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higher nor lower in the reservoir. We tasted it, and found again the Siloam flavour. But looking at the water which had just been drawn up, we perceived that it was full of the wriggling worms and other animalculæ found in impure rain-water. Here, then, was another ordinary cistern, and the peculiar taste was accounted for.
Fifth, Of the second wall of the city, Josephus says, that it began at the "Gate Gennath" in the first wall, and ran "circling" around to the fortress Antonia. The gate Gennath has, therefore, usually and naturally been regarded as situated near the tower of Hippicus. But the modern theory removes this gate eastward to a point in the wall along the brow of Zion, from which the said second wall would run northward along the street of the Bazaars. The grounds and arguments brought forward in aid of this view by its two earliest supporters, have all been rightly rejected by the latest, with the exception of two; and these would seem to be hardly more tenable than the rest. These are the tradition of two gates along this line; one the Porta Judiciaria, so called, on the Via Dolorosa, the other on the brow of Zion. Now, as to the Porta Judiciaria, without which the whole argument falls to the ground, there is no appearance nor evidence that a gate ever stood in that spot; a single lone column does not of itself imply a gate. And further, of the Via Dolorosa itself, now held to be so authenticated by tradition, there is no historical trace until long after the crusades. On the contrary, historical documents clearly show, that in the thirteenth century the streets now so called were known among the Christians by other names.
In opposition to such a course of the second wall, we have, first, the manifest absurdity of supposing that a wall for the defence of the city would be carried along the middle of a declivity, where it would everywhere be commanded by higher ground outside. Then, too, we know from Josephus, that there was a gate by which water was brought into the tower of Hippicus; of course it was near Hippicus. In describing the approaches of Titus, after he had taken the third or outer wall, the historian speaks of the next wall (the second) as extending up to this gate. Hence we have the second wall described in two opposite directions; once, as beginning at the gate Gennath and running northward; and again, as running southward up to the gate near Hippicus. The inference is conclusive, that the gate Gennath and the gate by Hippicus were identical.
Sixth, One writer regards the course of the third or outer wall of Josephus as having been, in the main, the same with that of the present northern wall, and denies that the ancient city extended farther north than the limits of the modern one. But the multitude of ancient cisterns existing over a large tract outside of the present wall on the north, and in no other quarter, prove conclusively, that a very considerable extent of ground was here occupied of old by the streets and dwellings of a portion of Jerusalem.
From these six specimens it will be obvious, that I did not find the statements and hypotheses of recent writers sufficiently supported by observation to lead me to any important change in the views of the topography of Jerusalem expressed in my former work, and current for centuries. I might go on to add other like examples, but must leave them for another opportunity.
From these specimens, too, it might possibly be inferred, that these recent inquiries have been carried on, not so much with a desire to arrive at the simple truth, as to find support for preconceived opinions or favourite hypotheses. The authority of tradition, it might be said, was at all events to be sustained, even when unsupported by any evidence from history.
III.-POSTHUMOUS WORKS OF NEANDER.*
1.-Neander's Allgemeine Geschichte der Christlichen Religion und Kirche. Vol. VI.
THIS is the last volume of Neander's immortal work, edited from his papers by K. F. T. Schneider, who also attended to the publication of the last editions of Neander's monographs on Chrysostom, Bernhard, and Tertullian. He has apparently executed his laborious task with the greatest care, giving us as much of Neander as was possible in the fragmentary state of the preparations for a considerable part of the volume.
The work is divided into two chief parts: 1. The History of the Papacy and of the Church Constitution to the Beginning of the Council of Basle. 2. The History of Theology and Doctrine, in the same period (1294-1431). The first portion (pp. 1-252) was left most fully prepared for the press. The general character of the whole period is described as transitional, and this is especially seen in the history of the Papacy. The life of Boniface VIII. and his contests with Philip the Fair; the struggle between the Italian and French parties in the choice of a Pope; the transference of the papal residence to Avignon in 1309; the bold stand of Marsilius of Padua, "defensor pacis," against the papal intolerance and claims; the schism in the church for forty years (1376-1416); Gerson's reformatory principles and writings; the Council of Pisa, and the Council of Costnitz; these are among the subjects thoroughly discussed, under the general point of view of the waning influence of the papal authority. Neander's candour and mildness make his testimony to the dreadful corruptions of this portion of the history of the church the more emphatic and decisive. And the critical skill with which he analyses and brings to light the reforming movements already begun, confirms anew his value as a church historian, and adds to the weight of the argument for the necessity of that reformation, whose history, alas! he was not spared to narrate.
