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'Celestial as thou art, oh pardon, love, this wrong, Itoiling in a pitch; pitch, that defiles; defile! a “ That sings the heaven's praise with such an foul word. Well, Set thee down, sorrow! for so, “ earthly tongue !"

lihey say, the fool said, and so say I, and I the Hol. You find not the apostrophes, and so miss fooi. Well prov’d, wit! By the lord, this love is the accent: let me supervise the canzonet. Flere 5 as mad as Ajax: it kills sheep: it kills me, I a are only numbers, ratified; but, for the elegancy, sheep: Weli prov'd again on my side! I will not facility, and golden cadence of poesy, caret. Ovi- love: if I do, hang me; i' faith, I will not. O, dius Naso was the man: and why, indeed, Naso; but her eye,-by this light, but for her eye, but for smelling out the odoriferous flowers of would not love her; yes, for her two eyes. Well, fancy? the jerks of invention? Imitari, is no-101 do nothing in the world but lie, and lie in my thing; só doth the bound his master, the ape throat. By heaven, I do love: and it hath taught his keeper, the tired horse his rider. But damo- me to rhime, and to be inelancholy; and here is sella virgin, was this directed to you?

part of my rhime, and here my melancholy. Well, Jug. Ay, sir, from one Monsieur Biron, one she hath one o' my sonnets already; the clown of the strange queen's lords.

15 bore it, the fool sent it, and the lady hath it: Hol. I will overglance the superscript. "Te weet clown), sweeter fool, sweetest lady! ---By the “the snow-white hand of the most beauteous world, I would not care a pin, if the other three : lady Rosaline.'' I will look again on the in- were in: Here comes one with a paper; God tellect of the letter, for the nomination of the give him grace to groan !

[He stunds aside. party writing to the person written unto: 20 “Your Ladyship’s in all desired employment,

Enter the King

• Biron." King. Ay, me! Sir Nathaniel, this Biron is one of the votaries Biron. [Aide.] Shot, by heaven Proceed, with the king: and here he hath fram’d a letter sweet Cupid; thou hast thump'd him with thy to a sequent of the stranger queen's, which, acci- 25 bird-bolt under the left pap:-1' faith, secrets. – dentally, or by the way of progression, hath inis- King. [Reads.] “ So sweet a kiss the golden carry'd.—Trip and go, my sweet; deliver this

sun gives not paper into the royal hand of the king; it may Tothose fresh morning dropsupon the rose, concern much: Stay not thy compliment; I for- “ As thy eye-beams, when their fresh rays. give thy duty; adieu.

" have smote

[flows: Jaq. "Good Costard, go with me.—Sir, God The night of dew that on my cheeks down save your life!

“ Nor shines the silver moon one half so bright Cost. Have with thee, my girl.

“Through the transparent bosom of the deep, [Ereunt Cost. and Jaq “ As doth thy face through tears of mine give Naih. Sir you have done this in the fear of God, 35

light; very religiously: and, as a certain father saith

“ Thou shin'st in every tear that I do weep: Hol. Sir, tell not me of the father, I do fear No drop but as a coach doth carry tliee, colourable colours'. But, to return to the verses So ridest thou triumphing in thy woe; Did they please you, Sir Nathaniel ?

“ Do but behold the tears that swell in me, Nathi Marvellous well for the pen.

401 And they thy glory through iny grief will Hol. I do dine to-day at the father's of a cer

« shew: tain pupil of mine; where if (being repast) it shall |“ But do not love thyself; then thou wilt keep please you to gratify the table with a grace, I My tears for glasses, and still make me weep. will, on my privilege I have with the parents of \"O queen of queens, how far dost thou excel! the aforesaid child or pupil, undertake your ben 45" No thought can think, nor tongue of mortal tell.” Trnuto; where I will prove those verses to be How shall she know my griefs? I'll drop the paper; very unlearned, neither savouring of poetry, wit, Sweet leaves, shade folly..Who is he comes here? nor invention: I beseech your society.

[The king steps aside. Nath. And thank you too: for society (saith the test) is the happiness of life.

