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its name, found, to his great joy, the otter creeping caused by what they called the 'trumpeter' fish, to his feet, with every mark of its strong attach- which attaches itself to the bottom of the boat by ment. An otter kept at Corsbie House, Wigton- an apparatus similar to that of the 'sucking' shire, evinced a great fondness for gooseberries, fish, which they stated it resembled. But, as I fondled about its keeper's feet like a pup or a could never obtain a specimen, or further proof of kitten, and even seemed inclined to salute her their knowledge of the creature, the statement must cheek, when permitted to carry its freedom so far.” be taken for what it is worth. The sound at times

THE NUTCRACKER (p. 228).—This is a bird of became more distinct and feeble, varying in the the crows or crow kind; it is called by naturalists manner described by one of your earliest corremicifruga caryocatactes, a sufficiently ugly name spondents; but this I could clearly trace to the for the ugliest creature in existence. And this occasionally altered condition of the boat, as its bird certainly is not a beauty. Its shape is sailing powers were increased or the reverse. The awkward and heavy, and its plumage of a dull night was moderately dark. It is thought by the reddish and blackish brown; looks, in consequence boatmen only to attach itself at night.”—J.W.F.B. of the tips of the feathers being white, as if it had WOODWELE (p. 228).-It is a disputed question been burned all over. In this country the nut- what bird the old writers meant by this term.. cracker ranks only as an occasional straggler, but Some consider it a species of thrush, others a few specimens having been obtained; but it is woodlark. The bird figures in the ancient ballad common in many parts of the continent, living in of “True Thomas: woods in the mountainous districts, and feeding There the jay and the throstele, on nuts and other hard fruits, the shells of which it

The mavis winged her song, splits with its large and powerful bill, hence the

The woodwale found, as bright as a bell

That wode about me rung. common name of the bird.

In this quaint rhyme the throstle and mayis SINGING FIsu (p. 228). — There are several (thrush and blackbird) are mentioned distinct kinds of fish which are said to utter sounds suffi- from the woodwale, whatever that may be. The ciently harmonious to be called musical. Among name also occurs in Chaucer, who saysthem is the trumpet-fish of the Mediterranean

"In many places nightingales (centrisans scotopar) sometimes called the sea And uips, and finches, and woodweles.” snipe, on account of its long tubular beak, which Woodwele and Wetwele are other modifications seems well adapted for drawing from among the of the same name. The latter term is applied in seaweed and sand the small crustaceous animals the New Forest, Hampshire, to a kind of woodon which it feeds. This is a very beautiful fish, pecker at the present day. This, however, can the colour of the under and upper parts being hardly have been the bird meant by the old poets, bright red, of the sides of the head and under parts for it is not a songster.-H, Y. S. silvery. Several communications have recently SILKWORMS (p. 154, 228)—The silkworm is a appeared in the Athenæum on fish which utter native of China, and is considered by the inhamusical sounds; the following are the latest of bitants of great value, so much so, that all persons them - "On the broad expanse or bay of the leaving the empire were caused to be searched, Tagus, which extends from Cacilhas Point to lest they should have concealed any of the worms Alden Gallega, I have heard proceed from the or eggs about them, and for a long time they water, and apparently close under the boat, on succeeded. They were, however, at last brought several occasions, sounds resembling the vibra- over by a gentleman in his walking-stick, having tions of a deep-toned bell, gong, or pedal-pipe a movable top, the stick of course being hollow, of an organ. The boatmen seemed to know them wherein he deposited a number of eggs, thus well, and generally exclaimed "The Carvina.' escaping the vigilance of the Chinese officers. This is a large fish with black fins, which is, I

ADA AND EVA. believe, occasionally to be met with in the Lisbon market."-E.

