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turgy again into general use, and for this purpose to have it revised by certain learned persons, selected for that purpose. Their names were as follows:-Dr. Bill, Almoner to the Queen; Dr. Parker, Dr. Grindal, Dr. Pilkington, Dr. May, Dr. Richard Cox, Dr. Whitehead, and Sir Thomas Smith; to which number Dr. Guest, afterwards Bishop of Rochester, was added by Cecil. The following were the principal alterations made by these divines in the second Prayer Book of King Edward the Sixth. The use of the same vestments as those which were prescribed in the first Prayer Book of King Edward was re-enjoined ; a Prayer for the Queen, one for the Clergy, and a Collect from the Sacramentary of S. Gregory, (“ O God whose nature and property is ever to have mercy, and to forgive, receive our humble petitions, &c.") were added. The prayer in the Litany, to be delivered “ from the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome, and all his abominable enormities,” was struck out as uncbaritable. The form of words to be used when delivering the chalice or paten, prescribed in King Edward the Sixth’s first Prayer Book, and that prescribed in his second, were united as they are at present. The Rubric at the end of the Communion Service, respecting the reasons for the ceremony of kneeling at the Lord's Supper, was left out. A similar rubric was substituted in its place at the last review, at the Savoy Conference, in 1662; but with a different meaning, declaring that the kneeling posture implied reverence towards the Divinity of Christ spiritually present, but not towards any carnal presence of our SAVIOUR's actual body, flesh, and bones.

The English Prayer Book, thus revised, could not be re- introduced but by Act of Parliament. Before a bill for this

end was introduced into the House of Commons, it was determined that nine Romanists, five of whom were bishops, and nine Reformers, should hold a disputation in the Abbey of Westminster, on three of the fundamental points with respect to which the Church of England is at variance with that of Rome. Among the Romanists were Dr. Bayne, Bishop of Lichfield; Dr. Scott, Bishop of Chester ; Dr. Watson, Bishop of Lincoln; Cole, Dean of St. Paul's, &c. And, among the Reformers were Dr. Scory, formerly Bishop of Chichester ; Dr. Richard Cox, formerly Dean of Westminster; Dr. Horne (who was the spokesman at the disputation); Dr. Grindal; Dr. Guest, afterwards Bishop of Rochester, &c. The three points on which they were to hold the debate were as follows:

"1. It is plainly repugnant to the Word of God, and the custom of the Primitive Church, to perform Divine Service, and to administer the Sacraments, in a tongue not understanded of the people.

"2. Every Church hath power and authority, to alter, appoint, and do away with ceremonies, provided the same be done unto edification..

“3. It can no where be proved from the Word of God, that in the sacrament of the Mass a propitiatory sacrifice is offered up to God for the living and the dead."

THE DISPUTATIon was to bave been in writing; but the bishops would give in no papers, and desired verbal debate. This was acceeded to; and Cole, Dean of St. Paul's, commenced the disputation by reading a long paper, in which he endeavoured to prove that there was no inconsistency in using the Latin tongue. But it does not appear that his arguments were sufficiently good to have had much (or indeed any) Weight with his hearers. He was answered by Horne, Dean of Durham, in an able and most learned paper, in which he drew arguments, sufficiently conclusive, from the fourteenth chapter of the Epistle of the Apostle St. Paul to the Corinthians; from the Old Testament precedent of the Jewish church, and from the authority of the Apostolic Fathers. When Horne had finished reading his paper, the Roman ists said that they had yet more to say ; and, although this was an

infringement of the order of disputation, their request granted.

ON The second day of the Conference, however, the manists bebaved in a very tumultuous manner ; and, decl ing at last that they could do nothing without the sanction the Pope, the disputation was broken up.