The second portion of the work, intrinsically the most important, and the most congenial to Neander, is not executed with equal completeness and symmetry. Nearly a hundred pages are devoted to the reforming movements in England, especially to the life and doctrine of Wicklyffe. Neander's chief authority here is the Life of Wicklyffe by Dr Vaughan, published in 1830, of which a new and more complete edition is, we are glad to see, announced. Then come the tendencies to reform in Bohemia, including the Life of John Huss, which was fully written out, though not entirely ready for the press. The words and deeds of the predecessors of Huss, of Milie, archdeacon of Prague, of Conrad of Waldhausen, the Augustinian priest, and especially of Matthias of Janow, are fully described. And of Huss himself, that truly great martyr, of whom Luther said, “ Existimo Iohannem Hus suo sanguine peperisse Euangelion," we have the fullest and most inspiring narrative that has yet been composed. While it has not received from the hand of the master that last revision which is necessary to the perfection of the form, yet the soul of the historian is there in its freshness and glow; the Christian fire is still burning in his very heart. Through three hundred pages we follow the career of John Huss, as he moves like a prophet among the corruptions of his times; and from his courage and his faith, his doctrine and his love, we learn new lessons in Christian truth and Christian heroism. Upon the last portion of his work, "The Friends of God in Germany," Neander was still engaged when he was called from the scene of his earthly toils. He was communing with Nicholas of Basle, with John Ruysbweh of Brussels, with John Tauler of Strasburg, with Henry Suso of Suabia, the contemplative minds of the 13th and 14th centuries; he was drawing from
From the Bibliotheca Sacra for January.
the dark recesses of medieval times their hidden gems, which sparkle even now as they greet the light, when he was himself called to a higher fellowship, where the faith by which he lived is lost in the sight for which he craved.
From the accomplished translator of the other volumes we hope that we may soon have this last legacy of Neander.
2-Neander's Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen."
THIS volume, of 268 pages, is chiefly made up of the Essays which Neander read in the public sessions of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. Several of them have already appeared in the "Collections" of the Academy; some of these were also separately printed. None of the treatises which Neander read in the class sessions" have been found among his manuscripts.
The first article in these remains is the Address which he gave upon his reception into the Academy, 4th of July 1839. It briefly states the points of connection between theology and the other sciences, to show why a theo logian might have a place among academicians. "Characteristics of Eusta thius of Thessalonica in his Reformatory Tendency," is the subject of the next treatise. It is on the basis of an edition of the works of the Archbishop of Thessalonica, who is also famous for his commentary on Homer, published from manuscripts in 1832. By these, fresh light was cast upon the moral condition of the Greeks in the twelfth century. Their debased condition, and the efforts of Eustathius to raise them up, are skilfully portrayed. The characteristics of New Platonism, and of Gnosticism, are admirably brought out in the next treatise, "On the Historical Importance of the 9th Book of the Second Ennead of Plotinus, or his Book against the Gnostics." This is a valuable appendix to Neander's Church History on these subjects, which, as they were among the first, so they were among the most favourite points of his investigation. We come down to the scholastic philosophy in the essay “On the Division of the Virtues in Thomas Aquinas, and the Relation of these Ethical Definitions to the Philosophical Positions of Antiquity on which they are based." The conflict between the spirit of the ancient world, and the spirit of Christianity, runs through the history of the Christian church. In the Reformation the latter obtained the full victory. What is false in the ethics of Aquinas, is to be ascribed to his taking his principles from the ancient Greek philosophy, which contained elements opposed to the true nature of the Christian system. The most interesting portions of this volume are found perhaps in the two succeeding essays on Pascal: one, on the "Historical Importance of Pascal's Thoughts, especially for the Philosophy of Religions" the other, on "Pascal's Mode of Viewing what is Peculiar to Christianity in its Relations to the World in general, and to what is Universal in Religions Consciousness." Of Pascal's real system, we have here an admirable exposition, coloured indeed by the peculiarities of Neander, but still brought out in its integrity, and in its full significancy. . . . . The other treatises which Neander read before the Academy bear the titles, "Matthias Janow, a Herald of the German Reformation, and a Representative of the New Principle thereby introduced into the History of the World; " and "The Elements from which the Doctrines of the Yezidees appear to have Proceeded," one of the best expositions on this difficult subject.
