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hinge is various, but sometimes it is very a degree, the trap-door opened. From this considerable, as shown in the figure accom- it would appear, that the entrance to such a panying. It also possesses great elastic nest could be effected as easily by the force, so that, on being opened, it closes enemies of the spider as by the spider itagain of itself. This is principally accom- self; this, however, is not the case; for plished by a fold or doubling of the web at repeated observation has shown that the each end of the hinge, which permits the spider keeps guard at the entrance, and door to be opened nearly to a right angle actually holds the door with her fore-feet with the aperture, but no further unless and palpi, while the hind-feet are extended violence be used. The under-side of the down the side of the nest, and the mandibles are thrust into the opposite side near the Idoor. By this means the insects get such power as to resist with considerable force the opening of the door. If it be asked how this is known, we are able to refer to the experiments of careful observers, who extracted a number of nests from the ground, and opening them at the lower end, looked up, and saw the spider so occupied. A section view of the nest will show that the curved form of the cover, and the shape of the side walls, must favour this method of keeping the door shut. In some cases, small hollows were formed round the interior edge of the lid, into which the spider thrust its feet when keeping guard. It is a curious fact, that when several of these spiders enclosed in their nests were kept as a matter of curiosity in a box of earth, and the doors frequently opened to examine their proceedings, one or two of them, as if wearied at these repeated interruptions, effectually closed their doors by weaving a piece of silken tapestry, which was spread over the interior of the opening, and rounded like the inside of a thimble. This was so strongly attached to the door and to the side walls, that no opening could be made without des troying the nest.


door is perfectly smooth and firm, being shaped so as to fit accurately, and yet to offer no resistance when pushed open by

the insect.



As might be expected, there are varieties in the shape and size of these nests. Some specimens found in the island of Zante had the silken layers of the lid extended into a sort of handle, or lever, just above the hinge, on pressing which, in ever so slight

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obliged to discharge their cargo in an unsheltered road, and, during the winter season, are necessitated to run into Soor for shelter.

The port or harbour of Sidon was filled up by order of the celebrated Emir Fakred-deen, when he revolted from the sultan; and now only small boats can enter the harbour, where formerly large vessels anchored with safety; so that all vessels are

Sidon is a city of great antiquity, having been founded by the eldest son of Canaan after the Deluge. When the land was divided among the tribes of Israel, it was assigned to Asher; but the inhabitants offered such a determined resistance, that they could not be expelled. When Jacob blessed his sons, and prophesied, he mentioned Zidon as the boundary of the portion of Zebulun ;* and Joshua twice mentions great Zidon;t therefore, the certainty of its existence as early as B.C. 1689, is fully established. Although frequently called the sister city to Tyre, it should more properly be termed the mother city; for Ezekiel distinctly informs us of the relationship,‡ and Tyre is called "the daughter of Zidon."§


The Great Sidon, or Tsidon-rabbah, is now called Saida; it has sometimes been called Saidee, and Zidon. It is larger than Acre, and was formerly surrounded by strong fortifications, which were much damaged by the operations carried on against it in the Syrian war of 1840. The population has generally been much overrated, having been stated by most authors to contain about 15,000 inhabitants; while in reality it does not contain more than 6,000; of whom 1,000 are Christians, 200 Jews, and the remainder chiefly Maronites and Turks. The people are occupied generally in spinning cotton, and cultivating the land to raise apricots, figs, oranges, lemons, pomegranates, and melons, which, with silks, corn, oil, galls, and boots, shoes, and slippers of morocco leather, form their chief exports. The imports consist of clothes, dyes for cotton, spices, and Spanish iron.

The greatness of Sidon arose from the skill of the inhabitants in manufactures, felling timber, building ships, and attention to commerce; they were the first people to establish a maritime intercourse The town is filled with ruins; but there by venturing beyond their own coast; are very few interesting antiquities within and glass is said to have been first manuits walls, though outside there are several. factured by them. In a short time, we The castle and palace of Fakr-ed-deen is find them celebrated for their skill in surrounded by the sea, and only connected embroidery, dyeing, and superiority in with the town by a bridge. On a little the manufacture of trinkets, toys, and hill on the north side there are the remains jewellery generally. Neither did they of an old castle, said to have been built neglect the sciences, for they were acby Louis XI., but now in a most dila- quainted with chemistry and pharmacy, pidated state. The view of the surround-being employed in gilding with beaten or ing country from this is very fine, the water gold, and the preparation of opium, luxuriant orchards and gardens being re- various unguents, and the extraction of lieved here and there by some white- quicksilver from cinnabar. Strabo assigns domed house, or towering minaret, and the invention of arithmetic and astronomy the blue sea dashing over the golden to them; this, however, may be doubtsands, leaving wreaths of foam upon them ful; but we know that they were acas it recedes to renew the attack. Upon quainted with both sciences, and made the summit of the hill, and near to the use of the Great Bear for the direction of remains of the citadel built by Louis XI., their ships' course. is a square castle of rusticated stone, and the remains of a circular wall.

Sidon has experienced many changes as regards its political condition. The inhabitants are mentioned in Judges (x. 12), in conjunction with other nations, as the rulers or oppressors of Israel; and we may therefore infer, that the city was

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then a powerful one. Afterwards, in the time of David and Solomon, it appears to have been under the government of the king of Tyre; though still possessing great power and importance; subsequently Shalmaneza, the Assyrian conqueror, took the city, which had separated itself from Tyre. It was governed by a king of its own during the time of its subjection to the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian rule. The Sidonians revolted under Artaxerxes Ochus; and being besieged and betrayed by their king to Ochus, they burnt the city, their treasures, and themselves. Sidon was rebuilt, and, after a lapse of several years, regained some of its former commercial importance and prosperity. Alexander the Great advanced against, and took the city without any resistance; and, after his death, it passed successively under the power of the Egyptians, Syrians, Romans, and Crusaders. The Christians lost the city in 1111, and afterwards re-took it from the Saracens. St. Louis repaired it in 1250; but, in 1289, the Saracens again became masters of it; and at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the celebrated Druse Prince, Emir-Fakr-ed-deen, destroyed the mole, and filled up the harbour to prevent the Turkish vessels entering it. The last important event connected with its history, was the bombardment by the Anglo-Turkish and Austrian fleet in 1840.

