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not we.

This good temper.

papers, and each paper 280 pins : making an ag-| their proceedings, and to delight in their having gregate of 39,984,000 pins per week, or 2,079,- other pursuits than ours, are all based upon å 168,000 per annum. If the products of the other thorough perception of the simple fact that they are two establishments, and the small amount imported,

Another 'rule for living happily with others is, to are together equal to the above, we should have a avoid having stock subjects of disputation. It grand total of 4,158,336,000 pins for consumption mostly happens, when people live much together, in the United States, equal to 200 on an average, that they come to have certain set topics, round for every man, woman and child in the country. which, from frequent dispute, there is such a growth A pretty liberal allowance, we are thinking. The of angry words, mortified vanity, and the like, that number of pin-making machines employed by said the original subject of difference becomes a standing company is about 30, and of workpeople about 60. subject for quarrel; and there is a tendency in all

minor disputes to drift down to it. It would be difficult to describe these machines so

Again, if people wish to live well together, they as to make their operation intelligible to those who must not hold too much to logic, and suppose that have not seen them in motion. We will only say everything is to be settled by sufficient reason. that the wire which is to be wrought into pins Dr. Johnson saw this clearly with regard to married runs from a reel like yarn, into one end of the ma- people, when he said, “ Wretched would be the chine, and comes out at the other, not wire, but pair above all names of wretchedness, who should

be doomed to adjust by reason, every morning, all pins, cut, pointed, and headed, in the most perfect the minute detail of a domestic day.” But the manner, at the rate of 150 a minute. This is about application should be much more general than he the usual speed, but the machinery is capable of made it. There is no time for such reasonings, and being so adjusted as to produce 300 a minute. nothing that is worth them. And when we recolBeing now of a yellowish color, they are thrown, lect how two lawyers, or two politicians, can go on by the bushel, into kettles containing a certain contending, and that there is no end of one-sided liquid, by which they are whitened and prepared such contention is the best mode for arriving at

reasoning on any subject, we shall not be sure that for sticking ; i. e. for being stuck into papers, in truth ; but certainly it is not the way to arrive at rows, as they are bought at the stores. process of sticking is also performed by a machine If you would be loved as a companion, avoid invented by Mr. Slocum. The narrow paper in unnecessary criticism upon those with whom you which the pins are stuck, is wound from a reel, of live. The number of people who have taken out any imaginable length, and then cut off at uniform judges' patents for themselves is very large in any intervals. One sticking-machine will stick as many with another who was always criticising his actions,

society. Now, it would be hard for a man to live pins as three pin-machines can make ; and three even if it were kindly and just criticism. It would of the former can be attended by one girl. be like living between the glasses of a microscope.

A part of the pins of the Am. Pin Company are But these self-elected judges, like their prototypes, made of American copper, obtained on the borders are very apt to have the persons they judge brought of Lake Superior.

before them in the guise of culprits. The triumphant success of American pin-making above alluded to, is that which may be called criti

One of the most provoking forms of the criticism ithout the aid of protection, or rather in spite of cism over the shoulder. “ Had I been consulted” t, shows that when skill and industry are com

-" Had you listened to me"-" But you always bined, some things can be done as well as will”—and such short scraps of sentences, may others."—N. Y. Jour, Commerce.

remind many of us of dissertations which we have

suffered and inflicted, and of which we cannot call THE ART OF LIVING WITH OTHERS.

to mind any soothing effect.

Another rule is, not to let familiarity swallow up In the first place, if people are to live happily all courtesy. Many of us have a habit of saying to together, they must not fancy, because they are those with whom we live such things as we say thrown together now, that all their lives have been about strangers behind their backs. There is no exactly similar up to the present time, that they place, however, where real politeness is of more started exactly alike, and that they are to be for value than where we mostly think it would be the future of the same mind. A thorough convic- superfluous. You may say more truth, or rather tion of the difference of men is the great thing to speak out more plainly, to your associates, but not be assured of in social knowledge; it is to life what less courteously than you do to strangers. Newton's law is to astronomy. Sometimes men Again, we must not expect more from the society have a knowledge of it with regard to the world in of our friends and companions than it can give; and general : they do not expect the outer world to especially must not expect contrary things. It is agree with them in all points, but are vexed at not somewhat arrogant to talk of travelling over other being able to drive their own tastes and opinions minds (mind being, for what we know, infinite ;) into those they live with. Diversities distress them. but still we become familiar with the upper views, They will not see that there are many forms of vir- tastes, and tempers of our associates ; and it is tue and wisdom. Yet we might as well say, hardly in man to estimate justly what is familiar to “Why all these stars; why this difference; why him. In travelling along at night, as Hazlitt says, not all one star?''

