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death-like appearance; the dogs infest obliged to discharge their cargo in an the streets; and the houses seem all to be unsheltered road, and, during the winter plague-infected :

season, are necessitated to run into Soor “For hut and palace show like filthily; for shelter.

The dingy denizens are rear'd in dirt.” Sidon is a city of great antiquity, having The Great Sidon, or Tsidon-rabbah, is been founded by the eldest son of Canaan now called Saida; it has sometimes been after the Deluge. When the land was called Saidee, and Zidon. It is larger divided among the tribes of Israel, it was than Acre, and was formerly surrounded assigned to Asher; but the inhabitants by strong fortifications, which were much offered such a determined resistance, that I damaged by the operations carried on they could not be expelled. When Jacob against it in the Syrian war of 1840. blessed his sons, and prophesied, he men. The population has generally been much tioned Zidon as the boundary of the por. overrated, having been stated by most tion of Zebulun ;* and Joshua twice men. authors to contain about 15,000 inha- tions great Zidon;t therefore, the cerbitants; while in reality it does not con- tainty of its existence as early as B.C. tain more than 6,000; of whom 1,000 are 1689, is fully established. Although freChristians, 200 Jews, and the remainder quently called the sister city to Tyre, it chiefly Maronites and Turks. The people should more properly be termed the moare occupied generally in spinning cotton, ther city; for Ezekiel distinctly informs and cultivating the land to raise apricots, us of the relationship, I and Tyre is called figs, oranges, lemons, pomegranates, and “the daughter of Zidon.” melons, which, with silks, corn, oil, galls, The greatness of Sidon arose from the and boots, shoes, and slippers of morocco skill of the inhabitants in manufactures, leather, form their chief exports. The felling timber, building ships, and atten. imports consist of clothes, dyes for cotton, tion to commerce; they were the first spices, and Spanish iron.

people to establish a maritime intercourse The town is filled with ruins; but there by venturing beyond their own coast; are very few interesting antiquities within and glass is said to have been first manuits walls, though outside there are several. factured by them. In a short time, we The castle and palace of Fakr-ed-deen is find them celebrated for their skili in surrounded by the sea, and only connected embroidery, dyeing, and superiority in with the town by a bridge. On a little the manufacture of trinkets, toys, and hill on the north side there are the remains jewellery generally. Neither did they of an old castle, said to have been built neglect the sciences, for they were acby Louis XI., but now in a most dila- quainted with chemistry and pharmacy, pidated state. The view of the surround being employed in gilding with beaten or ing country from this is very fine, the water gold, and the preparation of opium, luxuriant orchards and gardens being re- various unguents, and the extraction of lieved here and there by some white- quicksilver from cinnabar. Strabo assigns domed house, or towering minaret, and the invention of arithmetic and astronomy the blue sea dashing over the golden to them; this, however, may be doubtsands, leaving wreaths of foam upon them ful; but we know that they were acas it recedes to renew the attack. Upon quainted with both sciences, and made the summit of the hill, and near to the use of the Great Bear for the direction of remains of the citadel built by Louis XI., their ships' course. is a square castle of rusticated stone, and Sidon has experienced many changes the remains of a circular wall.

as regards its political condition. The The port or harbour of Sidon was filled inhabitants are mentioned in Judges up by order of the celebrated Emir Fakr-|(x. 12), in conjunction with other nations, ed-deen, when he revolted from the sultan; as the rulers or oppressors of Israel; and and now only small boats can enter the we may therefore infer, that the city was harbour, where formerly large vessels anchored with safety; so that all vessels are

* Gen. xlix. 13.
† Josh. xi. 8; xix. 28.