QUERIES. * Allow me to add, to the varied testimony of The Armadillo.-This scaly coated creature has your correspondents, evidence of its existence lately attracted my attention at the Zoological in a still more remote quarter of the globe. In its habits; I understand this, too, is a reptile, but

Gardens, and I want to know something about the year 1843, whilst proceeding at night in a how unlike it is to a serpent.—BOBBY B. small sailing-boat up the Swan River, on the The Mermaid Superstition.- Has any recent western coast of Australia, I was startled by a instance occurred in which a real or fancied sight sound proceeding from the bottom of the boat of ing glass, who sits on the rocks and sings to lure

of the maiden with the sea-green locks and looka vibratory character, like that of the pedal-pipe of unwary mariners to destruction, has been oba small organ, The boatmen knew it well, as tained?-MARIA.


SPONGE BISCUITS.—Beat the yolks of twelve eggs for half an hour; then put in a pound and

a half of beaten sifted sugar, and whisk it until it RICE DUMPLINGS.-- Pick and wash a pound of rises in bubbles; beat the whites to a strong froth, rice, and boil it gently in two quarts of water till and whisk them well with the sugar and yolks ; it becomes dry, keeping the pot well covered, and work in fourteen ounces of flour, with the rinds not stirring it. Then take it off the fire, and of two lemons grated. Bake them in tin moulds spread it out to cool on the bottom of an inverted buttered, in a quick oven, for an hour; before they sieve, loosening the grains lightly with a fork, are baked sift a little fine sugar over them. that all the moisture may evaporate. Pare a CHILBLAINS.-Put the hands and feet once a dozen pippins, or some large juicy apples, and week into hot water, in which two or three handfuls scoop out the core. Then fill up the cavity with of common salt have been thrown. This is a marmalade, or with lemon and sugar. Cover certain preventive as well as a cure. every apple all over with a thick coating of the TAKE PHYSIC FOR CROSSNESS.-A sensible boiled rice. Tie up each in a separate cloth, and woman, the mother of a young family, taught her put them into a pot of cold water. They will re- children from their earliest childhood to consider quire about an hour and a quarter after they begin ill-humour as a disorder which was to be cured by to boil, perhaps longer.

physic. Accordingly, she had always small doses POACHED EGGS.-Poached eggs make several ready, and the little patients, whenever it was excellent dishes, but poaching them is rather a thought needful, took rhubarb for the crossness. delicate operation, as in breaking the egg into the No punishment was required. Peevishness, illwater, particular care must be taken to keep the temper, and rhubarb were associated in their white round the yolk. The best way is to open minds always as cause and effect.-Southey's Litethe small end of the egg with a knife. When the rary Pastimes. egg is done (it must be very soit) it should be CHOOSE THE SUNNY SIDE OF THE STREET. thrown into cold water, where it may be pared, A free exposure to the light and to the sun's inand its appearance improved, before it is dished fluence hasa great effect in diminishing the tendency up. Poached eggs are served up upon spinach, or to disease. The sunny side of the street should stewed endive, or alone with rich gravy, or with always be chosen as a residence, from its superior stewed Spanish onions. They may also be fried healthiness. It has been found in public buildings, in oil until they are brown, when they form a good &c., that those are always the most healthy which dish with rich gravy.

are the lightest and sunniest. In some barracks CLEANING HAIR BRUSHES.-It is said that soda in Russia, it was found that in a wing where no dissolved in cold water is better than soap and sun penetrated, there occurred three cases of hot water. The latter very soon softens the hairs, sickness, for every single case which happened on and the rubbing completes their destruction, that side of the building exposed to the sun's rays. Soda having an affinity for grease, cleans the All other circumstances were equal-such as venbrush with a very little friction.

tilation, size of apartments, number of inmates, To CLFAN GILT FRAMES. — Beat up three diet, &c.-so that no other cause for this disproounces of the white of eggs with one ounce of soda. portion seemed to exist. In the Italian cities, Blow the dust from the frames with a bellows; this practical hint is well known. Malaria seldom then rub them over with a soft brush dipped in attacks the set of apartments or houses which are the mixture, and they will become bright and freely open to the sun, while, on the opposite side fresh.