Enter Longaville. lich. And, certes, the text most infallibly con- What, Longaville! and reading ! listen, ear. cludes it.-Sir, I do invite you too;

[To Dull. Biron. [ Asidr.] Now, in thy likeness, once you shall not say me, nay: pauca verba. Away; more fool appear! the gentles are at their game, and we will to our Long. Ay me! I am forsworn. recreation.

[Excunt. 35 Biron. [ Aside.] Why, he comes in like a perSCE N E III.

jure, wearing papers'. Enter Biron with a paper.

King. [ Aside.] In love, I hope; Sweet fellow

ship in shame! Biron. The king is hunting the deer; I am Biron. [Aside.] One drunkard loves another coursing myself: they liave pitchi'd a toil; I amlool

of the name, ic. The bound and the ape are taught to imitate the tricks of their nasters. ? Tired here means allir:d, alluding to Banks's horse, mentioned in a former note, p.150. That is, specious appearances. Couvinted perjurers, when punished, wear on the breast a paper expressing the crime.



vary wit.



Long. [Aside.) Am I the first, that have been Long. And I had mine!

Aside. perjur'd so?

King. And I mine too, good Lord! į Aside. Biron. [ Aside.] I could put thee in comfort; Biron. Amen, so I had mine: Is not that a not by two, that I know:

good word ?

[ Aside. Thou mak'st the triumviry, the corner-capof soci- 5 Dum. I would forget her; but a fever she The shapeof love's Tybur ithathangs upsimplicity. Reigns in my blood, and will rememb’red be. Long. I fear, these stubborn lines Jack power to Biron. A fever in your blood! why then incision O sweet Maria, empress of my love! move: Would let her out in saucers ; Sweet misprision ! These numbers will I tear, and write in prose.

Aside. Biron. [Aside.] (, rhimes are guards on wan-19 Dum. Once more I'll read the ode that I have ton Cupid's hose:

writ. Disfigure not his slop'.

Biron. Once more l'll mark how love can Long. Tlus same shall go.--[He reads the sonnet.

[Aside. “ Did not the heavenly rhetorick of thine eye " ('Gainst whom the world cannot hold 11-15

Dumain reads his sonnet. “gument)

« On a day, (alack the day!) “Persuade my heart to this false perjury?[ment. “ Love, whose mouth is ever May,

“ Vows, for thee broke, deserve not punish- “ Spy'd a blossom, passing fair, “ A wonian I forswore: but, I will prove,

Playing in the wanton air : Thou being a goddess, I forswore not thee: 20 Through the velvet leaves the wind, “ My vow was earthly, thou a heavenly love; “ All unseen, 'gan passage find; Thy grace being gain’d, cures all disgrace " That the lover, sick to death, in

“ Wish'd himself the heaven's breath. « Vows are but breath, and breath a vapour is: “ Air, (quoth ke) thy cheeks may blow; “ Then thou, fair sun, which on iny earth 25 “ Air, would I might triumph so! “ dost shine,

“ But, alack, my hand is sworn, “Eshal'st this vapour vow: in thee it is: “ Ne'er to pluck thee from thy thorn;

“ If broken then, it is no fault of mine; Vow, alack, for youth unmeet; “ If by ine broke, What fool is not so wise, Youth so apt to pluck a sweet. “To lose an oath to win a paradise?”

" Do not call it sin in me,

« That I am forsworn for thee: Biron. [ Aside.] This is the liver vein', which makes flesh a deity;

“ Thou, for whom even Jove would swear,

“ Juno but an Ethiope were ; A green goose, a goddess: pure, pure idolatry. God amend us, God amend! we are much out

“ And deny bimself for Jove,

35 Turning mortal for thy love.--" Enter Dumain.

This will I send; and something else more plain, Long. By whom shall I send this?--Compa. That shall express my true love's fasting' pain. ny! stay.