1 Ezek. xxvii. 8.

Isai. xxiii. 12.

then a powerful one. Afterwards, in the from various authors, public journals, time of David and Solomon, it appears documents, and observations, and have no to have been under the government of doubt my readers generally will not be the king of Tyre; though still possessing selfish enough to censure me for its introgreat power and importance; subse- duction, if not quite in accordance with quently Shalmaneza, the Assyrian con- their tastes. queror, took the city, which had separated It is pretty evident from the foregoing, itself from Tyre. It was governed by a and numero other facts, that Sidon has king of its own during the time of its sub- been individually attacked by the plague jection to the Assyrian, Babylonian, and many times; that four times it has lost a Persian rule. The Sidonians revolted considerable number by the visitation; under Artaxerxes Ochus; and being be- and that there are at least fourteen resieged and betrayed by their king to corded general visitations of a severe chaOchus, they burnt the city, their trea- racter, in addition to many minor ones, sures, and themselves. Sidon was rebuilt, that are not worthy of notice. The inand, after a lapse of several years, re- quiring mind will naturally ask the reagained some of its former commercial son, and can only satisfy itself by reference importance and prosperity. Alexander to history, and a visit to the town. I the Great advanced against, and took the have done both, and am decidedly of opicity without any resistance; and, after nion, that much of its severity at least, his death, it passed successively under the if not its visitations, might be prevented power of the Egyptians, Syrians, Romans, by attention to cleanliness ; for Beyrout, and Crusaders. The Christians lost the although by no means so exempt as it city in 1111, and afterwards re-took it might be, is cleaner than most of the from the Saracens. St. Louis repaired it towns south of it; and it is a rule almost in 1250; but, in 1289, the Saracens again without an exception, that the further became masters of it; and at the begin- north you travel in Syria, the cleaner ning of the seventeenth century, the cele- and more healthy you will find the brated Druse Prince, Emir-Fakr-ed-deen, towns. destroyed the mole, and filled up the har. Anything but pleased with our visit to bour to prevent the Turkish vessels enter- Sidon, we started as soon as the horses ing it. The last important event con- and ourselves had partaken of some renected with its history, was the bombard- freshment, and riding over a beautiful ment by the Anglo-Turkish and Austrian and fruitful plain for about three hours, fleet in 1840.

we arrived at Ras Sarfan or Zarfa, near The poetry and romance of Eastern which the town of Sarphan is situated, travel do not attach themselves to Sidon. and occupies part of the site of the anEvery spot seems to cry out, “ Beware of cient Zarephath or Sarepta, rendered methe plague!” Men slink about with morable for its connexion with the prolack-lustre eyes, hollow cheeks, and sallow phet Elijah. The ruins are almost swept complexions; the flies, fleas, and mos- away by Time's destroying hand, and a quitoes rule the land and houses with few houses of the most miserable descriptormenting tyranny; the vegetables look tion only now mark the site. flabby; and the wine is not like the wine A lovely ride, in which we only met of old, which the kings of Persia drank, some melon-laden donkeys with their or that noticed by Julius Alexandrinus— drivers, brought us to the river Casimeer it is truly abominable.

or Kasmia, which rolled on with its The plague, which associates itself very wonted impetuosity towards the sea; intimately with Syria generally, has done this is said to be the Leontes, and I bemuch to assist in the depopulation of lieve with more truth than when desigSidon; and, as the subject is fraught with nated the Eleutherus. An hour's ride interest to historians and travellers, I sub- brought us to the tombs of the Tyrians, join a complete and succinct tabular his from whence we had our first view of tory of its progress as it is possible, partly Tyre.




Year. Month.

Year. Month.
Before the year, B.c. 183, there is A.D.

twenty to nine a day. On the 188 not any mention made of the

4th and 5th July it rose to twenty; plague in Syria; then we find

fell again to six; by August 1st that in the early part it ravaged

it fell to one a day. About 8,500 nearly the whole of Syria, de

persons were attacked, and about stroying 2,000 persons a day (1).

4,000 died (1).

1761) Mar. The plague broke out in an Arab 767 The firstrecordedgeneral plague(2). | 1762)

encampment, close to one of the A.D. Plague all, over Asia, reigning

gates of Aleppo. In the first 557 especially in Egypt, Syria, and

week of April it advanced slowly; Turkey (3).

in June increased with great 588 Overran all Syria and Asia.

force; reached its height in the 1093 July Appeared at Antioch, when the

beginning of July, and dimi.

nished towards the end of the Crusaders were there, and carried Aug. off thousands of all ranks among

month; breaking out again in the pilgrims.

