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ter.* The wood is soft and white, burning without emitting a perfume, and useful in some kinds of cabinet-work. Ten species, of which only one is cultivated, have been discovered; the common, or sweet cinnamon, the snake, the camphor, the astringent, the mucilaginous, the drum, the wild, the flower, the trefoil, and the white-ant cinnamon. The general shape of the leaf in the laurel varieties is long oval, the flower is white, tinged in the middle with brown, monopetalous, and stellated. A curious fruit, about the size of a small hedge-strawberry, containing one seed, like an acorn, with a rich purple colour, abounds on the tree. When boiled it yields a fine oil, which congeals when cold, and is said to form a good ointment for diseased limbs.

When in full bloom the cinnamon plantations afford a picture of extreme beauty. The immense low groves of this odorous laurel; the myriads of white blossoms in clusters, like those of the lilac; the leaves, flame-coloured at one end, dark-green at the other; and the graceful stems, like those of the hazel, supporting brilliant parasites, such as the pitcher-plant, the gorgeous gloriosa superba, with the scarlet flowers of the ixora coccinea, and the pink petals of the vinca rosea, intermingled amid the more sober foliage.

The best cinnamon is obtained from the straight stems that spring from the root after an old tree has been cut down. Great care is necessary to distinguish the age of these. Those most valuable are about ten feet high and about an inch in diameter. When too young, they have an unripe, green taste; when too old, coarse and gritty. From April to August, and from November to January, are the usual "barking seasons," though considerable quantities are collected at other times, as the plants reach maturity. To ascertain this, the "peeler" strikes a heavy knife diagonally into the stem. If the inner bark, which is the cinnamon, separates easily from the wood, it is ripe. The little tree is cut down, scraped and barked with a sharp-pointed hook, passed rapidly from one end to another. The smaller slips are placed within the larger, and laid to dry in the sun, which curls them into the form in which they are sold in Europe. The operation is one of much delicacy, as, in scraping, if any of the outer bark remains a bitter taste is given to the inner. Having been dried,

Classification of the 'laurus' cinnamonum is class ix., enneandria: order i., monogynia, according to Linnæus.

the "rods" are gathered and formed into bundles, from three to four feet long and 85 lbs. in weight. Occasionally, the fraudulent planters attempt to mix the inferior with the superior qualities, but the Government tasters have so delicate a sense that they immediately detect the imposition. The duty of these officials is somewhat arduous, and during the performance of it they are obliged to eat bread-and-butter at intervals to keep the skin on their tongues.

The bundles are tied up with pliant canes, and resemble slender casks, being fuller round the middle than at the ends. These are then packed in bales, with the interstices filled up with black pepper. The pepper attracting the superfluous moisture of the fragrant bark, preserves it, while its own flavour is greatly improved by contact with this delicate spice. The best cinnamon is of a light-brown colour, and scarcely exceeds the thickness of good paper. The coarser kinds are darker, stouter, and more pungent to the taste; while the finest sort is sweet and almost melts in the mouth. Formerly the use of this aromatic bark was far more universal than at present, and opulent epicures loved to have their tables perfumed with

Dulcet syrups tinct with cinnamon.*

A pungent and delicious water is prepared from the bark, as well as oil of cinnamon, which is very expensive, as three hundred pounds weight yields only twentyfour ounces. The former price was ten guineas a quart; but it has been reduced. The genuine article, however, rarely reaches England. Many frauds are also practised by the bark being sold after the oil has been extracted-a weak, poor scent only remaining.

From this short sketch of the three principal spices, the reader may have derived

some information as well as entertainment.


There are other products of inferior importance, but similar character, which may form the subject of another article. present we shall only add, that the mode. rate use of the clove, the nutmeg, and the cinnamon is extremely beneficial. They add richness to the flavour of our food, and

are wholesome in the extreme. Of course their excessive use, like excess of all other kinds, is injurious, being at once destructive to the system, and indicative of an epicurean and luxurious appetite.

John Keats.

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Materials.-Half an ounce each of Cerise and

White Shetland Wool; two Steel Knitting Pins,

No. 12; Crochet Hook, No. 2.