of the street, the summer and autumn are very HINTS ON PICKLING.–Do not keep pickles in unhealthy, and even dangercus. common earthenware, as the glazing contains TO PRESERVE MILK.- Provide bottles, which lead, and combines with the vinegar. Vinegar must be perfectly clean, sweet, and dry; draw the for pickling should be sharp, though not the milk from the cow into the bottles, and, as they sharpest kind, as it injures the pickles. If you are filled, immediately cork them well up, and use copper, beli-metal, or brass vessels for pickling, fasten the corks with packthread or wire. Then never allow the vinegar to cool in them, as it then spread a little straw in the bottom of a boiler, is poisonous. Add a teaspoonful of alum, and a on which place bottles with straw between them, teacup of salt to each three gallons of vinegar, until the boiler contains a sufficient quantity. Filí and tie up a bag with pepper, ginger root, spices it up with cold water; heat the water, and as soon of all the different sorts in it, and you have vine- as it begins to boil, draw the fire, and let the whole gar prepared for any kind of pickling. Keep gradually cool. When quite cold, take out the pickles only in wood or stoneware. Anything that bottles, and pack them in sawdust, in hampers, has held grease will spoil pickles. Stir pickles and stow them in the coolest part of the house. occasionally, and if there are soft ones take them Milk preserved in this manner, and allowed to out and scald the vinegar, and pour it hot over remain even eighteen months in the bottles, will the pickles. Keep enough vinegar to cover them be as sweet as when first milked from the cow. well. If it is weak, take fresh vinegar and pour on - TO PREVENT THE SMOKING OF A LAMP.-Soak hot. Do not boil vinegar or spice above five the wick in strong vinegar, and dry it well before minutes.

you use it; it will then burn clearly, and give much DOMESTIC PEACE.— The less of physical force or satisfaction for the trifling trouble in preparing it. menacing language we use the less, to take an ex- RECEIPT FOR TOMATO SAUCE.-Cut six tomapressive word, we scold our children—the more toes in half, and having pressed out their juice, order and quiet we shall commonly secure. We put to them some gravy, a bit of garlick, a little have seen families where a single word or look even parsley, and a few drops of vinegar. These must would allay a rising storm. The gentle but firm be boiled together for a short time, and passed method is the best security for domestic peace. through a sieve.


Pale tints of Autumn, lovely ye appear,
Gilding with glowing shades the fast declining

Ye teach us that all earthly things decay,
Transient and fleeting as the passing day.
The trees in varied hues appear-
They tell us winter draweth near;
The falling leaves and fading bowr's
Remind us of departing hours.
There's something lovely e'en amidst decay
That calls us to reflection on our way,
That speaks of that fair land where flowers

immortal bloom,
Beyond the grave and confines of the tomb.
Autumn reminds us of declining age-
“Passing away seems written on each page;
It shows us that our days are hastening by,
And bids us to reflect on Immortality.


WHERE ARE THEY GONE? WHERE are they gone? they who were once

(In memory still the same) Companions of my youthful days

In many a childish game;
When over hill and rustic dell,

On a bright Summer's day,
We roamed abroad with merry heart

To pass the hours away?
Where are they gone? I see them not,

Except in memory's eye,
And then I only see them as

They were in years gone by,
I asked again; then thought I saw

An angel form that said,
“Some are far off, some near, and some

Are numbered with the dead!"
Where are they gone? They who have died

In infancy or age;
The friend of learning, science, truth;

The philosophic sage;
The patriot who, with loyal heart,

Fell in the prime of youth;
The Christian martyr who in faith

Laid down his life for Truth?
Where are they gone? The hours that pass

So oft unheeded by?
And we are here, yet do not think

To ask the reason “Why?”
These all are gone-nay, ask not where,

Man, that is nought to thee!
'Tis thine to wait, and to prepare
For long Eternity !