August, and increasing in Sept.

1762 Mar. Appeared at Tortosa; slightly in1189 Oct. Appeared at Acre, from the number of Christians slain decomposing

creased in April, diminished in in the River Belus, after the vic

May, and disappeared in June (2). to

The Pestis Bovilla raged throughtory gained by Saladin over the

out Syria. Templars; the number being es

1787 timated by Boha-ed-deen at 7,000.

April. It broke out at Aleppo, increasing 1316)

rapidly in May, and raging vioThe whole of Syria ravaged by it. 13 17

lently throughout June; termi.

nated in July (3). 1319 One of the most terrible plagues

1798 Mar. that ever visited Syria. It took

Appeared at Jaffa, attacking the its origin in China in 1346; ad

army of Djezzar, Turks and vancedthroughout the East Indies

French alike (4).

1799 to Syria, Turkey, and Egypt (4).

May. Raged in Bonaparte's army at 1530 Oct.

Saffa (4).
Prevailed throughout Syria, pass-

ing on to Egypt (5).

Appeared in various parts of Syria 1719 Appeared at Aleppo, Tripoli, Si

throughout the year.

1817 don, and Beyrout,

Aug. Appeared at Beyrout, but the visi

tation was slight. 1729 Raged at Aleppo.

1827 1732 Tripoli, Sidon, and Damascus ra

Prevailed at Thannes, in Lebanon, vaged by it, but it did not reach

Zebdeni, Zurgaia, and Damas. Aleppo until 1733 (6).

cus (5).

1837 1733 Appeared at Aleppo, but was not

Nov. Prevailing at Deir-el-Kamar (5). so violent as in 1719 (6).

Nearly all Syria visited by the

plague. to

Appeare.l again at Aleppo, and 1838 Feb. | Aleppo again ravaged by it, and 1745 committed great ravages (6).

four villages at 20 miles distance, 1751) May

on the north of Aintab. to to Visited nearly the whole of Syria.

Mar. Jaffa invaded by it. 1752) Sept.

May. Appeared at Beyrout; and Jeru1759 Oct. Appeared at Safed, Sidon, and

salem also visited by it, where & Acre. In December it visited

200 persons fell victims to its ra. Nov. Tripoli (7).

vages by the end of the month,

1840 Dec. Tyre was visited by the plague (6). 1760 Jan. One of the most disastrous plagues 1841 Feb. Appeared at Beyrout, and conthat ever visitedSyriacommenced

tinued till May; during which this month, and raged with great

time, out of 121 persons attacked, violence at Sidon and Tripoli;

47 died; among the military and spreading in April, increasing in

inhabitants (6) May and June, and declining in

May. Appeared at Sidon, and attacked July and August (8).

2,000 of the inhabitants, of whom Feb. Jerusalem was visited by it (8).

500 died; of the 900 military sta. Mar. Damascus suffered very much from

tioned there, 400 were attacked, its ravages (8).

and 190 died. Mar. | Appeared at Latakia, increasing to

Acre was visited by it, and of 5,000 15. May 13, committing great ra

inhabitants, 150 were ill in the vages to June 5, then gradually

hospitals by the 10th ofthe month, declining to the 27th; the mor

and by the 15th,500 had perished. tality after that decreased from

By the 26th July, when the dis. ease was on the decline, 300 of the Turkish troops had died from

the pestilence. 1 Pliny.

5 Alpinus. 2 Petavius.

6 Russell. 8 Guthrie's Geography.

7 Armstrong, 4 Histor. Florent di Matteo

5 Frankland. 8 Abbe Mariti. 1. Abbe Mariti. 3 Russell. Villani.

2 Armstrong.

6 Public Journals 4 Assalini.


DOMESTIC LIFE OF GERMAN LADIES under the crown, the sleeves of the dress

wide and hanging, and a long graceful IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