we catch a glimpse into cheerful-looking rooms, Many of the rules for people living together in with light blazing in them, and we conclude, involpeace follow from the above. For instance, not to untarily, how happy the inmates must be. Yet interfere unreasonably with others, not to ridicule there is heaven and hell in those rooms, the same their tastes, not to question and re-question their heaven and hell that we have known in others.resolves, not to indulge in perpetual comment on Friends in Council.

1. Lamartine's History of the Girondins, Edinburgh Review,
2. Fléchier's Chronicle of the Clermont Assizes, Blackwood's Magazine,
3. A Night Adventure on Lake Simcoe, Chambers' Journal,
4. Lady Lucy's Petition,

Chambers' Journal, 5. Canada,

N. Y. Journal of Commerce, 6. Escape of W. L. Mackenzie,

Chambers' Journal, 7. Art of Living with others,

Friends in Council,
Poetry. - The Reward, 330 — The Old Crow, 324.
SCRAPs. — Jane Eyre, 324 — Pins, 334

289 309 325 328 331 331 335

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PROSPECTUS.- This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ouriwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were ex- through a rapid process of change, to some new state of cluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the inerely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety; or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very ully Quarterly, and other Reviews , and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign criticisms on Poetry, his kee: political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivia descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirahle to mountain Scenery ; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement—10 Statesmen, Divines, Lawthe sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Atheneum, the yers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure--it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that lian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, it's, Ainsidorth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral aj petite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnoroing the wheat from the from ihe new growth of the British colonies.

chaff" by providing abundantly, for the imagination, a.d The steamship has brought Europe, Asia, and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood; and will greatly multiply our con: History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all parts of the world ; so that much more than ever it aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

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WASHINGTON, 27 Dec., 1845. Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in the utmost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.—No. 197.—19 FEBRUARY, 1848.

From Blackwood's Magazine. low out Charles V.'s intentions, but to educate DON JOHN OF AUSTRIA.

Don John for the military, instead of the ecclesiDon John of Austria, the illegitimate son of the without strong opposition from some of Philip's

astical profession. This was not done, however, Emperor Charles V., (for an account of whose life we purpose to lay under contribution several curi- royal council. The conduct of Don John, how

ever pleasing to Philip II., drew upon the young ous documents lately published at Madrid,) was born in 1545. His parentage on the mother's side prince the bitter animosity of Don Carlos, who,

ever after, treated his companion with marked is not quite so certain. Brantôme, Moreri, and others, after mentioning the Countess Barbe de indignity; his hatred one day went to the length Blomberghe as Don John's putative mother, assert Carlos called him a bastard, hijo de puta. Yes,"

of twitting Don John with his illegitimacy. Don that, although Charles' mistress, she certainly was said Don John, “I am a bastard ; but my father not mother to Don John, whose parentage, they is a better man than yours :" whereupon the two hint, should be laid at the door of some far nobler

lads came to blows. dame. But Ranke, and the best informed modern

Passing over much of his early life, we come historians, affirm that Barbe de Blomberghe was really Don John's mother. This lady belonged to the Moors of Grenada. In this expedition he de

to the year 1569, when Don John was sent against a noble family of Flanders, and was a celebrated beauty of her day. After his love for her was evidence of personal courage, that the old captains

veloped considerable military talents, and gave such extinct, Charles V. gave Barbe de Blomberghe, and veteran soldiers who remembered the early with a large dowry, in marriage, to a certain

campaigns of his father, Charles V., called out Seigneur Rechem, who held considerable posses- with one accord, “Ah! this is a true son of the sions in the province of Luxemburg, and lived con

emperor." Ea! es verdadero hijo del emperador. stantly at Antwerp.