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IN THE CITY. In the City-in the City

Many regal spirits stoop 'Neath a load of sordid sorrows,

Till their pinions, dust-soiled, droopDroop for lack of common comforts,

To ennerve them for a flight On a glorious mercy errand

To the realms of Truth and Light, In the City-in the City

Many human hearts unblest Look amid this world of changes

For a place whereon to restSeeking not the rest eternal

Which doth for the just remain, Wandering with weeping angels

To the silent shoreless main. In the City-in the City,

Ah! too many woo Despair, And believe that lying demon

When she tells them that they ne'er May regain the vanished fortunes

Of their souls once loved right well, And most wisely, for their value

Words will never dare to tell, In the City-in the City

Hearts there be that run to waste Wayward hearts by passion cheated,

Which most blindly will not taste Those dear joys pure love bestoweth

On the souls that sweetly be Guided by her smiles and whispers

Unto Light and Liberty. In the City-in the City

Many a heart made cold by woe Mourneth o'er a fear and darkness

Heaven alone can ever know; Darkness o'er it, darkness in it,

Darkness on the way to bliss, Seeming darkness on the pathway Where no sorrow ever is.


Come with me, come away-
Come into the fields to-day;

Lay aside the dusty tome,

Come for once and let us roam
Where the merry breezes play:
Where the little dimpled brook
Wanders free thro' meadow nook;

Come and see its ripples glitter,

Come and hear the swallows twitter,
Nature's is the sweetest book,
Pages full of

She will open unto thee:

Every floweret in the dell

Has a hidden truth to tell;
Come into the fields with me.


TO WOMAN. EARTH! thou wouldst be a blank, a dreary waste,

A mighty desert without aught to cheer,

If lovely Woman were not ever near, Our homes to bless with comfort and with taste. Oh, Woman! what were life without thy love?

Thou, whom thy Maker formed so fair,

One would believe-thy beauty is so rareThou wert an angel sent us from above. Thy holy mission is man's path to cheer,

To comfort him whene'er in care and strife,

And ever while he lives to make his life, His home, to him a thousand-fold more dear; May'st thou thy mission well fulfill, and he Never neglect that which is due to thee.




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“THE sun is all very well,” said an Irishman, A ton of perfect pain can be more easily found “but in my opinion the moon is worth two of it: than an ounce of perfect happiness. He knows for the moon affords us light in the night time, little of himself or of the world who does not when we really want it; whereas we have the sun think it sufficient happiness to be free from with us in the day time, when we have no occa

sorrow. sion for it."

SPITE of all the fools that pride has made, COMPLAISANCE is no longer confined to the | 'Tis not on man a useless burden laid; polite circles. A captain of a vessel was lately Pride has ennobled some, and some disgraced; called out of a coffee-house at Wapping, by a It hurts not in itself, but as 'tis placed; waterman, with the following address :-“An't | When right, its view knows none but virtue's please your honour, the tide is waiting for you." bound,

“ PAPA," said a little boy to his parent the When wrong it scarcely looks one inch around. other day, “ are not sailors very, very small men ?”

Stillingfleet “No, my dear,” answered the father;" pray,


GOLDEN RULES, leads you to suppose that they are so small ?" “Because,” replied the young idea, smartly, “I EVERY man complains of his memory, but no read the other day of a sailor going to sleep in man complains of his judgment. his watch."

We must not deck virtue or learning in false An Indian being at an Englishman's stable at colours, in order to render them attractive to the Surat, expressed his surprise, by loud exclama- youthful eye. tions, on seeing a vast quantity of froth ooze out of To all men the best friend is virtue, the best a bottle of porter, as soon as the cork was drawn. companions are high endeavours and honorable Being asked what surprised him, he replied: "I sentiments, don't wonder at all the froth that comes out of Every man ought to aim at eminence, not by the bottle; but how did you ever contrive to pulling others down, but by raising himself. teze it all in ?"

