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Dwarfs, gnomes, and other spirits of a gross and as little blame. But mines are sometimes nature and sullen mood, have always, and in all haunted by a different kind of spirits, as Sophron countries, been believed to haunt mines, and, as shows in the following story :caprice sways them, sometimes to obstruct, some
“ You know that the Whitehaven mines run out times to help, the miners in their work. Many far underneath the sea, and are some of the most northern tales of the “ wild and wonderful” are terrible in England. A man who had worked all his founded on this belief, which, in some mountainous life in them, and had always borne a high character, regions, is not yet extinct. These spirits of the was laid on his death-bed, and sent for the clergy: mine were not regarded with unmixed dread ; only man of his parish, to whom he had been previously care was taken not to offend them, for they were it was one, I am assured, at all events, that did not
known. I know not of what kind the disease was; easily moved to anger, and their revenge was ter- affect his mind in the least, and that, during the rible. Retzel, a German writer of the last century, whole of the account which I am going to give you, who, being a Bergrath, or director of mines, must he was perfectly and most manifestly himself. He have been well acquainted with the subject, tells us related it on the word of a dying man. He assured a good deal about them. He says they rarely let the priest that it was no uncommon thing in the themselves be seen in a defined shape, but rather mines, for the voices of persons, who had long been make themselves heard under ground, in the pits do not think he said that apparitions were seen,
dead, to be heard as in conversation or debate. I
but where the miners work, and particularly when he affirmed that they were heard to pass along the either a great piece of good fortune or a great ca- passages with a loud kind of rushing noise ; that lamity is near. At night, when few, or on hol- the miners, as far as possible, got out of the way on idays, when none of the miners are in the pits, these occasions; that the horses employed in the they have their sport, and make a noise as if the mines would stand still and tremble, and fall into a work were going on in the briskest manner, es- cold sweat ; and that this was universally known to pecially in such pits as promise something good. be a thing that might occur any time. One reHence, judges the good Bergrath,
markable instance he gave. The overseer of the it appears
mine he used to work was, for many years, a Cumthey intend, by such noises, to give a hint to the berland man, but being found guilty of some unfair miners to work in these places, and to win the proceedings, he was dismissed by the proprietors blessing which God has therein laid, and to bring from his post, though employed in an inferior situit to light. When these spirits are not provoked, ation. The new overseer was a Northumberland they do no hurt to any one ; but he who mocks or man, who had the burr that distinguishes that county speaks scornfully of them is sure not to escape their very strongly. To this person ihe degraded overresentment, but, in ascending and descending, is that some day he would be his ruin. He lived,
seer bore the strongest hatred, and was heard to say squeezed or otherwise hurt by them. And it is a however, in apparent friendship with him ; but one belief of the miners that he who is so hurt, if he day they were both destroyed together by the fire relate before the ninth day what has befallen him, damp. It was believed in the mine that, preferring must on the ninth day die, of which there are many revenge to life, the ex-overseer had taken his sucexamples.
cessor, less acquainted than he with the localities of Of these berg-mannikins there would seem to be the mine, into a place where he knew the fire-damp
to exist, and that without a safety lamp, and had two sorts, for some, when they appear, or make thus contrived his destruction. But ever after that themselves heard, bring good fortune, some evil. time, in the place where the two men perished, their They seldom take a visible form ; but such as do, voices might be heard high in dispute-the Northumshow themselves in the appearance of a diminutive brian burr being distinctly audible, and so also the miner, with a burning lamp ; these portend good well-known pronunciation of the treacherous murluck, and indicate rich veins of ore to be in the derer.” places where they are seen. Oftener the light We will give but one more story out of this only is seen, gliding swiftly, as if carried by one volume : the scene of it is laid on board a Brazil that ran, but the bearer appears not. These lights packet :burn blue, and the brighter they are, the better the
“ A lady was lying on the sofa in the ladies' omen. On the other hand, when visions of beasts or saloon, when, to her surprise, a gentleman entered of monsters appear under ground, it is an evil prog- it from the grand saloon, and passing through it, nostic, and commonly there follows thereupon great went out by the door that led towards the hold. ill-fortune.