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CAST on 240 stitches. K (or knit) plain rows ; now knit one stitch; take two together; knit 115 stitches; take two together, and take two together again; now K the remainder, taking two together before the last stitch. The next row back is plain; now repeat from * till there are 18 ribs of knitting in which there are 36 rows alternately decreased and plain. Take the white wool-knit three rows in the same way, which is one rib and one row, decreasing as before: K one stitch; take two together; wind the wool twice over the pins; take two together, wind twice over the pin again till there are 41 holes; then take two together twice; make 41 holes again; take

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two together; K 1; now knit 3 rows plain, again decreasing as before.

Now, with Cerise wool, knit six ribs or twelve rows, decreasing as before. Then with White the same as the first white stripe. Then continue with White and Cerise alternately till there are four White and four Cerise stripes irrespective of the first deep border. Now, with Cerise, knit 16 rows, decreasing as before. This finishes with one stitch. For the Border along the front, with Cerise, make 2 L stitches, with 1 ch between each L; in one loop of the knitting 3 ch; 2 more L as before in on equal space to the 3 ch: this is along front only. 2nd row, 9 L with 1 ch between each u the 1 ch; 1 ch De between next 2 1 ch 9 L with 1 ch between each u next; 1ch repeat. This last row is worked with the knitting at the back within the row of stitches. Run Cerise ribbon in the alterna holes of the white rows, and the same in the alternate L stitches of the border.


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Boar's Head Cotton should be used, or the effect cannot be ensured. Cast on the pin 450 stitches, and knit in plain garter-stitch till it is five nails wide; then cast off, but not too tight; then sew a strip of calico on to each side, but only so that it can be easily untacked. If the work is at all soiled, wash it with white curd soap and water; then rinse it perfectly, and squeeze it in a cloth very dry; after that dip it in the sugar and water, squeeze it slightly, and lay it out on a doubled sheet, to dry; afterwards take off the calico, sew it up, and add the tassels. The washing and rinsing in sugar and water will always give it the appearance of being new.


THE PATIENT ASTRONOMER. CAROLINE LUCRETIA HERSCHEL, sister, and for a long time assistant, of the celebrated astronomer, Sir William Herschel, was born at Hanover on the 16th of March, 1750. She is herself distinguished for her astronomical researches, and particularly for the construction of a seleno-graphical globe, giving in relief the surface of the moon. But it was for her brother, Sir William Herschel, that the activity of her mind was awakened. From the first commencement of his astronomical pursuits, her attendance on both his daily labours and nighly watches was put in requisition; and was found so useful, that on his removal to Datchet, and subsequently to Sloughhe being then occupied with his reviews of the heavens and other researches-she performed the whole of the arduous and important duties of his astronomical assistant, not only reading the clocks, and noting down all the observations from dictation as an amanuensis, but subsequently executing the whole of the extensive and laborious numerical calculations necessary to render them available to science, as well as a multitude of others relative to the various objects of theoretical and experimental inquiry in which he at any time engaged. For the performance of these duties, George III. was pleased to place her in receipt of a salary sufficient for her moderate wants and retired habits. Arduous, however, as these occupations must appear, especially when it is considered that her brother's observations were always carried on (circumstances permitting) till daybreak, without regard to season, and, indeed, chiefly in the winter, they proved insufficient to exhaust her activity. In their intervals she found time both for actual astronomical observations of her own, and for the execution of more than one work of great extent and utility.

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A Table of the Fish usually angled for in the waters of Great Britain, with the places, seasons, time of day, depth from the ground, and baits suited to their habits.

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Proper time to Angle

From sunrise Touch ground Old cheese, worked up till 10 M.;

4 P.M. to
All day.

All day. Very early & very late.

Depth from

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Six inches always below mid-water.

Sunrise to 9; Touch ground Red paste, as for bleak,
3 to sunset.

or new brown bread,
mixed with honey, and
worked to a consistency.
Some add sheep's blood.

Near the bottom.

Three inches from bottom; hot weather, in mid-water.


Three inches from bottom; hot weather, in mid-water. Three to nine inchesfrom bottom, or near the top Touch ground

Three in.from

with butter, coloured with saffron, or steeped in honey. White newbread,worked in the hand to a consistency,coloured with vermillion, like salmon's row, or as above.

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Stone-fly, green-grake, oak fly, palmer - fly (found on plants), ant-fly,May-fly, black


in June
or July.

Stone-fly, green-drake, Grassoak-fly (found in oaks hopper, or ash), ant-fly (found on ant-hills.)


Minnow gudgeon

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