train; sometimes we see the hair rolled The world of the toilette filled up the quite round the head under a net, or worn time and thoughts of the German lady of in full braids. We give one more costume, those days, pretty much as it always has in as it displays a French fashion adopted in all countries and ages occupied the atten- Germany towards the close of the century. tion of the fair sex. Different styles were This is nothing less than modern crinoline, in vogue, as we see from contemporary under its oldest title of “guarainfanta." paintings and engravings of the period. . The original of the portrait was the wife of portrait of the Duchess Dorothea of Prussia, Frederick William of Saxony. The dress still in an admirable state of preservation in is singularly ungraceful; a brown velvet the castle of Fridenstein, represents her in skirt, very short, and stretched almost a State costume. The whole figure is en- tight over an enormous hoop, a blue velvet veloped in a green robe, not unlike an old- jacket with tight-fitting sleeves, and red fashioned cloak; it opens at the waist, cuffs at the wrists; an immense fur collar with an ermine cape falling over the shoul- standing up round the neck, which is left ders, and shows a low black velvet bodice. bare, is supposed to render the attractions The neck is entirely covered with muslin / of this toilette complete. A few gold ornaplaited in fine folds finished at the throat ments decorate the hair, which is strained with a narrow frill; over this is displayed back from the face and twisted into a roll an amber necklace, composed of several on the top of the head. Will any lady be rows of beads, interlaced in an intricate tempted to adopt this costume for her next fashion, so as to ornament the whole of the fancy ball ? muslin. The skirt, which would be pro- So much for the dress itself. With renounced by a modern dressmaker “deci- gard to the materials of which it was comdedly short and skimp,” is bell-shaped, | posed, they were magnificent enough to opening in front just enough to show its have served for the trousseau of a princess ermine facings, and ornamented with a in the Thousand and One Nights. To those wide border of gold arabesque; the sleeves great merchant houses, which, established large, tapering to the wrists, where they in different towns, supplied all the courts close with pearl bracelets. The hair is of Germany, the looms of Florence, Milan, completely concealed under a flat black and Venice, sent their gorgeous fabrics, gay velvet cap, slouched down on the right with embroidery and stiff with gold. We side, and on the left adorned with a plume read of silver embroidered upon silver, of and pearls. Even in the sixteenth century stuff's woven with a warp of the thickest Paris was looked up to as the fountain-head silk, and the woof made of one of the preof fashion; the pattern of a hanging sleeve cious metals; of crimson velvet flowered or a coif from France was a prize eagerly with gold, and cloths of gold and silver. A sought, and turned to the best advantage list of the requisites ordered from Master when obtained. The head-dress in this Thomas Lapi of Nuremberg for the wardportrait of the duchess may, for aught we robe of the Princess Anna, on her marriage know, be the very same the pattern of with the Elector John Sigismund of Branwhich she received from the Duchess of denburg, in 1594, is before us. It includes Munsterberg as a rare and entirely new sixteen pieces of plain velvet, black, «rimFrench invention," and despatched, after it son, and pomegranate colours; three pieces had been copied for her own use, by a of flowered velvet, eighty ells of different special messenger to the Queen of Den-coloured satins-gold, white, orange, violet, mark. Another portrait of a lady of that and green. Fifty ells of damasks striped period shows the skirt of the dress ample with gold and silver, three hundred of gold and long, but gathered into a very short and silver raised work; costly furs, ermine waist, ornamented with what we believe and sable, for trimming; five hundred ells ladies call a basque. The neck is quite of gold and silver lace, etc., etc. This bare, and from the head rises an immense mercer's bill of the sixteenth century nearly nondescript sort of affair, something be- takes away our breath to read. Would the tween a helmet and a foolscap, very high, Princess Anna ever want any more fine very stiff, and intensely ugly; this alsó clothes all her life long we wonder? Would hides the hair, with the exception of one she be condemned tu wear her heavy velunhappy little curl which has strayed out, vets and thick satins, with their fur trimright in the middle of the forehead. Royal mings, in the hot German summers ? brides wear their hair flowing in curls Assuredly she would—on State occasions at


goes on to

any rate. The high mightinesses of those steward at Raquit about a large barrel of days paid little regard to so vulgar a thing butter, which it seems was not forthcoming as a change in the temperature; the sun at the proper time. The soapmaker of might be burning hot, the thermometer at Marienburg receives a regular scolding, ninety in the shade, but for all that, dignity because she complains it is not possible to must not bate a single inch of crimson use his soap—"it has an evil smell, and velvet and ermine.