She was much astonished, both that any one should
and These spirits, Retzel says, are no devils or in- enter the room at all, at least without knocking, fernal angels, fallen from a better state, but they, had associated with the passengers for some days,
at not recognizing the gentleman who did so, as she as well as the spirits of fire, air, and water, are She mentioned the matter to her husband, who said creatures sprung from the elements, have no higher that he must have been confined to his berth till nature than that of the elements, and will be de- then, but that it would perhaps appear, when the stroyed with the elements when the present system passengers sat down to dinner, who he was. At of things ceases to be. Vice or virtue cannot be dinner-time the lady carefully examined her comattributed to them, any more than to the winds, panions, and was positive that no such person was the floods, or the lightnings; they have their fits among them. She asked the captain if there were of good and ill-humor, their spells of fair weather her, that there was not.
He answered any passenger not then at table.
She never forgot the cirand foul; they are friendly to man or unfriendly, cumstances, though her husband treated it as a just as the elements are, with just as little merit mere fancy, and thought no more of it. Some time
afterwards she was walking with him in London, stooping, and holding his hand to his back ; thus
examined him for what cause those two other men
relation he (Mr. Reading) had heard, and I gave Here we take leave of this very pleasant Christ- before. And withal described the old gentleman mas party, not without renewing our recommenda- so by his picked beard, and that he was, as he called tion to the reader, to cultivate their further acquaint- it, rough on his cheeks, and that the hairs of his ance. We have put before him some of the stories face were black and white, that Mr. Reading saith, they tell, but we have said nothing to him of the he himself could not have given a more exact de
He told the delightful way in which they talk about these scription of Mr. Bower than this was. stories. We have passed over all their practical that would signify little from such a rogue,) to
highwayman that he must give him his oath, (though reflections on the subject of their discourse, all which the man readily consented, and took oath their reasonings as to the credibility of the things before the justice of all this. related, or of preternatural relations in general ;
“Mr. Reading being a
discreet man, all, in short, in the little volume, that is calculated cealed the story from the jury at the assizes, as to make the reader a better man. The reason is, knowing that this would be no evidence according we don't want to make the reader a better man, gentleman had been very inquisitive, and discovered
to law. However, the friends of the murdered but merely a more uneasy one. We appeal to several suspicious circumstances. One of which his nerves, not to his conscience. Our aim is not was, that those two men had washed their clothes, to improve, but to frighten him. Besides, if he and that some stains of blood remained. Another, thinks reflections upon the stories he has been that one of them had denied he ever heard that Mr. reading would do him good, what is to hinder him Bower was dead, where as he had in another place from making as many as he pleases ?
confest it two hours before. Upon these and such
like evidences, these two were condemned and exeare ; let him reflect upon them for himself.
cuted, but denied it to the last. But one of them We now turn to another treasury of horrors, to said, the other could clear him if he would, which wit, Mr. Joseph Glanvil's “Collection of Rela- the by-standers understood not. tions, in proof of the real existence of Apparitions, “ After some time a tinker was hanged, (whero, Spirits, and Witches,” published in the year 1688, the gentleman has forgot,) who at his death said, the never-to-be-forgotten epoch of Britain's deliv- that the murder of Mr. Bower of Guildford was his erance from brass money and wooden shoes, and greatest trouble. For he had a hand in it; he conof Ireland's from money and shoes of any material fetcht him from his horse, and when he was down,
fesseth he struck him a blow on the back which whatever.