If every man had a window in his breast, blinds An outside passenger by a coach had his hat would be in very great demand, blown over a bridge, and carried away by the He that communes with himself in private, will stream. "Is it not very singular,” said he to a learn truths that the multitude will not tell him. gentleman who was seated beside him, “that my The seeds of repentance are sown in youth by hat took that direction ?" "Not at all,” replied pleasure, but the harvest is reaped in age by the latter; "it is natural that a beaver should pain, take to the water."

Life is beautiful,-its duties ARCHDEACOX FISHER was not without a little

Cluster round each passing day, vanity on the subject of his sermons, and once

While their sweet and solemn voices, received a quiet hint from Constable on the sub

Warn to work, to watch, to pray. ject. Having preached an old sermon once, which They alone its blessiags forfeit, he was not aware Constable had heard before, he

Who by sin their spirits cheat, asked him how he liked it. “Very much indeed,

Or to slothful stupor yielding, Fisher,” replied Constable, “I always did like

the rust their armour eat. that sermon."

TO-DAY AND TO-MORROW.- Rabbi Eliezer said, WHBN the committee of the French Academy "Turn to God one day before your death.”. His were employed in preparing the well-kaown disciples said, “How can a man know the day of Academy Dictionary, Cuvier, the celebrated na

his death ?" He answered them, “Therefore, turalist, came one day into the room where they you should turn to God to-day. Perhaps you were holding a session. Cavier;" said one of the forty; "we have just may die, to-morrow; thus, every day will be em

ployed finished a definition which we think quite satis

THE wiser mind factory, but upon which we would like to have

Mourns less for what Time takes away, your opinion. We have been defining the word

Than what it leaves behind. Crab, and have explained it thus : Crab, a small red fish, which walks backward.” Perfect,

WAYS TO HAPPINESS. There are two ways of geutlemen,” said Cuvier; only, if you will give me being happy. We may either diminish our wants leave, I will make one small observation in Natural

or augment our means; either will do, the result History. The crab is not a fish, it is not red, and himself, and to do that which may happen to be

is the same; and it is for each man to decide for it does not walk backward. With these excep- the easiest. If you are idle or sick, however hard tions, your definition is excellent." A young lady of eighteen, Miss B., was en

it may be to diminish your wants, it will be easier gaged to be married to a gentleman of thirty-six. wise you will do both in such a way as to aug.

than to augment your means. But if you are Her mother having noticed her low spirits for some time, inquired the reason. “Oh dear,

ment the general happiness of society. mamma," replied the young lady, I was thinking

PRACE is the evening star of the soul, as virtue about my husband being twice my age!” “That's

is its sun, and the two are never far apart. very true; but he's only thirty-six." "He's only KNOWLEDGE makes humble-ignorance proud thirty-six now, dear mamma; but when I'm Knowledge talks lowly-ignorance loud: sixty-" "Well,” “Oh, dear! why, then he'll Knowledge is modest, distrustful, and purebe a hundred and twenty !

Ignorance boastful, conceited, and sure.


pose. Cleaving to our old custom, the definitions, also, must blend wisdom with humour.

The President, on this joyous occasion, expects LADIES AND GENTLEMEN OF THE COUNCIL.- every member to do his or her) duty, that the The subject of your epistolatory contributions Christmas number of the FRIEND may exhibit a this month emphatically designated “noble” by galaxy of wisdom enshrined in mirth. one of your circle-appears to have struck a peculiarly congenial choru, for the writers enter warmly

MY DEAR GERTRUDE, into the spirit of the task, and write con amore.

You ask me to suggest such practical Some undeniably ac mirable advice is the result,

rules for your guidance in reading as I may have mixed, however, with occasional narrowness of

found useful during my studious ys. I will en. mind and trivialities. We have a few remarks to

deavour to comply with your request, although oller.

perhaps an instructor of more modern date might W. Y. Somerville treats the matter jhiloso- be better fitted for the task than your old mother; phically, not to say metaphysically. Will this thoughtful and esteemed writer try to be a little yet, as mental needs are the same at all periods


my limited experience may be useful in directing more clear, simple, and lively? Number One is as meagre as W. Y. S. is weighty. The enumeration of Jon amidst the increased advantages that you

possess, a few bald rules does not, with us, constitute a letter.

