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ber were elected, so a certain number, and those the very. same persons, were redeemed.
The ground and truth of this assertion, is further confirmed by such arguments as these:
Arg. I. The Levitical sacrifices were offered for the house of Israel, exemptive of other nations: and these bes ing a type of the spiritual election, it follows, that this sacrifice of Christ (typified by theirs) was also peculiar to Jews in spirit, or spiritual Jews: “ for he only is reckoned a Jew, that is such inwardly in the spirit,” Rom. 2: 29. So Aaron's making atonement for his household, and bearing the names of the twelve tribes on his breast-plate, were typical of our great High Priest's bearing the names, and sustaining the persons of those for whom he offered himself on the cross: of all those legal shadows, Christ and the church of the first born are the body and substance
Arg. II. The right of redemption among the Jews (which shadowed this) was founded on brotherhood: hence I infer, that that relation, spiritually taken, was both the ground and limit of Christ's office as a Redeemer. The apostle's discourse in Heb. ch. 2, seems to point at this, where he :: says "they were brethren, children, and sons, whom Christ should deliver from bondage, make reconciliation for their sins, and bring to glory.” But how came they to be God's children, and the brethren of Christ, above others? It was by predestination; and that it was it entitled them to redemption; as is evident by comparing the 5th and 7th ver. ses of Eph. 1. “ Having predestinated us to the adoption of children by Jesus Christ: in whom we have redemption through his blood.” And it is worthy of your notice, that by the law of redemption, a stranger (one that was not. of the brotherhood) might not be redeemed; but one that was, though not redeemed, must yet go free in the year of jubilee, Lev. 25: 46, 48. with 41: 54. which shews the peculiar respect the Lord has for his peculiar people.
Arg. III. The saving benefits of redemption do not se. dound to any but elect persons, whatever in one place is ascribed to redemption, as the special fruit and consequent thereof, is elsewhere ascribed to election, and to this as the first and original root: and, that redemption itself is the fruit of electing love, is evident by 1 Pet 1: 2. (quoted before) “ Elect unto obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ.” They are also said to be “ blessed with
all spiritual blessings in Christ, according as he had chogen them in him," Eph. 1:3, 4. and if all spiritual bles. sings be dispensed by the law of election, then all the saving benefits of redemption (which are the same with those of election) must be dispensed by the same rule; and 90, to the same persons only. We also find that Christ's actual distribution of the gifts he received for men, is guided answerably: “ he manifests the Father's name to the men he had given him out of the world,” John 17:6. to these he expounds that in private, which to others he spake in parables: and thus he did, because “ to them it was given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God; but to the multitude it was not given,” Matt. 13: 34. 36. and election was that which gave it them, as it follows there, “ for so it seemed good in thy sight.” In like manner, the apostle, in Roin. 8, puts election and redemption together, as per. tajaing to the same persons, and justification, which is the next effect of redemption, he makes also an unquestionable consequent of election; “ Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth: who shall condemn? It is Christ that died," Rom. 8: 33, 34. The question being put concerning God's elect, and the answer referring to those for whom Christ died; is a plain impli. cation, that redemption and justification are commensurate with election; that either of them concerneth only the same persons; and that neither of them extends to any, but whom the other also taketh in.
Arg. IV. The price of redemption was of that precious and matchless value, that it could not be parted with, but with respect to the certainty of the end for which it was paid. Now, the end of redemption was the salvation of men: below which there could not be an end worthy the death of Christ, and this nothing could secure but election, The elect always have obtained, and shall: this is a rule affirmed in Rom. 11: 7. But for the rest, they are blinded; that is, they are left to their own voluntary misunderstand. ing; and being so left, not only they do not, but they can. not believe. And Christ knowing from the beginning who they were that believed not, but would certainly reject him, to what end should he make his soul an offer. ing for them? Why for the world of the ungodly, whose spirits were in prison some thousands of years before? Whom the Lord intends to save alive, he appoints an
" atonement to be made for them,” Numb. 16: 46, 47. but for those be intends to destroy (which is always done justly,) he will not accept an offering, judges 13: 23. and therefore not appoint it: as he did not under the law, for those crimes which men were to die for.
Arg. V. I confine redemption to elect persons, because intercession, which is of equal latitude with redemption, is limited to them, exclusive of others. The priests under the law were to pray for those whose sacrifice they offered; and what they did, was a pattern of our Saviour's priestly office; whom likewise we find to sacrifice and pray only for the same persons; he is an advocate for those for whose sin he is a propitiation, 1 John 2:1. whose transgressions he was smitten for, for them he makes intercession, Isa. 53: 8. 12. for their sakes he sanctified himself, and for them it was that he made that solemn prayer in the 17th of John. And he then prayed for them, as being just then upon offering their sacrifice: he also shuts out the world express. ly from having any interest in it: “I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me,” John 17: 9. And he adds the reason, the foundation reason, why he would pray for these, “ for they are thine;" that is, they were the Father's by election: for in all other respects, “ the earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof," Psal. 24: 1.