those other men that were arraigned and executed The following narrative is contained in a letter for it, cut his throat and rifled him. This is the of Dr. Ezekias Burton to Dr. Henry More : first story which I had from Mr. Reading himself,
who is a very honest, prudent person, and not cred“ About ten years ago, one Mr. Bower, an an- ulous." tient man, living at Guildford in Surrey, was, upon the highway, not far from that place, found newly
In the same repertory is contained an account murdered, very barbarously, having one great cut of the apparition of Edward Avon, of Marlborough, cross his throat, and another down his breast. Two which was seen by his son-in-law, Thomas Godmen were seized upon suspicion, and put into gaol dard, of the same place, about nine o'clock in the at Guildford, to another, who had before been com- morning, leaning over a stile on the highway bemitted for robbing, as I suppose. That night this
Goddard had a
tween Marlborough and Ogborn. third man was awakened about one of the clock, and greatly terrified with an old man, who had a
good deal of conversation with the ghost on family great gash cross his throat, almost from ear to ear, matters. It appeared to him several times, and in and a wound down his breast. He also came in different places; looked in upon him at seven
o'clock of a November evening, through his shop-in Marlborough, who knew Thomas Coddard ; that window, and met him as he rode down the hill on first, about a year before he saw, or affirmed he the way from Chilton, “ between the manor house had seen, his father-in-law's apparition, he left off and Axford farm-field,” in the shape of “some- going to church, (of which he had been a diligent what like a hare," at which his horse started, and frequenter,) and “fell off wholly to the nonconthrew him in the dirt ; on getting on his feet again, formists ;” and the other, that he was sometimes after this fall, he saw the ghost in its proper shape, troubled with epileptic fits. But to these reasons standing about eight feet directly before him in the Mr. Glanvil does not allow much weight; observway, and it said to him, “ Thomas, bid Willian ing, that a man's falling off to the nonconformists, Avon (that was the ghost's son) take the sword though it may argue a vacillancy of his judgment, that he hath of me, which is now in his house, yet affords not any presumption of a defect in his and carry it to the wood as ye go to Alton, to external senses, as if a dissenter were less able to the upper end of the wood by the wayside ; for discern when he saw or heard anything than a with that sword I did wrong above thirty years sound churchman. In this we agree with Mr. ago, and he never prospered since he had that Glanvil : it is not sight that a dissenter wants, but sword.” Then, after various other directions faith. As to the epileptic fits, our own opinion is, about family affairs, the spirit vanished.
that Goddard's liability to these was the very thing Goddard went to the mayor of Malborough, and that made him also capable of seeing ghosts. Howmade a formal deposition of the above circum- ever, our author will not say positively but what stances. The mayor ordered him to do as the the apparition may have been “ some ludicrous apparition had directed ; and the next morning, at goblin,” personating the ghost of old Avon, merely nine o'clock, he and his brother-in-law, William to mystify, or “take a rise out of” the son-in-law. Avon, went with the sword, and laid it down in For Porphyrius has noted, that demons do somethe copse, near the place the ghost had appointed times personate the souls of the deceased ; and the Goddard 10 carry it.
As they left the spot, God- learned Von Meyer of Frankfurt confirms this by dard again saw the apparition of Edward Avon, many instances within his own experience. It standing by the place where the sword was laid, ought to be observed that there were no bones and called out to his brother-in-law, “ There is the found in the place pointed out by the spectre, but apparition of our father!” William Avon said he this, after forty years or nigh, is not surprising. saw nothing; upon which, Goddard fell on his Here follows a story
“ Of a Dutchman that knees, and prayed, “Lord! open his eyes that he could see ghosts, and of the ghost he saw in the may see it;" to which the other, instead of town of Woodbridge, in Suffolk :".
Amen,” responded, “ Lord ! grant I may not see it, if it be thy blessed will.” The apparition then Suffolk, meeting one day, in a barber's shop, in
“ Mr. Broom, the minister of Woodbridge in beckoned to Goddard, and said, “ Thomas, take up that town, a Dutch lieutenant, (who was blown up the sword, and follow me.” Goddard took up the with Opdam, and taken alive out of the water, and sword, and followed the apparition about ten carried to that town, where he was prisoner at perches further into the copse, where he laid down large,) upon the occasion of some discourse, was the sword again. At this time he saw something told by him that he could see ghosts, and that he stand by the apparition, like a mastiff dog, of a
had seen divers. Mr. Broom rebuking him for brown color. On Goddard's laying down the talking so idly, he persisted in it very stiffly.
