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Boar's Head Cotton should be used, or the effect cannot be ensured. Cast on the pin 450 stitches, and knit in plain garter-stitch till it is five nails wide; then cast off, but not too tight; then sew a strip of calico on to each side, but only so that it can be easily untacked. If the work is at all soiled, wash it with white curd soap and water; then rinse it perfectly, and squeeze it in a cloth very dry; after that dip it in the sugar and water, squeeze it slightly, and lay it out on a doubled sheet, to dry; afterwards take off the calico, sew it up, and add the tassels. The washing and rinsing in sugar and water will always give it the appearance of being new.

THE PATIENT ASTRONOMER. CAROLINE LUCRETIA HERSCHEL, sister, and for a long time assistant, of the celebrated astronomer, Sir William Herschel, was born at Hanover on the 16th of March, 1750. She is herself distinguished for her astronomical researches, and particularly for the construction of a seleno-graphical globe, giving in relief the surface of the

But it was for her brother, Sir William Herschel, that the activity of her mind was awakened. From the first commencement of his astronomical pursuits, her attendance on both his daily labours and nighly watches was put in requisition; and was found so useful, that on his removal to Datchet, and subsequently to Slough he being then occupied with his reviews of the heavens and other researches--she performed the whole of the arduous and important duties of his astronomical assistant, not only reading the clocks, and noting down all the observations from dictation as an amanuensis, but subsequently executing the whole of the extensive and laborious numerical calculations necessary to render them available to science, as well as a multitude of others relative to the various ob

jects of theoretical and experimental inA CREPED NECK-TIE. BY MRS. WARREN,

quiry in which he at any time engaged. For

the performance of these duties, George III. A CRÉPED NECK-TIE.

was pleased to place her in receipt of a salary Materials. Messrs. Walter Evans & Co.'s sufficient for her moderate wants and retired Boar's Head Cotton, No. 60; a pair of Bone Knit- habits. Arduous, however, as these occuting Pins, No. 12; two lumps of Sugar dissolved pations must appear, especially when it is in half-a-pint of hot water, and let remain till considered that her brother's observations cold; two Chenille Tassels.

were always carried on (circumstances perThis is one of the prettiest articles for a mitting) till daybreak, without regard to Neck-tie that can be made; having, when season, and, indeed, chiefly in the winter, finished, all the appearance of soft white they proved insufficient to exhaust her crape, and may be adoptedeither in mourning activity. In their intervals she found time or out, by adding either black, coloured, or both for actual astronomical observations of white 'tassels. It is also imperative that her own, and for the execution of more none but Messrs. Walter Evans & Co.'s I than one work of great extent and utility.


TABLE FOR ANGLER A Table of the Fish usually angled for in the waters of Great Britain, with the places, seasons, time of day, depth from the ground,

and baits suited to their habits.





From sunrise Touch ground Old cheese, worked up Gentles had from putrid
till 10 M.;

with butter, coloured flesh, lobworms from
4 P.M, to

with saffron, or steep- gardens, brandlings

from dunghills.
All day. Six inches al- White newbread,worked Gentles, brandlings, ca- Stone-fly, found under
ways below

in the hand to a con- dis-worms (found un- hollow-stones, sides of

sistency,coloured with der stones, in sh. sts., streams; green-drake,
vermillion, like sal- coveredwithsm.pieces fnd, among stones, by
mon's row,

of wood or rush); keep river sides; bk. fly,on

these moist in fin.bgs. hawthorns,afterbudg.
Sunrise to 9; Touch ground Red paste, as for bleak, Gentles, flag - worms Green - drake, under Grass-
3 to sunset.
or new brown bread, (found among flags),


hoppers mixed with honey,and kept likecadis-worms;

in June
worked to a consistency. lob-worms.

or July.
Some add sheep's blood.
All day.
Near the bot

Small red worm.
Very early & Three inches Sheep's blood, mixed Earth-bobs(found insdy.

