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unrestrained freedom of speculative little is to be found of that anti-infidel inquiry, on a variety of subjects spirit of exasperation which soon af. equally interesting to both classes of terwards animated the Christian world. believers. But without dwelling on Even for some time after, the thepoints necessarily involved in great obe *ologians on either side took little scurity, it is sufficient here to observe, share in the contest. Christian mothat at the period when the literary ralists and divines were proud to draw greatness of Moorish Spain was in its their faith from Averroes, and to exzenith, when it was exercising its pound the Aristotelian philosophy on widest influence on Europe, the genius the principles of the Arabian commenof Arabian cultivation was strikingly, tators; and it may not be undeserving and to an extent never since equalled, of remark, that even the earliest tales tolerant and conciliatory towards the of romantic chivalry (those of the votaries of faiths, apparently most Round Table) breathe nothing of the widely and irreconcileably opposed - bigoted spirit of religious intolerance and Christian, Jew and Islamite united towards the Heathen, which distinin one harmonious effort for the pro. guishes the similar productions of a motion of what was thought science later age. If the deadly animosity and philosophical inquiry.
which afterwards prevailed had ex. From this union resulted a mu isted in the days of Charlemagne, it tual agreement to declare, as neutral is not probable that Salernum, the ground (open to all, and considered central point of the political warfare by none as constituting the essentials of the European and Asiatic powers, of their respective faiths) a vast field would have been selected by him for of speculative inquiry into the deepest the foundation of an University where theological questions. The European European students might freely resort Universities did not consider it incons for the cultivation of science, or that sistent with their religious faith to such a spot could have maintained its unite zealously with them in the same celebrity for the next three centuries. pursuit, and the schoolmen followed Of all European nations, not imit up to the most subtle refinements, mediately under the Arabian yoke, the subject, however, to the continual pro- inhabitants of Provence seem, on test of the more orthodox supporters many accounts, to have been most of the church. The latter soon saw subjected to its influence, on their that these freedoms could not be per- opinions, literature and customs. Their mitted without danger to the system of poetry is generally allowed to have absolute ecclesiastical authority, and, been modelled on the tender and pas. in the end, they were justified in their sionate tone of Eastern luxury. Their predictions by the excitement to in- institutions were gay, chivalric, liberal quiry and resistance which these spe- and courteous ; and even in their culations created.
courts and parliaments of love, with The external influence of the ener. all their frivolity, we may perceive getic spirit of Arabian literature and one useful principle established. Pubrefinement on the neighbouring Eu- lic opinion was brought to bear upon ropean courts, need hardly be dwelt the highest ranks of society, and even upon, Strangers flocked from all sides lawless power was confined within to the Saracen Universities for inconventual limitations, which it was struction. The Arabian geographers, not prudent to violate or set at definaturalists and philosophers, were in ance, The earliest efforts of this deall the Southern courts ; and when mocratic freedom of the Troubadour the Gothic monarchies began to culti. poets was manifested in eager satire vate the sciences for themselves, their and invectives against the vices of the teachers and professors were almost church; and the opinions of the speall drawn froin the Infidels, whom, as culative heretics, whom the Arabians yet, they had not grown wise enough had protected and brought in their to despise and butcher. Those who train to seek an asylum from perseinspect the scanty evidences which the cution, here found a fruitful soil for literary remains of these early ages propagation. Thus the great princiwill afford of the state of political and ples of literary energy and social cul. religious feeling, prior to the Cru. iivation, which the Arabian influence sades, will be surprised to find how established in the South of Europe, Fere from the first associated with with Manichæan and other Oriental rebellion to church authority, with errors. free inquiry, and a spirit of concilia. But the free spirit of the Troubation among rival professors. Nothing dour school, and indeed almost every is more obvious than that the whole Aralijan relation, soon became the genius of the Arabian policy and lite- object of vehement attack from the rature in Spain, was one of liberality chirch. It will not be necessary for add charity, and one which the church me to dwell here on the details of the did not till late see the policy of op. blind and bigoted warfare in which posing by all its temporal and spiri the Christian world was engaged, espeLaal authority.
cially during the 12th century, or to It is singular that the earliest here- point out how effectually the church ties of Europe should be the earliest accomplished its object. The Crupoets; and if it be (as almost all the sades were the first result of its powriters on the subject contend) clear licy, and the same zeal was soon dithat the poetry of the South of Europe rected to uprooting the freedom of owed its form and character to the opinion which the Mahometan spirit Moorish school, that circumstance had encouraged in the countries imalone would lead us to suspect some mediately subject to its operation. considerable influence of the same Domestic crusading against free inschool on the character of their thea- quiry among Christians, was the prological speculations.