The remainder of the volume is made up of articles which the author contributed to the "Deutsche Zeitschrift," in 1850. The first discusses the Greek ethics, compared with the Christian, and gives for his purpose a sufficient account of the Stoical philosophy, of the Platonic and Aristotelian systems, and of the New Platonism, exhibiting their defects, as well as their excellencies, and the light cast upon them by the divine morality of the Christian system. It will well repay the study, especially of those who think that the best systems of ethics are still to be found in the classic writers.
And last of all, a fitting close to the work is on “The Past Half-Century in relation to Present Times." The growing freedom of Christianity from all external restraint is its key-note: "In that true freedom, the harmony of the soul with Christianity, the new creation of the future, whose germs are found in the half-century which is going to its grave, will shape itself victorious over the powers of darkness, and the powers of anarchy. Dazu helfe Gott!"
[It will be observed that in the American and German Departments of the following Publication list, we have indicated, so far as we have been able, the character and conents of the various works specified. Most of the notes are new, and written either after perusal of the works themselves, or from knowledge of the theological standing-point of the authors. For a number of them, however, we have been indebted to foreign contemperary sources in which we have confidence. Similar notices of British works are not so much needed; but in our future Numbers we shall notice in this department all works that may be sent to us.]
RECENT BRITISH PUBLICATIONS.
I. BIBLICAL LITERATURE.
A Treatise on Biblical Criticism; exhibiting a Systematic View of that Science. By Sam. Davidson, D.D. 2 vols. 8vo.
Mustrations of St John's Gospel. By J. Ford. Svo.
The First Hebrew Book. On the plan of “Henry's First Latin Book." By
A Practical Hebrew Grammar, with Exercises. By J. R. Wolf. Post 8vo.
The Pentateuch and its Assailants. By W. T. Hamilton, D.D. Mobile, Ala.
The Life and Epistles of St Paul; with numerous plates. By Revs. W. J.
A Paraphrase and Annotations upon all the Epistles of St Paul. By Arthur
The Apocalypse, with Notes and Reflections. By the Rev. Isaac Williams,
Wanderings in the Land of Israel, and through the Wilderness of Sinai, in
The Evidences of Religion, Natural and Revealed. Considered in two Sermons, with Notes. By the Rev. R. B. Kennard.
Bases of Belief. By Edward Miall, M.P. 8vo.
The Restoration of Belief. Part II.—On the Supernatural Origin of Christianity.
On Miracles. By Ralph Wardlaw, D.D. 12mo.
The Natural History of Infidelity and Superstition, in contrast with Christian Faith. (The Bampton Lecture for 1852.) By Rev. J. E. Riddle. 8vo.
The Christian Doctrine of Sin. Translated from the German of Dr Julius
The Doctrines of Peter Martyr, Cranmer's Friend and Coadjutor, upon In-
Angelology: Remarks and Reflections touching the Ministrations of Holy
Daily Bible Illustrations. By John Kitto, D.D. Evening Series. Vol. III.
III. CHURCH HISTORY, ANTIQUITIES, AND STATISTICS.
A History of the Jews, from the Babylonish Captivity to the Destruction of
A Manual of Ecclesiastical History, from the First to the Twelfth Century.
A New General Ecclesiastical Dictionary. By the Rev. Ed. H. Landon.
A Church Dictionary. By Rev. Dr Hook, Vicar of Leeds. Greatly en-
First Letter to the Rev. S. R. Maitland, D.D., on the Genuineness of the
An Historical Memoir of Fra Dolcino and his Times, being an Account of a
John De Wycliffe, a Monograph; including an account of the Wycliffe
Memorials of the English Martyrs. By the Rev. C. B. Tayler, Rector of
A History of the Reformation. For Children. By the Rev. Ed. Nangle.
Martyrs, Heroes, and Bards of the Scottish Covenant. By George Gilfillan.
The Convocations of the Two Provinces, their Origin, Constitution, and Form
Popery and Infidelity. By James Douglas, Esq. of Cavers.
Essays, chiefly Theological. Vol. IV. By Rev. Pat. Murray, Professor of
The New Reformation in Ireland. By the Rev. G. W. Jones, M.A., Curate
The Mission and Martyrdom of St Peter, containing the Original Texts of all the Passages supposed to imply a Journey from the East. 8vo. Jesuit Executorship; or Passages in the Life of a Seceder from Romanism. 2 vols., post 8vo.
Popery and Jesuitism at Rome in the Nineteenth Century. By Dr De
V. LECTURES, SERMONS, AND PRACTICAL RELIGIOUS WORKS. The American Pulpit, containing Sermons by the most eminent Pulpit
Orators of America.