from bot- with honey and flour, grd.), kept in mould;
tom; hot
worked up;

bread gentles, flag - worms,
weather, in worked with honey or wasp-grubs, fd, in the
mid-water, sugar, and gum-water, nest, hardened over

the fire; marsh-worms

(found in marshes). Ditto. Three inches Red and brown pastes, Earth-bobs,gentles,flag-Stone-fly, green-drake, Grass

from bot- made from white and worms, wasp - grubs, oak-fly (found in oaks hopper, hot brown bread, as above. cow dung-bobs, cadis- or ash), ant-fly (found

beetle. weather, in


on ant-hills.)
All day, par- Three to nine Bread worked in the Earth-bobs,gentles,flag. Stone-fly, green-grake,
ticularly inchesfrom hand; bread crumbs, worms, brandlings. oak - fly, palmer - fly
cloudywea- bottom, or worked with honey

(found plants),
near the top and sugar, moistened

ant-fly,May-fly, blackwith gum-water.

All day, when
Touch ground

Wasp-grubs, lob-worms.
the stream
is thickened




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Where generally



Proper time to Angle

Depth from


Barbel. Rapid&shallow strms.

gravelly bks. under
bridges,in currents.

April to

Bleak. Deep rivers, sandy May to
bottoms, in eddies

and at ships'sterns.

Bream. Slow rivers or mill.

ponds, near weeds,
and in clay ormuddy

April to

Bullh.or Rivers & brooks; in

May to

stony&gravellybeds October.
Carp. Still, deep ponds or April to

rivers (particularly August.
ponds), muddy bot-

very late.

ed in honey.

Chub, Still, deep waters, un

May to
or der boughs,gravelly Decemr.
Chevin. bottoms

toni ;

May to

Dace,or Sandy bottoms, deep
Dart. rivers, eddies, and

ships' sterns,



Among weeds, roots,

banks, & mills, over
holes & stony btms.

May to

by rains.


tunel. Wher reporally

Proper time Depth from to Angle. Ground. Pastes. Worms.



Insects. Grayling Clear&quick streams, Sept. to All day in Three in, from

Earth-bobs, gentles,flag

All flies. or clayey bottom. January. cloudy wea- bottom in

worms, wasp-grubs, Umber.

cold wea-

cowdung-bobs, cadis-
ther; hot,

worms, marsh-worms,

brandlings. Gudgeon Gentle streams, with May to

All day.

Close to the Red and brown pastes, Gentles, brandlings. a gravelly bottom, October.

ground. made from white and

brown bread, as above. Loach or Rough clear streams, Ditto. Noon.


Brandlings, or any small
Grdling. with a gravelly bm.

common worm,
Minnow. Shallow rivers, and All parts of

All day.
All parts of Brown paste, as above.


the water.
Mullet. Ebbing tides, and in March to Morning and Near the bot-

Brandlings,cadis-worms, Small gaudy-coloured
arms of seas.
Michlmas. evening. tom or top.

or earth-bobs.

Large deep rivers, to-

Morning and Mid-water,


Samlet. wards the middle.

Perch. Deep rivers & ponds, August to Mid-day in cl. Six in, from Red and brown pastes, Red-worms and brand-

Minnow holes, weeds, gra- May. weather, lght. bottom, or

as above,
lings, flag and cadis-

velly bottoms.
south wind, mid-water.


Pike. Claybanks, slow May to Au-

All day.

The largest and most Ditto,
streams, gravelly or gust, wnter

gaudy flies tempt pike roach,

weedy bottoms. & wdy.wea.

in spring.
Roach. Sandy bottoms, shady All parts of Mid-day, mild Below mid- As above for dace. Earth-bobs, gentles,flag. Stone-fly, green-drake, Grass-
holes, gentle deep the year. cloudy wea- water.

worms, wasp-grubs, palmer-fly, ant-fly, hopper.
ther; hot dys.

cowdung-bobs, &c.

black fly.
morn.& evn,
Rud, or In a few north. lakes

Morning and
All parts of


Ditto. Finscale. of Eng. & in Oxfdsh.

evening. water, Salmon. Large deep rivers, in March to 8 to 9,3 to 6. Mid-water,

Lob-worms, earth-bobs, All large and gaudy flies. Minnow
the middle.


&c., &e.

Bits of
April to All day.

Earth-bobs, gentles, ca- All small flies,

dis-worms, &c.

Stickle- Rivers, brooks of all
June to Ditto.

Brandling, or any small
back. descriptions. October.