Don John returned from this campaign crvered Don John's early life was passed in the farm- with glory, and with the reputation of being one house of a rich peasant in the vicinity of Liege, of the best captains of the age. where the young lad was subjected to all manner

Meanwhile, the infidels were making rapid proof privations, and early inured to hard labor and coarse fare-a fitting preparation for his future gress in another part of the globe. The taking Brantôme mentions it as a fact much to such a degree, that a league was formed between

of Cyprus by the Turks alarmed all Europe to Don John's credit, that, in spite of this humble the Pope, the Venetians, and the Spanish monarch, education as a peasant, he showed no trace of in order to put a stop to any further inroads in this vulgarity in after life, but, on the contrary, that he had excellent and noble manners in the field and quarter ; a fleet was manned, soldiers were levied, in drawing-rooms. The emperor, Charles V., sent Don John, whose reputation was now exceedingly

to stem the threatened invasion of Christendom. for the lad, when he grew up, to come to Spain, rewarded the honest peasant for his trouble, and great, was selected for the command of the allied

forces. announced to Don John the secret of his birth of Anjou. At this time of his life, Don John wa:

It had previously been offered to the Duke Although the emperor loved the boy as the son of six-and-twenty, in the full bloom of youth and his old age, he gave him nothing during his life

manly strength. Lippomano, a Neapolitan, detime, of which the ardent young prince much com

scribes him as a person of a most beautiful presplained, saying that “the emperor, having acknowledged him as his son, should have given and large mustachios. His complexion is fair,

ence and of wonderful grace; with but little beard him the means of living befitting his rank and and he weareth his hair long and turned back over birth.” At his death, Charles left Don John noth- his shoulders, the which is a great ornament unto ing but a strong recommendation to his successor

him. He dresses sumptuously, and with such care Philip II. The only wish which escaped the

and neatness, that it is a sight to see.” “Moredying monarch was, that Don John should be edu

over,” adds Lippomano, “he is active and wellcated for the church.

made, and succeedeth beyond measure in all manly Meanwhile, Don John, who was but one year exercises. "* younger than Don Carlos, was brought up with sword better than the young hero, who, moreover,

No one rode, no one wielded the Philip's ill-starred son ; and at this period of his had all the popular qualities fitted to ingratiate him life à circumstance occurred which greatly influ- with women and soldiers-he was gracious, affaenced Don John's future destiny. The boy revealed to Philip II. some hare-brained folly of his Don John Jamented that he had not already won

ble, and open-handed. Even at this early age, son Don Carlos. This conduct gave the Spanish by his own right hand some independent kingdom monarch so high an opinion of his young brother's integrity and honor, that he determined not to fol

* Ranke, Fürsten und Völker, vol. i., p. 170. CXCVII.

22

career.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XVI.

of his own. To the attainment of this object he and other light and fast-sailing vessels to retire looked confidently to the league or to the Vene- from the scene of action, so that no one might tians ; and the great victory of Lepanto, which he think of escaping, but should fight to the last. gained at the head of the allied fleets—to which When the armadas approached each other, Don period in the life of our hero we have now arrived John ordered the trumpets to sound the charge, -seemed to justify his expectations ; in this, and exhorted his people to prepare for action. On however, he was doomed to be disappointed. nearing the Turkish fleet, Don John was able to

The battle of Lepanto was fought on the 7th recognize the galley of the Turkish admiral, Basa October, 1571. On the side of the allies were Hali, (Ali Pasha,) by its ensign and sacred standabout two hundred large galleys, six smaller ones, ard. Don John ordered his own vessel to bear and twenty-two other vessels ; of these, eighty-one down upon the Turk, who reserved his fire until galleys and thirty frigates belonged to Spain, the the Spanish vessel was within half a boat's length, rest to his holiness the Pope, and to the Venetians. when he fired three shots; the first carried away The armament on board consisted of about twenty- some of the bulwarks of the vessel, killing several one thousand fighting men, of whom eleven or of the galley-slaves at their oars; the second passed twelve thousand were Spaniards, the rest Italians over the caboose or kitchen on board Don John's and Germans. Don John, like a good general, vessel, which was occupied by soldiers armed with had carefully seen that the galleys were well-pro- arquebuses ; while the third shot went over the vided with ammunition ; each galley, in addition heads of several soldiers who were intrenched in to its regular crew and armament, had one hundred one of the boats on deck. Don John, who had and fifty extra soldiers on board. The Turkish likewise reserved his fire, now poured in a volley, fleet consisted of two hundred and twenty-five large which did infinite mischief to the Turk; and the galleys, and seventy other smaller vessels, on board two galleys ran into one another with a mighty of which were, in all, about twenty-five thousand crash, and got hopelessly entangled. The battle fighting men. The Turks came sailing down the now became general, and raged furiously on both wind, full upon the allied feet, with a confidence sides. No less than eleven other vessels were acquired by the frequency of their victories over engaged in the immediate vicinity of Don John and the Spanish vessels, which they had been in the Ali Pasha, and all the several crews fought hand habit of seizing and carrying as prizes into Argel to hand. The Turkish admiral was supported by and other ports.