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from various authors, public journals, documents, and observations, and have no doubt my readers generally will not be selfish enough to censure me for its introduction, if not quite in accordance with their tastes.

It is pretty evident from the foregoing, and numerous other facts, that Sidon has been individually attacked by the plague many times; that four times it has lost a considerable number by the visitation; and that there are at least fourteen recorded general visitations of a severe character, in addition to many minor ones, that are not worthy of notice. The inquiring mind will naturally ask the reason, and can only satisfy itself by reference to history, and a visit to the town. I have done both, and am decidedly of opinion, that much of its severity at least, if not its visitations, might be prevented by attention to cleanliness; for Beyrout, although by no means so exempt as it might be, is cleaner than most of the towns south of it; and it is a rule almost without an exception, that the further north you travel in Syria, the cleaner and more healthy you will find the towns.

Anything but pleased with our visit to Sidon, we started as soon as the horses and ourselves had partaken of some refreshment, and riding over a beautiful and fruitful plain for about three hours, we arrived at Ras Sarfan or Zarfa, near which the town of Sarphan is situated, and occupies part of the site of the ancient Zarephath or Sarepta, rendered memorable for its connexion with the prophet Elijah. The ruins are almost swept away by Time's destroying hand, and a few houses of the most miserable description only now mark the site.

A lovely ride, in which we only met some melon-laden donkeys with their drivers, brought us to the river Casimeer or Kasmia, which rolled on with its wonted impetuosity towards the sea; this is said to be the Leontes, and I believe with more truth than when designated the Eleutherus. An hour's ride brought us to the tombs of the Tyrians, from whence we had our first view of Tyre.

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1759 Oct.





Before the year, B.C. 188, there is not any mention made of the plague in Syria; then we find that in the early part it ravaged nearly the whole of Syria, destroying 2,000 persons a day (1). The firstrecordedgeneral plague (2). Plague all over Asia, reigning especially in Egypt, Syria, and Turkey (3).

Overran all Syria and Asia. Appeared at Antioch, when the Crusaders were there, and carried off thousands of all ranks among the pilgrims. Appeared at Acre, from the number of Christians slain decomposing in the River Belus, after the victory gained by Saladin over the Templars; the number being estimated by Boha-ed-deen at 7,000. The whole of Syria ravaged by it. One of the most terrible plagues that ever visited Syria. It took its origin in China in 1346; advancedthroughout the East Indies to Syria, Turkey, and Egypt (4). Prevailed throughout Syria, passing on to Egypt (5). Appeared at Aleppo, Tripoli, Sidon, and Beyrout, Raged at Aleppo.

Tripoli, Sidon, and Damascus ravaged by it, but it did not reach Aleppo until 1733 (6). Appeared at Aleppo, but was not so violent as in 1719 (6). Appeare.l again at Aleppo, and committed great ravages (").

Visited nearly the whole of Syria.

Appeared_at_ Safed, Sidon, and Acre. In December it visited Tripoli (7).

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Year. Month.[

7 Armstrong.

8 Abbe Mariti.

1761) Mar. 1762












One of the most disastrous plagues 1841 that ever visitedSyriacommenced this month, and raged with great violence at Sidon and Tripoli; spreading in April, increasing in May and June, and declining in July and August (8). Feb. Jerusalem was visited by it (8). Mar. Damascus suffered very much from its ravages (8). Mar. Appeared at Latakia, increasing to May 13, committing great ravages to June 5, then gradually declining to the 27th; the mortality after that decreased from






April. It broke out at Aleppo, increasing rapidly in May, and raging violently throughout June; terminated in July (3).

Appeared at Jaffa, attacking the army of Djezzar, Turks and French alike (4). May. Raged in Bonaparte's army at Jaffa (4).



twenty to nine a day. On the 4th and 5th July it rose to twenty; fell again to six; by August 1st it fell to one a day. About 8,500 persons were attacked, and about 4,000 died (1).

The plague broke out in an Arab encampment, close to one of the gates of Aleppo. In the first week of April it advanced slowly; in June increased with great force; reached its height in the beginning of July, and diminished towards the end of the month; breaking out again in August, and increasing in Sept. Appeared at Tortosa; slightly increased in April, diminished in May, and disappeared in June (2). The Pestis Bovilla raged throughout Syria.

Appeared in various parts of Syria throughout the year.

Appeared at Beyrout, but the visitation was slight.

Prevailed at Thannes, in Lebanon, Zebdeni, Zurgaia, and Damascus (5). Nov. Prevailing at Deir-el-Kamar (5). Nearly all Syria visited by the plague. Feb. Aleppo again ravaged by it, and four villages at 20 miles distance, on the north of Aintab. Jaffa invaded by it.


May. Appeared at Beyrout; and Jeru

salem also visited by it, where 200 persons fell victims to its ra vages by the end of the month. Tyre was visited by the plague (6). Appeared at Beyrout, and continued till May; during which time, out of 121 persons attacked, 47 died; among the military and inhabitants (6).

May. Appeared at Sidon, and attacked 2,000 of the inhabitants, of whom 500 died; of the 900 military stationed there, 400 were attacked, and 190 died.

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