[Stepping aside. O, would the king, Biron, and Longaville, Biron. (Aside.] All hid, all hid, an old infant 40 Were lovers too! till, to example ill, Like a demy-god here sit I in the sky, [play: Would from my forehead write a perjur'd note; And wretched fools' secrets heedfully o’er-eye. For none offend, where all alike do dote. More sacks to the mill! O heavens, I have my wish! Long. Dumain, thy love is far from charity, Dumain transform'd, four woodcocks in a dish! Thatinlove'sgriefdesir'stsociety:[coming forward. Dum. O inost divine Kate!

45 You may look pale, but I should blush, I know, Biron. O most prophane coxcomb! [Aside. To be o'er-heard, and taken napping so. Dum. By heaven, the wonder of a mortal eye! King. Come, sir, you blush; as bis, your case Biron. By carth, she is not corporal'; there

is such ;

[coming fortcard. [Aside. You chide at him, offending twice as much: Dum. Her amber hair for foul hathamber cuted: 50 You do not love Maria: Longaville Biron. An amber-colour'd raven was well Did never sonnet for her sake compile ? noted.

[Aside. Nor never lay'd his wreathed arms athwart Dum. As upright as the cedar,

His loving bosom, to keep down his heart? Biron. Stoop, I say;.

I have been closely shrouded in this bush, Her shoulder is with child.

[Aside. 55 And mark'd you both, and for you both did blush. Dum. As fair as day:

I heard your guilty rhimes, observ'd your fashion, Biron. Ay, as some days; but then no sun saw sighs reek from you, noted well your passion: must shine.

[Aside. Ay me! says one ; 0 Jove! the other cries; Dum. O that I had


Her hairs were gold, chrystal the other's eyes: Slops are large and wide-knee'd breeches, the garb in fashion in our author's days, as we may observe from old family pictures; but they are now worn only by boors and sea-faring men. 2 The liver was supposed to be the seat of love. Corporal here means corporeal. • To cote, is to outstrip, to overpass. Fasting here signifies longing, wanting. M



o'the way.

you lie.


You would for paradise break faith and troth: King. If it mar nothing neither,

[To Long. The treason, and you, go in peace away together. And Jove, for your love, would infringe an oath. Jaq. I beseech your grace, let this letter be read;

[To Dumuin. Our parson misdoubts it; it was treason, he said. What will Biron say, when that he shall hear 5

King. Birou, read it over. (He reads the letter.
A faith infringed, which such zeal did swear? Where hadst thou it?
How will he scorn? how will he spend his wit ?

Jaq. Of Costard.
How will he triumph, leap', and laugh at it? King. Where hadst thou it?
For all the wealth that ever I did see,

Cost. Of Dun Adramadio, Dun Adramadio.
I would not have him know so much by me. 10 King. How now! what is in you? why dost
Biron. Now step I forth to whip hypocrisy:-

thou tear it? Ah, good my liege, I pray thee, pardon me : Biron. A toy, my liege, a toy; your grace [Coming forward.

needs not fear it. (fore let's hear it. Good heart, what grace hast thou, thus to reprove Long. It did move him to passion, and thereThese worms for loving, that art nost in love ? 15 Dum. It is Biron's writing, and here is his name. Your eyes do make no coaches; in your tears, Biron. Ah, you whoreson loggerhead, you were There is no certain princess that appears ;

born to do me shame.- [To Costard. You'll not be perjur’d, 'tis a hateful thing; Guilty, my lord, guilty; I confess, I confess. Tush, none but minstrels like of sonneting.

King. What ? But are you not asham'd? nay, are you not,

20 Biron. That you three fools lack'd me fool to All three of you, to be thus much o'er-shot?

make up the mess. You found his mote; the king your mote did see; He, he, and you, and you, my liege, and I, But I à beam do find in each of three.

Are pick-purses in love, and we deserve to die. O, what a scene of foolery I have seen,

O, dismiss this audience,and I shall tell you more. Of sighs, of groans, of sorrow, and of teen! 125 Dum. Now the number is even. O me, with what strict patience have I sat,

Biron. True, true; we are four :To see a king transformed to a knot?!

Will these turtles be gone? To see great Hercules whipping a gigg,

King. Hence, sirs; away: And profound Solomon tuning a jigg,

Cost. Walk aside the true folk, and let the traiAnd Nestor play at push-pin with the boys,

301 tors stay. (Exeunt Costard & Jaquenetta. And critic Timon laugh at idle toys!