Some days after, lighting upon him again, he askt sword, the apparition took it up, and going a few him whether he had seen any ghost since his paces further, pointed with it to the ground, and said, coming to that town? To which he replyed, “ In this place lies buried the body of him whom No.' I murdered in the year 1635, (thirty-nine years
“But not long after this, as they were walking before,) which is now rotten, and turned to dust." together up the town, he said to Mr. Broom, • YonGoddard asked him why he had committed this der comes a ghost.' He seeing nothing, askt him
whereabout it was? The other said, “It is over murder, and the ghost said, “ I took money from against such a house, and it walks looking upwards the man, and he contended with me, and so I mur- towards such a side, swinging one arm, with a dered him." Then Goddard said, “What would glove in its hand.' He said, moreover, that when you have me do in this thing?" and the ghost it came near them, they must give way to it; that said, “ This is that the world may know that I he ever did so, and some that have not done so have murdered a man, and buried him in this place in suffered for it. Anon he said, ' 'T is just upon us ; the year 1635."
let 's out of the way.' Mr. Broom, believing all to The place to which the ghost pointed was a hold of his arm, and kept him by force in the way.
be a fiction, as soon as he said these words, took dry and bare spot, on which nothing grew, and But as he held him, there came such a force against which, as Goddard described it, was “ like a grave them, that he was flung into the middle of the sunk-in.” As the two brothers-in-law went away street, and one of the palms of his hands, and one together, Avon confessed to Goddard that he had knee, bruised and broken by the fall, which put him heard the voice of the ghost, but had neither been for a while to excessive pain. able to distinguish the words, nor to see the he got up as soon as he could, and applied himself
“But spying the lieutenant lye like a dead man, speaker.
to his relief. With the help of others he got him Against the credit of this story, Mr. Glanvil into the next shop, where they poured strong water mentions two things that were alleged by people down his throat, but for some time could discern no life in him. At length, what with the strong | flew about the room in which the prophesyings water, and what with well chafing him, he began were held, for some time, without touching the to stir, and when he was come to himself, his first floor. A similar phenomenon is the riding of words were, ‘I will show you no more ghosts.' Then he desired a pipe of tobacco, but Mr. Broom witches through the air to their sabbath. On told him he should take it at his house ; for he which subject, Doctor Antony Horneck, a weighty feared, should he take it so soon there, it would divine of the seventeenth century, speaks as folmake him sick.
lows:“ Thereupon they went together to Mr. Broom's
“ That a spirit can lift up men and women, and house, where they were no sooner entering in, but
grosser substances, and convey them through the the bell rang out. Mr. Broom presently sent his maid to learn who was dead. She brought word can overthrow houses, or drive stones and other
air, I question no more than I doubt that the wind that it was such a one, a taylor, who dyed sud- heavy bodies upward from their centre. And were denly, though he had been in a consumption a long I to make a person of a dull understanding appretime. And inquiring after the time of his death, hend the nature of a spirit, I would represent it to they found it was as punctually as it could be him under the notion of an intelligent wind, or a guessed at the very time when the ghost appeared. strong wind, informed by a highly rational soulThe ghost had exactly this taylor's known gate, as a man may be called an intelligent piece of earth. who ordinarily went with one arm swinging, and a And this notion David seemed to favor, when glove in that hand, and looking on one side speaking of these creatures, Psalm civ. 4, he tells us upwards."