Tench. Ponds, rivers, weeds, All theyear Early and late 6 in.from bot.

As above for dacc. Earth-bobs, gen.wp-gbs.
muddy bottoms.
as possible. mid, in hot wea.

brandlings, cadis-worms.
Trout. Rapid cool streams, March to
All day.

Cold wea. 6.

Earth-bobs, &c., &c.

All flies,
clear and pebbly.
in, from bot.;

hot, with fly

at top-water.

Ifter all the directions that can be given with regard to natural and artificial flies, the angler will do well to ascertain what flies appear to be most

in season, and which are most common in the place where he angles, by beating about the bushes and hedges of the neighbourhood.

the year.


Where generally found.




may not occasionally be met with. Their visits

are not confined to the sea-shore, to the estuary, or NATURALISTS.

the lake, the pond of the farm-yard is sometimes

visited by a straggler, and they sometimes follow VOTES.

the course of rivers through crowded cities. The writer has seen them fired at between London and Westminster bridges, and has often started them from spots where they were least likely to be met with. Though all the numberless varieties of ducks go by the common name of "wild-ducks," it is to be understood that reference is here made only to the common species, the male of which is known by the name of mallard, and which is beyond doubt the parent of the domestic varieties. The expedients to which man has resort for the purpose of capturing these birds are as varied as the climes which it inhabits. In our own country they may be classed under three heads—the decoy, the punt, and the shoulder gun.

But few, comparatively, are killed by this last method, though a good sportsman, near the sea-coast, when the wind blows strong on the shore, will sometimes bag his nine, ten, or even a dozen birds. This sport, however, is very fatiguing, as the weather at such seasons is more than ordinarily severe, and unusual patience is required of the sportsman. The punt furnishes a more pro

fitable harvest, but involves great exposure, and THE WILD DUCK (Anas Boschas).

no inconsiderable share of danger. As the dask

of evening draws on, the shooter, with almost There are few birds to whom we are more in-breathless anxiety, slowly pushes his punt up debted for a supply of our animal wants than the some arm of the sea or creek, where, from the duck. Not only have we, as in the case of the surgy state of the shore, swarming with seaweed domestic fowls, subjugated the wild bird to our and minute shell-fish, he knows the ducks are control, and made it the willing tenant of our sure to alight; silently and slowly, with his form farm-yard, but every year thousands and even stretched horizontally in the boat, he paddles millions of the wild birds themselves are poured along, following the sound made by the multitude into our markets, furnishing our tables with a of birds that are feeding on the waters. All is constant supply of the most delicious food. In dark, and he has no guide to the flock but the addition to the duck in a state of nature, and its trumpet-like noise which they ever and anon give descendant in a state of captivity, who appears to forth. When he judges himself sufficiently near inherit the spirit of serfdom in the absence of to fire with precision, he alarms the flock, and liberty, and who therefore makes no attempt to listening to the sound they make in rising, for quit the farm-yard, there is a third class of ducks they rise heavily, pours into their compact phalans which still retain the spirit and manners of the the contents of his large swivel gun. Another wild duck, with much of the familiarity of the discharge from a large shoulder gun, which he domestic species. Such are the birds found in our carries in the punt, follows, and then all is hashed, parks and aviaries, and the person who has seen save at intervals the struggle of a wounded bird the birds in St. James's Park familiarly feeding at plashing the water. The task of picking up his his feet, or snatching the crumbs from his hand, birds now commences, and if he be a practised has perhaps little idea that these are the descend- hand, he is sometimes rewarded with as many as ants of ducks who, not two generations since, fifty, sixty, or seventy ducks. The principal spots winged their flight over the ocean, or reared their where punt shooting is carried on are iu the young in summer in some lonely swamp in Lap-creeks on the coast of Essex and Lincolnshir, land or Siberia. There is hardly a spot through and at the back of the Isle of Wight, and the out England where there is a river or a pool of Southampton Waters. Decoys are principally water, in which, during the winter, wild ducks Iconfined to Essex and Lincolnshire, and are


carried on more for profit than pleasure. The Pigs have been known to live to the age of 30 birds are decoyed into the net by means of hemp years : the rhinoceros to 20. A horse has been and other seeds scattered on the water, but the known to live to the age of 62, but averages 25 to process is too complicated to be described here. 30. Camels sometimes live to the age of 100. Some idea may be formed of the immense number Stags are long-lived. Sheep seldom exceed the captured in this manner from the fact that the age of 10. Cows live about 15 years.