per companion of intolerance towards The literature of the Vaudois, which unbelievers. The gay and smiling certainly belongs to the 11th century, plains of Provence and Languedoc will not, perhaps, at first view, be were soou deluged with blood; and admitted to be very closely connected the gay creations of chivalry and poewith that of Provence. Yet the iden- try fled from the scene of horror. tity of the language, the vagueness But in the midst of all the fury of with which the terms of Vaudois, the Inquisition, which commenced its Albigeois, &c., were applied, and the reign of horrors in the native soil of obscurity in which their respective poetry and romance, we still see the histories and opinions are involved, strongest traces yet uneffaced of the would lead me to suspect a much peculiar literary spirit which had been greater affinity, and antiquity of these impressed upon society. We actually sectaries, than is usually allowed. find a mock tribunal, not like the old The religious poetry of the Vaudois, parliaments of love for the decision of which has lately been published by M. knotty points in amatorial casaistry, Raynouard, would form in itself an but one of the same external form, interesting subject for examination, devoted to the investigation and conparticularly as furnishing evidence of demnation of theological heresies. Inthe real tendency of the opiuions of stead of the Teuson being directed, as these heretics, which hitherto we have before, to the solution of tender diffibeen compelled to take on credit from culties and equivocal obligations, we their enemies.
have Izarn, the Dominican Inquisitor, During the violent persecutions of bringing forth a refractory heretic, to the Paulicians in the 9th century, it is wrestle with him on points of faith, certain that a strict alliance existed and forcing him, under the pain of between them and the Mahometan burning with ipore material flames, government; that they afterwards fol. to confess before the court the blaslowed its arinies; that in various ways phemy of his creed, and the superior they directed their course into Europe, power of persuasion of his fiery antaand, apparently, chiefly by way of gonist. I do not mean, however, to Spain, through which they followed place the poetry of these heresy bunthe Moorish course to the South of ters on a footing with that of the obFrance, and were there patronized by jects of their wrath, and that I may the Troubadour courts, and especially not be mistaken, will give a speciinen by the Counts of Toulouse. Here of the holy Inquisitor's style, in which their followers afterwards acquired I have attempted neither to elevate nor the undefined title of Albigeois, and depress the flight of his muse. After were supposed to be deeply tainted a long argument, which had hitherto
been attended with little success, the stigma of favouring the Mahometan orthodox champion throws in the fol. faith itself. Frederic Barbarossa, and lowing powerful motive for choice: his successor Frederic II., are both
striking instances of this. They were As you declare you wont believe,
both zealous patrons of literature, and "Tis fit that you should burn,
where could they, if they cast their And as your fellows have been burnt, That you should blaze in turu.
eyes around them, see more compeAnd as yon disobey the will
tent inodels and instructors than in Of God and of St. Paul,
the Moorish schools? They were Which ne'er was found within your brave and generous warriors, and unheart,
doubtedly those qualities were inore Nor passed your lips at all
strikingly developed in some of the The fire is lit, the pitch is hot,
leaders of the Musselmen armies than And ready is the stake,
in the bigoted warriors of ChristenThat thro' these tortures for your sins dom, generally the mere slaves of an Your passage you may take.