The Turks, moreover, had the seven other Turkish galleys, while Don John was advantage of the sun in their backs, and conse- assisted by five large vessels of his own side, of quently it poured its hot rays full in the face of the which one was the Roman galley, La Grifona, Christian host. Don John of Austria was at first commanded by Marco Antonio Colonna, and the in some trouble, as Don Alvaro de Bazan, the others were Venetian or Spanish. For one whole Marquis de Santa Cruz, commanding the Neapoli- hour the fighting continued without either party tan squadron, was by some meaus detained behind, apparently getting the best of it. Twice did the as well as Don Juan de Cardona, who had gone Spaniards carry the decks of the Turkish admiral's with eight galleys to reconnoitre a distant port. vessel, and twice were they driven back with treDon John, however, despatched a few quick-sail- mendous slaughter. Once they had almost reached ing frigates in search of them, the moment the the Turkish flag-staff. The caboose of Don John's Turkish fleet hove in sight. Meanwhile, Don vessel, filled with picked men under Don Pedro John and the crew of his vessel, as well as the Zapata, did infinite service; one man alone fired crews and soldiers of all those galleys which were forty rounds of cartridge. At the end of an hoor near him, raised crucifixes, and standards, knelt and a half's hard fighting, victory inclined to the side down on the decks of their vessels, and made of the Spaniards. The pasha and above five hunhumble supplication to the Almighty to give them dred of his men were killed, his sons made prisonthe victory. Don John, with a soldier's heart, ers, his standard pulled down, and the cross planted had a strong dash of the priest in his composition. in its stead. About the same time the other galAbsolution was likewise given, during this interval leys near Don John's vessel likewise forced their of peace, to all who might so soon render up their way through the Turkish squadron. Don John souls to God, by Fray Juan Machuca, Alonso now ordered victory to be loudly proclaimed, and Serrano, Juan de Huarca, and other Franciscan had time to look about him, so as to bring assistand Capuchin friars and Jesuits who accompanied ance where it was most needed. the expedition. Luckily, at this moment the wind On his return from his reconnoitring cruise, lulled, and the Turkish squadron was forced to Don Juan de Cardona, admiral of the Sicilian come slowly on with their oars. This happy forces, had fallen in with some fifteen Turkish galincident gave Don John plenty of time to arrange leys, which he kept employed until Don John of his order of battle.

Austria bore down triumphantly to his assistance, It was mid-day on the 7th October, 1571, before and captured the infidels. Of five hundred Spanthe two armadas came together, and Don John iards who were with Don Juan de Cardona, not fired a gun as a signal to his fleet to commence the fifty escaped without a wound of some sort. It attack. By this time, most fortunately, the Mar- was in this same battle of Lepanto that Miguel quis de Santa Cruz, with the Neapolitan galleys, Cervantes lost his arm, and most of our readers had arrived. Don John ordered all the brigantines / will recollect how the brave soldier tells the story

and the pope.

of his own life in the fortieth chapter of Don ashore, and Uchali,* with a part of his galliots, Quixote de la Mancha. The Marquis de Santa escaped. The admiral pasha died fighting, but his Cruz fought most bravely, and twice narrowly two young sons were taken. Many other notorious escaped death-two shots from an arquebuse acıly say the number of vessels taken or destroyed :

corsairs were likewise taken or killed. I cannot exglanced off from his armor of proof. In this bat- but I think for certain they are above two hundred ; tle the Turks lost 117 galleys and some other and the best is that, of our squadron, no captainsmaller vessels ; 117 cannon, 17 mortars, and 256 general or person of any importance is missing or smaller guns, and 3,486 slaves ; all which booty even wounded; of the others I only know of Čapwas divided among the Spaniards, the Venetians, tain Francisco de Cordoba, the nephew of the Mar