Cuvier decoys at Wainfleet in Essex furnished, a few considers it probable that whales sometimes live years ago, in one season, no less than 31,200 birds. 1,000 years. The dolphin and porpoise attain the The great period for the migration of wild-ducks age of 30. An eagle died at Vienna at the age of is November, though great numbers arrive in 104 years. Ravens frequently reach the age of October. A few scatter themselves through the 101). Swans have been known to live to 300. country, but the great bulk of the birds remain in Mr. Mallerton has the skeleton of a swan that open weather upon the sand-banks and mud flats attained the age of 200. Pelicans are long-lived. about the estuaries of our great rivers, particularly A tortoise has been known to live to the age the Thames, which they do not quit till the north of 107. easterly winds render it impossible for them to feed there. The greater part remigrate in March capable of being tamod is well known. In every

TAME OTTERS (p. 228).-That these animals are and April, but many thousands remain and breed part of India the Chinese or Indian otter is in our fens and swamps, where the female rears in trained to hunt and capture fish for its master, retirement from ten to eighteen young birds.

and even the common species has been found THE Per HEDGEHOG. sufficiently docile for this purpose.

The Rev. Several years ago some friends were out rabbit J. G. Wood, in his “ Illustrated Natural History," shooting, and brought home amongst their spoil published by Routledge, cites two or three ex. a hedgehog, As I am a great lover of dumb amples of this. We quote one of them:-"Mr. animals, I begged hard for the poor creature's Richardson gives an interesting account of an life to be spared, and thought I would see if it otter which he tamed, and which was accustomed were possible to tame the timorous animal. Ac

to follow him in his walks like a dog, sporting by cordingly, I set about the operation of taming it, his side with graceful playfulness, and swimming

at perfect liberty in the stream. This animal, and, to my utter astonishment, I succeeded so far that the little creature, when I spoke to it, would however, could never be induced to yield her prey

to her master, but when she saw him aproaching immediately unfold itself. After a little time it became so friendly with me, that, when I used to would quickly swim to the opposite bank of the

peace. The take it out for an airing in the garden, when I river, lay down her fish, and eat it in called it it would come and run backwards and animal was accustomed to wander at will in the forwards over my hand, and play about without house and garden, and would eat all kinds of showing the slightest appearance of timidity. I garden pests, such as snails, worms, and grubs, usually fed it upon bread and milk.-E. S.P.

detaching the snails from their shells with great dexterity. She would also leap upon the chairs as

they stood by the windows and catch and eat flies ANSWERS TO QUERIES.

as they fluttered on the window-panes. She AGE OF ANIMALS (p. 228). -As to the duration of struck up a warm friendship with an Augura cat, life in animals generally, this is a crude question, and, on one occasion, when her friend was attacked and can only be answered by a reference to a few by a dog, she flew at the assailant, seized him of the leading species, thus-A bear rarely ex. by the jaw, and was so excited that her master was ceeds 20 years; a dog lives 20 years; a wolf obliged to separate the combatants, and to send 20; a fox 14 or 16; lions are long-lived, Pompey the dog out of the room." To this we may add lived to the age of 70. The average age of cats an instance or two from Cassell's Popular Natural is 15 years; a squirrel and hare 7 or 8 years, History :-"A man named Collins, who resided rabbits 7. Elephants have been known to live near Woolar, in Northunberland, had a tame to the great age of 400 years. When Alexander otter, which followed him wherever he went. He the Great had conquered one Porus, king of India, frequently took it to fish in the river for its own he took a great elephant which had fought very food, and when satiated it never failed to return valiantly for the king, named him Ajax, and de- to its master. One day, in his absence, the otter, dicated him to the sun, and then let him go with being taken out to fish by his son, refused to rethis inscription :-“ Alexander, the son of Jupiter, turn at the accustomed call, and was lost. Collins, hath dedicated Ajax to the Sun.” This elephant after several days' search in vain, being near the was found with this inscription 350 years after. I place where his son had lost it, and calling it by

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