Biron. Sweet lords, sweet lovers, O let us emWhere lyes thy grief? ( tell me, good Dumain!

brace! And, gentle Longaville, where lyes thy pain?

As true we are, as flesh and blood can be: And where my liege's? all about the breast:- The sea will ebb & flow, heaven will shew his face; A caudle, ho !

351 Young blood doth not obey an old decree: King. Too bitter is thy jest.

We cannot cross the cause why we were born; Are we betray'd thus to thy over-view?

Therefore, of all hands must we be forsworn. Biron. Not you by me, but I betray'd to you: King. What, did these rent lines shew some I, that am honest; 1, that hold it sin

love of thine? To break the vow I am engaged in ;

40 Biron. Did they, quoth you? Who sees the I am betray'd, by keeping company

heavenly Rosaline, With men like men, of strange inconstancy. That, like a rude and savage man of Inde, When shall you see me write a thing in shime? At the first opening of the gorgeous east, Or groan for Joan? or spend a minute's time Bows not his vassal head; and, strucken blind, In pruning me? When shall you hear, that I 45 Kisses the base ground with obedient breast? Will praise a hand, a foot, a face, an eye, What peremptory eagle-sighted eye A gait, a state, a brow, a breast, a waist,

Dares look upon the heaven of her brow, A leg, a limb :

That is not blinded by her majesty? [now? King. Soft; Whither away so fast?

King. What zeal, what fury, hath inspir'à thee A true man, or a thief, that gallops so? 50 My love, my mistress, is a gracious moon; Biron. I post from love; good lover, let me go. She, an attending star, scarce seen a light. Enter Jaquenetta (ind Costard.

Biron. My eyes are then no eyes, nor I Biron : Jaq. God bless the king !

O, but for my love, day would turn to night! King. What present hast thou there?

Of all complexions the culld sovereignty Cost. Some certain treason.

55 Do meet, as at a fair, in her fair cheek; King. What makes treason here?

Where several worthies make one dignity; [seek. Cost. Nay, it makes nothing, sir.

Where nothing wants, that want itself" doch To leap means in this place to exult. ? Some critics have conjectured, that Shakspeare here alludes to the Knott, a Lincolnshire bird of the snipe kind, which, from the easiness with which it was ensnared, was deemed foolish even to a proverb. "Mr. Steevens, however, thinks that our author alludes to a true lover's knot; meaning, that the king reinained so long in the lover's posture, that he seemed actually transformed into a knot. 3 Critic and critical are often used by Shakspeare in the same sense as cynic and cynical. • A bird is said to prune himself when he picks and seeks his feathers.



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Lend me the flourish of all gentle tongues- Dum. Ay, marry, there;- some flattery for this

Fye, painted rhetorick? 0, she needs it not: Long. O, some authority how to proceed; [evil. To things of sale a seller's praise belongs; [blot. Sometricks, some quillets, how to cheat the devil.

She passes praise; then praise too short doth Dum. Some salve for perjury. A wither d hermit, fivescore winters worn,

Biron. O, 'tis more than need !-Might shake off tifty, looking in her eye: Have at you then, affection's men at arms": Beauty doth varnish age, as if new born,

Consider, what you first did swear unto ;-
And gives the crutch the cradle's infancy. To fast,—to study,-and to see no woman ;-
O,'tis the sun that maketh all things shine! Flat treason’gainst the kingly state of youth.

King. By heaven, thy love is black as ebony. 10 Say, can you fast? your stomachs are too youngi
Biron. Is ebony like her? O wood divine ! And abstinence engenders maladies.
A wife of such wood were felicity.

And where that you have vow'd to study, lords, O, who can give an oath? where is a book, In that each of you bath forsworn his book:

That I may swear, Beauty doth beauty lack, Can you still dream, and pore, and thereon look? If that she learn not of her eye to look?

15 For when would you, my lord, or you, or you, No face is fair, that is not full so black. Have found the ground of study's excellence, King. ( paradox! Black is the badge of hell, Without the beauty of a woman's face?