The sacred standard of Mecca, of quis of Santa Cruz, who was killed by an arquebusewhich Luis Marmol has written a glowing descrip- It is the work of God and not of man. You will

shot; of other folk but few are killed or wounded. tion, was sent, together with the news of this be pleased to hear that not one of our vessels but great victory, to Philip II., and reached the Escu- has another in tow, which it has taken, and that rial in November, 1571. This standard was about we all did well. The galley in which I was did as large as a sheet; the white ground was covered the least of all; we fought the Turk who was op with writing in the Arabic character, and most of posed to us, attacked the infidels' vessel by the poop, the letters were gilt. It was burnt in the great throwing into it shot, stones, and fire until it surfire which destroyed the monastery of the Escurial

rendered ; and we captured two flags which hung

at the stern. Some soldiers got good booty in in 1671, just one hundred years after it had graced clothes. After this we secured some others, and those walls.

drove so many ashore that it is a shame to tell ; When the news of this great victory reached and in all our vessel we had not so much as sįx Philip II., he was attending vespers at the church wounded, and not one killed. Many of our galleyof the Escurial. A loud Te Deum laudamus”, slaves who were released fought like lions, and was immediately sung with the whole strength of restored to liberty an infinite number of Christian the choir, and the following day a solemn pro- these were more than 2,000 Spaniards,

captives who were in the Turkish fleet; among

and

many cession took place “ in gratiarum actione,” at women and children whom the Turks had seized in which the austere monarch assisted. Ve cannot Cephalonia and other parts. Had not the season do better than quote a short letter, written to been so far advanced, we might have gone safely as Philip's trusty and confidential secretary, Antonio far as Constantinople; at any rate we might have Perez, by one Francisco Murillo, who was engaged taken all Greece and the Morea; but it is already in the battle of Lepanto ; the letter is dated the winter, and, moreover, we have not sufficient pro

visions aboard. 9th October, 1571, two days after the victory.

“ Don Bernardino de Cardenas died of a spent " Illustrious Sir,- Te Deum laudamus, te Deum ball from an arquebuse, which struck him on the confitemur! God and his illustrious Mother have breast; although the ball did not enter the flesh, been pleased to give us the victory over the Turk- Don Bernardino fell and never rose again. The ish fleet, and His omnipotence hath been most Count de Bianco, and a few other gentle folks likeclearly made known, inasmuch as this proud and wise fell fighting valiantly. Captain Juan Rubio great armada hath been broken and conquered. is safe and sound, after performing marvels with We fought valiantly some two or three hours ; his crew; for he fought with three large galleys at many of our galleys were engaged with two, three, once, and made them all yield; but neither hé nor or four of the enemy's vessels. The number of I have got a single maravedi. It would have been the Turkish vessels, as far as I could learn, no bad thing to have stumbled across a good purse amounted to about 270, rather more than less ; in full of ducats. But you, sir, will remember your the which they had stowed as many men at arms servants; we have no hope from any one after you as they could collect in all Greece, both cavalry but in God, who we pray may keep you and your and infantry, the best they could find ; and they house in that health and in that increase of wealth were directed to come in search of us for such which we, your servants, do desire. From Le were the orders from Constantinople. Some of Corchorale, this 9th October, 1571. Illustrious the vessels of the armada, and some foot-soldiers, sir, I kiss your hands. I entreat you to send a serhaving been despatched on the approach of Don vant with this, on the first opportunity to my brother John of Austria, to consult with the Turk as to the canon. I take this liberty as the affair is of what was to be done, the seignior ordered the importance.”+ Turkish fleet to seek until it found us. Nor had

Two

years after the battle of Lepanto, Don John they much trouble therein ; for the very same morn- of Austria gained fresh laurels at Tunis and ing on which they left the port with this intent, Biserta ; and these victories seem to have connamely, on Sunday the 7th October, the day of St. Mark, Pope and Confessor, the two fleets came in firmed him in his ambitious projects of obtaining sight of each other, near some islands called Le an independent kingdom. Juan Soto, a man of Corcholare, (?) whither they were coming with the much experience in military matters, who, at the same intent as ourselves, namely, to anchor. When time of the expedition to Grenada, had been placed we made this mutual discovery, nothing was to be about his person as secretary by Ruy Gomez de done save to prepare for action. The Turks were Silva, Prince of Eboli, and who had served with amazed at the smallness of our number, and thought that we should fly; but they were speedily unde * Uchali was a famous renegade, a Calabrian by birth, ceived, and very much to their cost; for, in the who, from being a slave of the grand seignior's, became short space of time I have mentioned, not a vessel king of Argel.–See Brantôme, Hommes illustres, vol. i., of theirs but was taken, sunk, or burnt, or had fled.

+ Documentos ineditos para la Historia de España, Many escaped by running their smaller vessels / vol. iii., p. 224.

p. 286.

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