Arg. VI. Another argument for peculiar redemption, is founded on the merit of Christ's death, together with its efficacy. He was not cut off for himself, Dan. 9: 26. but those he undertook for: and it was to procure them a right to those glorious privileges which election ordained them to. Hence I argue, 1. That which Christ laid down his life for, that he merited; and, 2. What he merited, is due to those for whom it was merited. Now, the principal thing intended and merited by his death, was the justification of sinners; and “ that God might be just in justifying of them,” Rom. 3: 26. and, finally, that they might have " eternal life,” John 17: 2. Jf, therefore, he merited this for all, then all must be justified and saved, Rom. 5: 8, 9, 10. and it cannot be justly denied to any: for it is their due, by virtue of a price: and that price well worthy of it; which also was paid to that very end, and this by the Cre. ditor's own appointment; who cannot condemn any for whom Christ died, Rom. 8: 34. his justice shall not be liable to such a reflection. Whence it may rationally be
concluded, that if all men are not justified, justification doth not belong to all; and, consequently, that Christ did not give himself for all. And, as for efficacy, Adam's transgression was efficacious on the will, and whole man, to deprave; why not then the righteousness of Christ to restore, since the pre-eminence, in that very thing, is given to him? “ For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ,” Rom. 5: 17. · Arg. VII. The doctrine of special and peculiar redemp. tion is further confirmed by those perilous consequents which attend the doctrine of general redemption, as it is common). Jy held forth; for, 1. It seems to reflect on the wisdom of God; as imputing to him such a conirivance for men's sal. vation, as might be possibly frustrated; which is far from convincing the world that Christ crucified is the wisdom of God. 2. It also seems to tax God with injustice, as not discharging those whose transgressions are answered for by their Surety; or else, that the sufferings of Christ were not sufficient to make a discharge due to thein. Or, 3. It insinuates a deficiency of power, or want of good will, to prosecute his design to perfection. 4. It makes men boasters; suspending ihe virtue and success of all that Christ hath done for them, upon something to be done by themselves, which he is not the doer of; and consequently, that men are principals in procuring their own salvation; and so Christ shall have but his thousands, in truth his nothing, while freedom of will shall have its ten thousands to cry up the praises of men. This is not “ that the Lord alone should be exalted.” 5. It would also follow, that those who are saved and gone to heaven, have nothing more of Christ's to glory in, and praise him for, than those who are perished and gone to hell. For, according to the principles of general redemption, he did and doeth for all alike; and no more for one than for another. 6. It makes men pre. sumptuous, and carnally secure: how many have soothed up themselves in their impenitency and hardness of heart, and fenced themselves against the word, upon this very supposition, That Christ died for all; and why then should not they look to be saved as well as any other? and so they lean, pretendedly, on the Lord, and transgress; not con.
dering, that those for whom Christ died, he purchased
fer them a freedom from sin, and not a liberty of sinning; nor impunity, but upon terms of faith and repentance. And that the tempter disturbs them not in their rest upon such a foundation, may be one reason why men so stiffly adhere to it; and that those of the general principle are so seldom troubled with terrors of conscience.
Lastly. There was yet another reason of Christ's dying peculiarly for the elect; they were his designed spouse; and that brought upon him peculiar engagements to die for them. 1. As being his spouse, he was chargeable with their debts: they being made under a law, and he assuming them into a spousal relation, made himself one with them, and answerable for them: it was, in the law's account, as well as his own intent, a making himself their Surety, Isa. 53: 8. 11. and, consequently, in case of forfeiture, his life must go for theirs. He is therefore said to be “ made under the law,” Gal. 4: 4, 5, as they were, and to be “made sin for them,” i Cor. 5: 21. and being so, sit behooved him to suffer,” Luke 24: 46. and it could not be avoided, Acts 17: 3. For the law being just and holy, its violation must be answered for, either by principals or surety: and here it was that mercy and truth, grace and justice met together; making that due temperament which answered the ends of both. Grace takes hold of him as a Surety, that the sinner might go free; and justice as of the most responsible party, for none else could answer the law's demands, and being apprehended, he readily yields to make satisfaction, and says to the law, as once to the Jews, when he was on the point of suffering for his spouse, “If ye seek me let these go their way,” John 18: 8. 2. Another engagement was the love he bore to them; if possibly he might have been quit of that suretyship engagement, this of his love would have held him to it; he could not bear to see his beloved fast chained, like slaves, to the devil's galo leys, and forced to serve against their natural Lord: and this bondage they could not be freed from, but by conquering him whose bond-slaves they were; nor could that be done, but by his own death, Heb. 2: 14. John 12:31, 33. And this his love constrained him to, Eph. 5: 25. Rev. 1: 5. Gal. 2: 20. “ for love (to be sure his love) is stronger than death,” Cant. 8: 6. and accordingly we find that this is
still made the ground and motive of his dying. 3. As the · contract could not be dissolved, for he hates putting away,