Tne hue of dungeons, and the scowl of night; From woman's eyes this doctrine I derive: And beauty's crest' becomes the heavens well. They are the ground, the book, the academes,

Biron. Devils soovest tempt, resembling spirits 20 From whence doth spring the true Promethean O, if in black my lady's brow be decht, [of light.

Why, universal plodding prisons up [tire.
It mourus, that painting, and usurping hair, The nimble spirits in the arteries*;
Should ravish doters with a false aspect;

As motion, and long-during action, tires
And therefore is she born to make black fair. The sinewy vigour of the traveller.
Her favour turns the fashion of the days; 25 Now, for not looking on a woman's face,
For native blood is counted painting now:

You have in that forsworn the use of eyes;
And therefore red, that would avoid dispraise, And study too, the causer of your vow:

Paints itself black, to imitate her brow. For where is any author in the world, Dum. To look like her, are chimney-sweepers Teaches such beauty as a woman's eye? black.

[bright. 30 Learning is but an aljunct to ourselt, Long. And, since her time, are colliers counted And where we are, our learning likewise is. King. And Ethiops of their sweet complexion Then, when ourselves we see in ladies' eyes, crack.

[light. Do we not likewise see our learning there? Dum. Dark needs no candles now, for dark is O, we have made a vow to study, lords; Biron. Your mistresses dare never come in rain, 35 And in that yow we have forsworn our books;

For fear their colours should be wash'd away. For when would you, my liege, or you, or you, King. 'Twere good, yours did; for, sir, to tell In leaden contemplation, have found out you plain,

Such fery nunbers', as the prompting eyes I'll tind a fairer face not wash'd to-dav.

Of beauteous tutors have enrich'd you with? Biron. I'll prove her fair, or talk till clooms-40 Other slow arts entirely keep the brain: day here.

And therefore finding barren practisers, King. No devil will fright thee then so much Scarce shew a harvest of their heavy toil: Dum. I never knew man hold vile stuff so dear. But, love, first learned in a lady's eyes, Long. Look, here's thy love; my foot and her Lives not alone immured in the brain;

[Sherving his shoc. 45 But with the motion of all elements, Biron.O, if the streets were paved with thine eyes, Courses as swift as thought in every power;

Her feet were too much dainty for such tread! And gives to every power a double power, Dun. O vile! then as she goes, what upward lies

Above their functions and their offices. The street should see as she walk'd overhead. It als a precious seeing o the eye, King. But what of this? Are we not all in love? 50 A lover's eyes will gaze an eagle blind; Biron. Nothing so sure; and thereby all forsworn. A lover's ear will hear the lowest sound, King. Then leave this chat; and, good Biron, When the suspicious head of theft is stopp'il: now prove

Love's feeling is more soft, and sensible, Our loving lawful, and our faith not torn. Than are the tender horns of cochled snails ;

In heraldry, a crest is a device placed above a coat of arms. Shakspeare therefore uses it here in a sense equivalent to top or utmost height. 2 Dr. Warburton says, 'ihat quillet is the peculiar word applied to law-chicane, and imagines the original to be this : In the French pleadings, every several allegation in the plaintiff's charge, and every distinct plea in the defendant's answer, began with the words qu'il est ;- from whence was formed the word quillet, to signify a false charge or an evasive answer.

* That is, ye soldiers of affection. * In the old system of physic they gave the same oftice to the arteries as is now given to the nerves. 5 Alluding to the discoveries in modern astronomy, at that time greatly improving, in which the ladies' eyes are compared, as usual, to stars.

6 That is, a lover in pursuit of his mistress has his sense of hearing quicker than a thief (who suspects every sound he hears) in pursuit of his prey. M 2


[as she.

face see.

Lore's tongue prores dainty Bacchus gross in And who can sever love from charity?
For valour, is not love a Hercules, [taste; King. Saint Cupid, then! and, soldiers, to the
Still climbing trees in the Hesperides?