lacks the fineness of the Venice soap.” She Point-lace was a favourite material for orders George Sculthess of Nuremberg to the coif, and a large half-handkerchief procure her raisins, chestnuts, medlars, and sometimes worn on the shoulders. There quinces from Frankfort; and commands is a curious commission with respect to her servants to gather the grapes in the this lace from the Duchess Dorothea to garden at Fischaus, and “make therefrom the Prussian chargé d'affaires at Rome in two sorts of Turkish syrup, one red and the 1533, which we give in her own words. other white, for which,” adds the economi“ As,” she says,

we approve your dili- cal duchess, “ I shall allow no sugar.” It gence in our service, it is our gracious would, we fancy, be a problem for a modern request that you procure for us some deli- cook to make a syrup without sugar, but the cate specimens and patterns of that rare Soyer of the ducal household evidently Italian art, whereby linen is pierced and accomplished his task to the complete satisfashioned with curious skill into shapes of faction of his mistress, for she despatches a roses and flower-work. Also it is our gra- supply of this Turkish syrup as a rare delicious pleasure that you seek us out some cacy to her father, the King of Denmark; virtuous gentlewoman or maid, not light and moreover says, “ We also send your and giddy in her manners, who shall work royal dignity different sugars of lavender, for us at this cunning work.” If such a spikenard, and Dutch balsam, prepared treasure is not to be procured, the Duchess with our own hands, under the direction of

say, her correspondent is to per- our doctor and physician.”. Again, next suade some man, skilled not only in the year “she sets a dainty dish before the manufacture of point, but also of the gold king” aforesaid, in the shape of a cask of and silver lace, to enter her service and fieldfares, preserved in butter under her visit Prussia, for the purpose of instructing own eye, modestly requesting the present the maidens of her Court in so desirable an of two tons of herrings in return. How the accomplishment.

homely old ways and customs of mankind The Germans have always been famed as have been polished and furbished up since active housewives, and we find abundant the days of the Duchess Dorothea ! Only proofs in the correspondence of the highest fancy the Princess Frederick William of ladies of the time that they could person- Prussia, not quite so great a lady at present ally justify this praise. The Duchess of as the ancestress of her husband was in her Prussia may serve as a specimen of all her time--fancy, if you can, the princess exsisterhood. The letters are still extant in changing such souvenirs with her papa, which this illustrious lady orders her flax H R.H. Prince Albert. and linen in her own handwriting, and These German dames, and their lords inquires why the burghers of Tilsit are likewise, were an open-handed race. Prebehindhand with their tribute of fifteen sents of some sort, many of the homeliest bundles of yarn for her household. She description, seem to have been perpetually bespeaks hemp and soap from Poland; the given and received among them. Espe. silk, silver, and gold for her tapestry-work cially was the time-honoured custom of from Nuremberg ; she sends the merchant proving the good-will which inspires good a list of her requirements in velvet, lace, wishes for the new year, by an accompanyand veils; and, when she finds herself short ing gift, most actively kept up. On one of ready money, offers to pay in honey and occasion the duchess sends her father a huge wool. She describes minutely the pattern cask of lampreys, while she herself receives from which the Duke's shirts are to be cut, from the Duchess of Leignitz a gage d'amour blames the seamstress for making the shoul- in the form of quinces preserved with honey, ders too narrow, and sends her a measure —a really detestable compound, we should for the width of the sleeves. She takes think,-and others preserved with sugar. good heed that there shall be no lack of The donor begs her friend to eat them for dried fish, especially salmon, for the ducal her sake, and adds, “If they like you well larder; thanks a Frau Von Heideck for her I shall be greatly pleased.” Preserves of courteous and welcome present of a couple all kindsm-figs, nuts, cherries, and, above all, of fine fat hogs, and writes to the duke's Nuremberg gingerbread-were the simple

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