First, I should say-although I hope and be. Narcissa's writing is still so difficult to read that lieve that the bint is not in your case necessary, it is not possible to appreciate fully, her composi; never yield to the temptation of reading a book tion, which, besides, walks slipshod., “I've,” simply in order to be able to say that you have “ you'll," "you've,” &c., are not admissible. Nardone so. Tastes and abilities differ, and it is most cissus, and all the council, are requested to write preposterous to imagine that because A. and B. on one side the paper only. G. W. R. writes with understand, and consequently enjoy, an abstruse plain sense, but, on the vexed question of fiction, science, that C. and D. must worry their poor is uarrow, like several others. Snow, however brains in the vain attempt to comprehend its (whose too-brief letter we publish), very rightly subtleties. God has given to His creatures capaappreciates the worth of novels for heart educa: cities varying both in direction and calibre, and tion, a point of view not a little important, and this very fact should teach us to follow our mental demanding much consideration. Even the idiosyncracies, and by so doing be prepared to “thrilling romances” which are declaimed against supply our neighbours' wants; thus, perhaps, one so severely by Agnese (in a capital letter, wanting will be an artist, another a poet, a third a matheonly a little more breadth of vision,) have their matician, a fourth an historian, and so on-each uses, if free trom moral objections. Take them excelling in some division of labour-instead of in short doses, Agnese, as anodynes during fits of wearily striving to be what their Creator never pain, say a toothae he for instance, and you will intended. But do not let us narrow down our not find them act altogether as useless "poison." intellects to one single point; let us keep our Emma S. P., in her refined but conventional particular aim specially before us, but meanwhile epistle, is also strong on the “poisonous” nature cultivate an acquaintance with other branches of of fiction, and quotes bitter words descriptive of knowledge, so as to be able fully to appreciate all its worst effects; these, however, are tolerably and profit by the productions of a friend, to symwell known to educated people,

pathise with and encourage him in his task, to Lily H. has written beautifully and at large, be, in fine, that most delightful of acquisitions, and her letter must have made its way to print an intelligent and thoughtful companion. But I had it commenced with less circumlocution. There am dwelling too long on this point, and will turn is nothing like going directly to the matter in to others. hand. Subordinate it to nothing. Subordinate Let me suppose that you have selected a subeverything to it. Rosa F. mixes the trivial with ject on which you desire sound and extensive inthe important.

formation; what will be the wisest plan to pursue Brunette, as a new member, is right welcome. for its attainment? I will assume that you are Her paper is neat, clear, and practica). We can studying the history of France, and wish to gain not, however, accept all her views. She must re- an acquaintance with the period of the Revoluconsider the subject. Marguerite and Nina Gor- tion. Do not fancy that the perusal of one work don think well and write well. Our space forbids alone, however good this may be, will answer your further criticism, and we conclude with general requirements. An author generally gives his thanks to all for the careful attention which the own colouring to his topic; he views it in one subject has received, and with a passing word on light--perhaps not the truest-and the reader, by the following letter by Illa. Others have excelled depending on him exclusively, is unwittingly this in elegance and eloquence, but we insert it | misled. Collect rather as m standard works for its treadth of view, and for its independent and on the matter as you can; you need not read discriminating judgment. Rules of method are every one, but take the sense of all-a little perilous things in all branches of study, often im- practice will enable you to do this with ease and peding when professing to assist the mind; but correctness--and collate them ; you will be we can cordially commend the rules which Illa astonished at the intellectual activity that one lays down.

such trial will confer, while the record so conWe beg our Council to observe that our next sidered will become indelibly impressed on your mumber will, as far as possible, bear upon the memory. Of course such close research cannot Christmas time, and we hope the members will be applied to all subjects; many we must accept impart to the proposed conglomeration a genial on the good faith of the author; but it will be Christmas spirit; we have formed it for this pur- well for you to have one topio always under

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