[them, lords ; Subtle as sphinx; as sweet and musical,

Biron. Advance your standards, and upon As briglit Apolio's lute, strung with his hair'; 5 Pell-well, down with them! but be first advis d, And, when love speaki, the voice of all the gods in conllict that you get the sun of them. [by: Makes heaven drowsy with the harmony?.

Long. Now to plain-dealing; lay these glozes Never durst poet touch a pen to write,

Shall we resolve to woo these girls of France? Until his ink were temper’d with love's sighs; king. And win them too: therefore let us devise O, then his lines would ravisli savage ears, 10Some entertainment for them in their tents. And plant in tyrants mild humility.

Biron. First, from the park let us conduct From women's eves this cloctrine I derive:

them thither; They sparkle still the right Promethean tive; Then, home!vard, every man attach the hand They are the books, the arts, the academes, Of his fair mistress: in the afternoon That shew, contain, and nourish, all the world; 15 We will with some strange pastime solace them, Else', none at all in aught proves excellent : Such as the shortuess of the time can shape; Thien fools you were, these women to forswear; For revels, dances, inasks, and merry hours, Or, keeping what is sworn, you will prove fools.

Fore-run fair love, strewing her way with tlowers. For wisdom's sake, a word that all men love; King. Away, away! no time shall be omitted, Or for love's sake, a word that loves all men; 20 That will be time, and may by us be titted. Or for men's sake, the authors of these women; Biron. Allons allons -Sow'd cockle reap'd Or women's sake, by whom we men are men;

no corn'; Let us once lose our oaths, to find ourselves,

And justice always whirls in equal measure: Or else we lose ourselves to keep our oaths: Light wenches mayproveplagues to men forsworn; It is religion, to be thus forsworn:

23 If so, our copper buys no better treasure. For charity itself fullils the law ;


A C T V.


135) Nath. A most singular and choice epithet. The Street,

[Draws out his table-book.

Hol. IIe draweth out the thread of his verbosity Enter Holofernes, Nathaniel, and Dull.

finer than the staple of his argument. I abhor such Hol. quod sufficit.

ST. Opraise God for you, sir: your.40 ievise companions; such rackers of orthography, reasons' at dinner have been sharp and sententi- as to speak, dout, iine, when he should say, doubt; ous; pleasant without scurrility, witty without affec- det, when he should pronounce, debt; d, e, h, t'; tion“, audacious' without impudency, learned with- not d, e, t: he clepeth a calf, cauf; half, hauf; out opinion, and strange without heresy. I didlneighbour, vocatur', nebour; neigh, abbreviated, converse this quondam day with a companion of 45 ne: This is abhominable. (which he would call the king's, who is intituled, nominated, or called, abominable) it insinuateth me of insanie: NeinDon Adriano de Armado.

telligis, domine? to make frantick, lunatick? Hol. Novi hominum tanquam te: His humour Nath. Laus deo, bone intelligo. is lofty, his discourse peremptory, histongue tiled, Hol. Bone? -bone, for bene: Priseian a his eye ambitious, his gait majestical, and his gene- 50 little scratch’d; 'twill serve. ralbehaviour vain, ridiculous, and thrasonical. He Enter Armado, Moth, and Costurd. is too picked, too sprnice, too affected, too odd, Nuih. Videsne quis venit? as it were; too peregrinate, as I may call it.

Hoi. Video di guudeo. Apollo, as the sun, is represented with golden hair; so that a lute strung with his hair means no niore than strung with gilded wire. 2 This passage has been very fully canvassed by all the various commentators upon our author: the following explanation, however, strikes us as the most simple and intelligible: When love speaks, (says Biron) the assembled gods reduce the elements of the sky to a calm, by their harmonious upplauses of this faroured orator." * This proverbial expression intimates that, beginning with perjury, they can expect to reap nothing but falshood. * That is, enough's as good as a feast.

5°Reason here, as in other passages of our author's plays, signifies discourse. 6 That is, without affectation.

Auducious is used for spirited, animated; and opinion imports the same with obstinacy or opiniatreté. • Meaning, foo nicely dressed; allyding probably to a bird piching out or praning its feathers; a metaphor which our author has before used in this play.


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