CARDINAL POLE, the Romish Prelate, being dead, and archiepiscopal see of Canterbury being vacant, Queen Eli beth selected for that high office Dr. Parker, a man of gr learning and piety, and who had been the object of bit persecution during the late reign. He was at first unwill to accept it; but having at last been prevailed upon, het consecrated on the 17th day of December, 1559, at Lambe by four bishops, Dr. Hodgkins, Dr. Scory, Dr. Barlow, Dr. Coverdale. During his primacy, a review of the Ort for Reading the Lessons was made ; and some prayers various occasions (which were omitted in after editions) added at the end of the Prayer-Book. In the year 15 Arehbishop Parker set forth a new translation of the Bib which was, in fact, a complete revision of the one printed Geneva in 1560. In 1572 a new edition was priuted, taining Cranmer's Prologue, S. Basil's Preface to the Psalo and two Prefaces to the whole Bible, composed by Archbish Parker. During the first ten years of the reign of Elizabe Romanists attended the services of the English church; deed Pope Pius IV. offered to confirm the Book of Comm Prayer if the Queen would acknowledge his supremacy.

In The latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign, the chun sustained considerable annoyance from the violent attacks the Puritanical party. Romish Jesuits, in order to exci hostility against her, pretended to be Puritans, and in th character reviled her ordinances and Liturgy. It may be well to mention that the surplice was first calle

of Popery," by one of these people, Father Cummin

a rag

a Dominican friar, who spent much time in abusing the Pope and the Church of England, for no other reason than to stir up hatred against the latter. Archbishop Parker died in 1575, and was succeeded by Grindal, who died 1583. Grindal was succeeded by Whitgift, who, during the period he was primate, was of considerable service to the cause of the church in England.

F. C. H.


CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL. IN THE DAYS of Ethelbert, fifth King of Kent, St. Augustine, who had come over from Rome for the purpose of attempting the conversion of the inhabitants of Britain, obtained a site from the king for the erection of a church. This was where the cathedral church of Canterbury now stands, the foundation of which was laid in year 597, and dedicated in the name of our Blessed Saviour by the title of Christ church.

The prous founder, St. Augustine, was consecrated by the Bishops in Gaul, and appointed the first Archbishop, and also Metropolitan, so that all other bishopricks, subsequently established, were to be subject to the see of Canterbury. St. Augustine died in the year 604, and was buried in the northern porch of the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, belonging to a monastery of that name. His bones were many years after removed within the cathedral, which was not completed at the time of his death. Many reasons are assigned for the choice of St. Augustine, of Canterbury, rather than London, where the pall*

The pall was a kind of mantle made of wool worn upon the shoulders of bishops to represent the sheep which Christ the good shepherd carried on His shoulders. This was first granted by kings to prelates, but eventually the pope claimed the right of granting it, as a token of the supremacy of the Roman see. A figure of the pall, forms part of the archiepiscopal arms of Canterbury

had been originally sent, for the seat of the archiepiscopal see. Of these, the principal seem to have been, that as London was likely to prove the residence of the English monarch, it was possible the dignity of the crown would eclipse that of the church. And as there had been already bishops of London, though without any fixed see, St. Augustine might have seemed to have derived some right from them, to which he would not consent, having expressly been sent over from Rome by the Pope. On this account he had a new “ Chaire,” carved out for himself, and set up in the place, which, having first received Christianity from the Saxons, he deemed worthy of the highest honour.

ST AUGUsTine was succeeded by Laurentius, a Roman, whom he ordained previously to his death. Mellitus, who had accompanied St. Augustine from Rome, was the next archbishop; to him succeeded Justus, and afterward Honorius, in whose time the division of the province into parishes was first made ; the earliest ecclesiastical divisions hitherto known having been those of a diocese, or the circuit of a bishop's juris


We have little information of the state of the archbishoprick during these early years. Waroften desolated England; the ruthless Danish invaders had no reverence for God's sanctuary, and thus the town and cathedral of Canterbury fell a sacrifice to their rapacity. The outer walls alone remained of what was formerly so magnificent a structure ; this happened in 1011, and it was not till the year 1017 when Canute ascended the throne that the cathedral was restored. At the time when Lanfranc, Abbot of Caen, was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, the whole of the building was consumed by a calamitous fire ; but through the exertions of Lanfranc, it was again erected, and in a far more magnificent manner than before. The whole of the stone used in its re-construction was brought over from Caen in Normandy, this is worthy of

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