that God makes his angels wind, for in the original In a story of a butler in Ireland, who was like it is 7777; and most certainly if they be so, they to have been carried away by spirits, because he must be reasonable windy substances; nor doth the went out to buy cards for his master on a Sunday expression which immediately follows in that verse
cross this exposition—viz., that he makes his minafternoon, the most remarkable point is, that he isters a flaming fire ; for it's no new opinion that
was perceived to rise from the ground, where some of those invisible substances are of a fiery, and upon Mr. Greatrix (Valentine Greatrix, or Great others of an aiery nature : and as we, God gives rakes, of Cappoquin, the famous magnetizer of rational creatures here on earth, bodies composed of the seventeenth century) and another lusty man grosser matter, why should it seem incongruous for clapt their arms over his shoulders, one of them him to give rational creatures above us bodies of a
subtiler and thinner matter, or suoh matter as those before him and the other behind, and weighed him higher regions do afford? And if wind, breaking down with all their strength. But he was forci- forth from the caverns of hills and mountains, have bly taken up from them, and they were too weak such force as makes us very often stand amazed at to keep their hold; and for a considerable time he the effects, what energy might we suppose to be in was carried in the air to and fro over their heads, wind, were it informed by reason, or a reasonable several of the company still running under him to being ?" prevent his being hurt if he should fall, and was A curious thing happened in the year 1659, at caught before he came to the ground, and had by Crossen in Silesia, of an apothecary's servant. that means no hurt." This took place at the The chief magistrate of that town at that time was house and in the presence of the Earl of Orrery. the Princess Elizabeth Charlotte, a person famous
Another curious point in this case is, that a in her generation. In the spring of the year, one spectre came to this butler at night, bringing with Christopher Monigk, a native of Serbest, a town it a grey liquor in a wooden dish, which it bid him belonging to the princes of Anhalt, servant to an drink off, (as a cure for fits that he had,) but he apothecary, died and was buried with the usual would not. At this the spectre was angry, and ceremonies of the Lutheran church. A few days upbraided him with his suspicious temper ; but after his decease, a shape exactly like his in face, told him if he would drink plantain-juice, it would clothes, stature, mien, &c., appeared in the cure him of one sort of his fits, (for he had two,) apothecary's shop, where he would set himself but he should carry the other to his grave. He down, and walk sometimes, and take the boxes, asked whether he should take the juice of the roots pots, glasses off of the shelves, and set them again or the leaves, and received answer, the roots. in their places, and sometimes try and examine
Sophron, in that book about the “ Unseen the goodness of the medicines, weigh them in a World,” refers to this story, and condemns it as pair of scales, pound the drugs with a mighty tending to corporealize our notions of spirits.” noise in a mortar, nay serve the people that came But this seems to be said without due reflection ; with their bills to the shop, take their money, and for, first, we ought to ask, whence are our | lay it up safe in the counter ; in a word, do all “ notions of spirits” derived, that we should make things that a journeyman in such cases used to do. agreement with them the test of facts ? And then, He looked very ghastly upon those that had been it is not a very reasonable doctrine that a spirit, his fellow-servants, who were afraid to say anywhich can move a body, cannot move anything that thing to him, and his master being sick at that the body can move.
time of the gout, he was often very troublesome to The floating of persons, who are under spirit- him, would take the bills that were brought him ual influence, in the air, is no uncommon phe- out of his hand, snatch away the candle sometimes,
We have been informed by an eye- and put it behind the stove. At last, he took a witness, that one of the ladies at Port-Glasgow, cloak that hung in the shop, put it on and walked who “spoke with tongues" in the year 1830, Jabroad ; but minding nobody in the streets, went
along, entered into some of the citizen's houses, and what she wanted ? To which she said, “I am and thrust himself into company, especially of the spirit of such a woman, who lived with Walker; such as he had formerly known, yet saluted no- and being got with child by him, he promised to body, nor spoke to any one but to a maid-servant, looked to till I was brought to bed and well again,
send me to a private place, where I should be well whom he met hard by the church-yard, and desired and then I should come again and keep his house. to go home to his master's house, and dig in a " • And accordingly,' said the apparition, • I was ground-chamber, where she would find an inesti- one night late sent away with one Mark Sharp, mable treasure ; but the maid, amazed at the who upon a moor (naming a place that the miller sight of him, swooned ; whereupon he lift her up, knew) slew me with a pick, (such as men dig coals but left such a mark on her flesh with lifting her, withal,) and gave me those five wounds, and after that it was to be seen for some time after. The pick under a bank, and his shoes and stockings be
