to defend itself?
to allay alarm ; which it is ; but it also corrobo“ Views of economy of some, and I admit that rates the opinion that it was full time to take prethe high views of national finance of others, induce cautions. The consideration of national defence,