ignorant hierarchy. We can thereThis extraordinary piece is particu- fore little wonder that their fame was larly worthy of notice, as containing a through life aspersed by attacks on view of the opinions then generally the orthodoxy of their creeds. attributed to the proscribed religion. But whatever zeal was displayed in ists, and among these the most pro- eradicating all traces of Infidel prinminent are those in which Orientalism ciples and associations, it is impossiprevails, and in which a Mahometan ble not to observe great and durable and a Christian schoolman would have effects upon the opinions and literafound little difficulty in agreeing, at ture of Europe. Its poetry (if, inany rate, to consider as fair matter of deed, it be so clearly traced, as is innocent discussion. These chiefly generally supposed, to an Oriental relate to speculations on the princi. origin,) received, through the medium ple of evil, the nature of angels, de- of the Troubadours, a new and permons, &c., and, what is more extraor- manent character. Its scientific purdinary, a transınigration of the soul. suits, its natural and moral philoso
One peculiar instance, both of the phy, were for many ages entirely Arainclination among many Christians to bian; and out of the subtle inquiries favour the liberal spirit and specula- of these schools sprung the greater tive freedom of the Mahometans, and part of the current dreams on dæmoof the zeal of the church in controul. nology, magic, witchcraft and astro. ing this spirit, and rendering religious logy. discord as vehement as possible, may be We shall have occasion to notice found, I think, in the strange and other. hereafter the graver speculations which wise almost inexplicable persecution of were borrowed by the labouring learnthe Templars. Amongst the mass of ed of the European schools : at preabsurd charges which were brought sent we have only to advert to an forward on the trials of the members acknowledged fact, that all wbich was of this devoted order, it is impossible in those days dignified by the name not to suspect that there must have of science, whether experimental or been some very urgent ground for occult, took its rise in the speculations alarm on the part of their prosecutors, of the Arabian Universities. Peter and a great degree of favourable in- Maurice, the venerable Doctor, the clination towards their Mahometan friend of Abeillard, who went to study opponents, who had, perhaps, in many in Spain in the 12th century, bears respects, really a good title to their testimony to the number of men of respect and esteem. For the same learning from England and other counreasons, the history of these times re- tries, whom he there found sedulously cords several instances of the most applying themselves to the study of distinguished sovereigns of Europe, such sciences as astrology. In such (who lead the Christian armies either pursuits the Jew, the Christian and from political motives, or from de- the Islamite, were at all times found fererce to the enthusiasm of the age,) cordially united, and that not only in at constant variance with the church, the Mahometan states, but even at and as constantly under the singular the courts of Christian monarchs, of whom Alonso the Wise, himself an Manichæans, who, by their zeal to astrologer and adept, may be proposed extirpate these dangerous intimacies, å the model and perfection. With adınitted their power to influence the tieze subjects were naturally asso temporal and spiritual fortunes of ciated those arts of magic and dæmo mankind. The South of France was nology, which bear strong traces of accordingly early and long the chosen tbeir Oriental origin.
seat of all witchcraft and magical opeIn considering the theological cha- rations, and inany fell victims to the racter of the being or beings by whose rage which seemed every where to ex. iniuence, and by alliances with whom pect that the Devil's kingdom was it was supposed that the laws of the sure soon to be uppermost, unless his Creator of the universe might be con- subjects were most vigorously put touled, the current superstitions will down. The same spirit seems to have be better understood, when we consider dictated the charges on this head the prevalence of those opinions on which were brought against the Temthe nature and power of the principle plars. of evil, in which many sects, both of It is rather singular, that the belief Mahometan and Christian Orientalists in communion with the evil spirit, concurred.
magical incantations and witchcraft Neither the opposing principle of should have survived, nay, have acevil, as recognized by the Islamite and quired for a time deeper influence over the Christian Manichæan, nor that the mind, from the Reformation. But, with which the forbidden alliances of perhaps, this is ascribable (in the same the iniddle ages were supposed to be way, as we shall hereafter observe, entered into as a constantly active concerning several matters of opinion belligerent power, seemn, in inany re- which, from being speculative, became speeta, to coincide with the theologi. then dogmatic), to the new light in cal Lucifer. It is true, that, in the which men began to consider opinions popular mythology of much remoter and prejudices, which had been too times, in the heathen days of Europe, deeply rooted in the popular crced to the principle of evil, as a fatality, as be at once discarded. Luther admitted an almost equally-balanced existence and enforced the belief of the existof conflicting power, seems every ence and constantly active energies where a predominant article of belief; of an evil principle, though by disbut the perfect and scientific character carding all the legendary speculations, afterwards given to the operations of on which it had long been founded, the same principle, seems to be the he recognized it merely under the product of the conjoined efforts of the character of the theological Satan, and Talmudist, Gnostic and Mahometan gave it a dogmatic weight and solemspeculators, in the schools where un- nity, by basing it on scriptural authobounded licence of inquiry was encou- rity. In this light, the persecution raged. From these arose the laboured, of dealers in black arts was as persewiredrawn treatises on spiritual and veringly and unrelentingly pursued by dæmoniacal essences and intelligences, professors of the Reformed faith, as and the systems of popular tactics, on even in darker ages, by those who which was to be carried on the un- had handled the same subject as one ceasing combat between the two prin- of a more speculative character. There ciples which they represented.