my body into a coal-pit hard by, and hid the maid having recovered herself, went home, but ing bloudy, he endeavored to wash, but seeing the fell desperately sick upon it, and in her illness bloud would not wash forth, he hid them there.' discovered what Monigk had said to her, and ac- And the apparition further told the miller that he cordingly digged in the place she had named, but must be the man to reveal it, or else that she must found nothing but an old decayed pot, with a still appear and haunt him. The miller returned hematitos or bloodstone in it. The princess here
sad and heavy, but spoke not one word upon caused the young man's body to be digged could to stay in the mill within night without com
of what he had seen, but eschewed as much as he up, which they found putrified, with purulent pany, thinking thereby to escape the seeing again matter flowing from it, and the master being ad- of that frightful apparition. vised to remove the young man's goods, linen, " But notwithstanding, one night when it began clothes, and things, he left behind him when he to be dark, the apparition met hiin again, and died, out of the house, the spirit thereupon left the seemed very fierce and cruel, and threatened him,
that if he did not reveal the murder, she would cerhouse, and was heard of no more. Another curious thing happened in 1673, at still concealed it until St. Thomas' Eve before
tainly pursue and haunt him. Yet for all this, he Reichenbach in Silesia, in which also an apothe- Christmas, when being, soon after sunset, walking cary was concerned, who after his death appeared in his garden, she appeared again, and then so to divers of his acquaintance, and cried out that threatened and affrighted him, that he faithfully in his lifetime he had poisoned several men with promised to reveal it next morning. his drugs. Thereupon the magistrates of the
“In the morning he wrote to a magistrate, and
made the whole matter known, with all the circumtown, after consultation, took up his body and
stances; and diligent search being made, the body burnt it ; which being done, the spirit disappeared, was found in a coal-pit, with five wounds in the and was seen no more. This was stated to Doc- head, and the pick, and shoes, and stockings yet tor Anthony Horneck by a very credible wit- bloudy, in every circumstance as the apparition had
related unto the miller. Whereupon Walker and Webster, a writer against the existence of Mark Sharp were both apprehended, but would witches and apparitions, has recorded a story it was Durham) they were arraigned, found guilty,
confess nothing. At the assizes following (I think which makes strongly against his own views, and condemned, and executed, but I could never hear which he nevertheless seems to believe. It is that they confessed the fact. There were some quoted out of his “ Display of Supposed Witch- that reported that the apparition did appear to the craft,” in Doctor H. More's letter to Mr. Glanvil, judge, or the foreman of the jury," (who was prefixed to Saducismus Triumphatus, and is as alive in Chester-in-the-Street about ten years ago, follows:
as I have been credibly informed,) but of that I
know no certainty. “ About the year of our Lord 1632, near unto “ There are many persons yet alive that can reChester-in-the-Street, there lived one Walker, a member this strange murder, and the discovery of yeoman-man of good estate and a widower, who had it; for it was, and sometimes is, as much discoursed a young woman to his kinswoman that kept his of in the north country as anything that almost house, who was by the neighbors suspected to be hath ever been heard of, and the relation printed, with child, and was towards the dark of the even though now not to be gotten. I relate this with the ing one night sent away with one Mark Sharp, who greater confidence, (though I may fail in some of was a collier, or one that digged coals under ground, the circumstances,) because I saw and read the and one that had been born in Blackburn Hundred, letter that was sent to Serjeant Hutton, who then in Lancashire, and so she was not heard of a long lived at Goldsbrugh, in Yorkshire, from the judge time, and no noise or little was made about it. In the before whom Walker and Mark Sharp were tried, winter time after, one James Graham, or Grime, and by whom they were condemned, and had a (for so in that country they call them,) being a copy of it until about the year 1658, when I had miller, and living about two miles from the place it and many other books and papers taken from me. where Walker lived, was one night alone very late And this I confess to be one of ihe most convincing in the mill, grinding corn; and as about twelve or stories (being of undoubted verity) thatever I read, one o'clock at night, he came down the stairs from heard, or knew of, and carrieth with it the most having been putting corn in the hopper, the mill evident force to make the most incredulous spirit to doors being shut, there stood a woman upon the be satisfied that there are really sometimes such midst of the floor, with her hair about her head things as apparitions." hanging down and all bloody, with five large wounds in her head. He being much affrighted and amazed,
Doctor Henry More thought this story so conbegan to bless him, and at last asked her who she was, | siderable,” that he mentioned it to a friend of his