was a species of joviality attached to As might have been expected, the the older popular demons, to the countries most exposed to the influ- pucks, swart-elves and goblins, the ence of Hispan-Arabic opinions, were bogles, nekkers and nixes, who vexed the first to be singled out as the sub- and crossed the victims of their wayjects of persecution, as soon as the ward antics. This disappeared with jealousy of the church was awakened. the Reformation, but the principle of The Albigeois were acknowledged as controul over the benevolent agency Manichæans; and it was a short step of Providence was still admitted, and to charge them with unholy alliances all its operations transferred to the with the power whose active energies account of the Devil and Antichrist. they were supposed most heretically In more important theological opito admit, though it seemed to be for. nions, Europe has been greatly affected gotten that those became the real by the direction given to its studies, and to the cultivation of the human the European schoolmen are inli. mind, by the Moorish schools. The mately connected with, many of them scholastic philosophy is almost exclu- educated in, the Spanish schools ; at sively derived froin thence. I need the head of whom, in order of time not observe, that the philosophy of and influence we inav, perhaps, place Aristotle was early and ardently em- Gerbert, afterwards Sylvester II. Even braced by the schools of Bagdad and so late as the age of Petrarch we find Spain, and gave birth to those subtle from him, that the learned exalted metaphysical reasonings, which scan. Averroes above the Christian fathers dalized many of the more orthodox in no very courteous terms: “ Ulibelievers, and produced an infinite nam te Averroem pati posses, ut videres variety of sects, who disputed on all quanto ille tuis his nugatoribus major the intricacies of predestination, li- sit.” berty, free grace, necessity, &c. The The adoption of the scholastic phiMahometan doctors had, most conve. losophy, by the Dominican and Franniently for the peace of their church, ciscan brotherhoods, comtemplated its an admirable plan of preventing ascendancy throughout the whole cir. schism, by at once declaring the field cle of European literature; but still of these controversies neutral ground, we find the church and many of her and thus allowing space for their most more wary sons protesting against the ardent spirits to expatiate, without latitude assumed by these inquirers, coming into collision with the essen, who, on the other hand, not being tials of its faith. Among them we allowed, (as the Mahometan philosohear of such things as orthodox sects, phers had wisely been, under similar In this way, too, the union with Jew circumstances, to treat these subjects and Christian believers, in the prose- as, neutral ground, sometiajes denied cution of similar inquiries, was greatly the tendency of the latitude claimed, facilitated. Points of difference were and at other times boldly met the avoided, and we have the singular Biblicists, as they were called, and spectacle, which these. ages afforded, sought to establish a distinction beof the most hostile sects pursuing the tween reason and revelation, contend. deepest theological speculations in per- ing that tenets, which were philosofect unity, and Christian doctors, open- phically true, might still, with perfect ly educated in Mahometan schools, consistency, be theologically false, or writing on the subjects, and professing contrary to the orthodox faith. the opinions, there discussed and in In pointing at the coincidence between culcated. There is, I believe, now no the theological pursuits of the Ara. question that the whole system of the bian and the scholastic systems, and schoolmen is to be found in the spe the consequent probability that the culations of the Mahometan metaphy, one was indebted to the other, I do sicians and commentators. Even the not mean to assert that the same subprecise dispute, which so long agitated jects had not agitated the controver: the European schools, between the sialists of the Latin Church before the contending sects of Nominalists and proper age of the schoolinen. As Realists, is stated and discussed by Al early as the 9th century, in the days Gazel.
of John Erigena and Hincmar, the The original scholasticism of the same subjects were the occasion of Arabian schools required little or no eager controversy (though Anselm, accommodation to the specific objects in the 11th century, is called the fust of the Christian. Their doctrines on metaphysician since the days of Au. the Divine Being and his attributes, gustin); but it is to be observed, that observes Denina, on Grace, Free this was the precisc æra when the Will, Human Actions, Virtue and freest intercourse with the Mahometan Vice, Predestination, Eternal Punish Universities was established. In tracment and Heaven, even the very ing the history of the scholastic philotitles of the works of the Arabians sophy, it would be difficult to deny and the schoolinen on these subjects that many of its branches were cultiare so similar, that one cannot doubt rated in the form of comments and that the one was copied from the reasonings from Boethius and St. other. Indeed, some of the names Augustin, before the Aristotelian phiwhich stand foremost in the ranks of losophy came into vogue; but it is