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and there is a space of about a quarter of form the various words. These he arranges an inch between each hole. There are a along the flat piece of board, gently pressing number of pins, of the same sort, which fit each letter down as he puts it next the into these holes, and by them the compu- preceding one; the needle-points by this tation is carried on. The pins are also pen- means enter the paper, and form on the tagons, with a projection at each end: at under surface of it a raised or embossed one end the projection has a flat top; at the representation, by the projection of the other it is notched, like the end of an arrow. bars where the points have penetrated, and To denote 1, the pin with the flat projection this embossed character may be distinguished uppermost is inserted in the board, with the and easily read by the touch. At the end projection parallel to the top of the board; of each word a small wooden space isinserted. to indicate 3, it is turned one-fifth round It will be observed, that by putting two or to the right; to signify 5, it has another more pieces of paper underneath the pointed turn of one-fifth further to the rignt; to types, copies will be multiplied. denote 7, the pin is turned further round; In a long, narrow room, well heated, I and to signify 9, the projection is opposed found a dozen or more young men and boys to the remaining side of the pentagon. busy making baskets. They seemed in all The even numbers are expressed in a similar stages of proficiency, from the young beway, the notched end of the pin being upper- ginner splitting osiers slowly, cautiously, most in this case. By the use of this board and distrustfully, to the expert hand emthe pupils may be carried to any extent in ployed in making a handsome fire-screen, arithmetical knowledge, and make their in which a variety of coloured osiers were calculations with as much satisfaction as tastefully worked up into one harmonious those who see. For teaching geography, whole. In this case the blind workman oral instruction is much employed; but seemed to know where to seek for an osier relief maps (after the manner of those maps of any given colour, his fancy directing him of the country round Sebastopol which were in the choice of pattern, &c. Nearly all exposed for sale in the Sydenham Palace the work is fashioned round wooden bloeks, only lately) are also used. I noticed some or models of the baskets, which the worker of a different kind, the seas being smooth holds on his knees, and round which he and varnished—the land rough-towns weaves the osiers. represented by small pins-mountains I now proceeded to the girls' school, where ridged, and boundaries simply raised. Wri- a number of girls, clean, healthy, and appating, properly speaking, not much prac- rently happy, were busily engaged in knittised in the York School; but the following ting, netting, and kindred occupations. I method of printing, or perpetuating ideas noticed here, that while many were plainly on paper, is extensively used there : A cube not proficients, some few were working of wood, or any other convenient material, away at beautiful and elaborate patterns. the size of which depends on the delicacy Through the kindness of the teacher of of touch in the blind person, has raised on musie, I was allowed the opportunity of one side of it a letter, or figure, or stop, in judging of the proficiency of some of the the manner of a printer's type. On the pupils in this branch of science. The blind opposite, or lower side of the eube, is a are proverbially good musicians, and cerrepresentation of the same character as that tainly the York school is by no means beon the upper side, but formed of needle- hind others in this respeet. A convincing points inserted into the wood. A cushion proof of the pains bestowed on the pupils, is provided, the size of the sheet of paper and the attention on their part, will be intended to be printed; a sheet of paper is found in the fact that they have made themlaid on the cushion, and the types arranged selves masters of the whole of Handel's with their needle-points resting on the Messiah; while their public concerts every paper. Upon the cushion there is a flat Thursday afford a rich and varied supply of piece of wood about an inch broad, which the best music, very creditably performed. can be moved from one notch to another, by It is pleasing to be able to record, too, (and which the distance of the lines is rendered the fact is mentioned in order to incite uniform. This piece of wood is for the others, similarly circumstanced, to do the letters to lie against, like the composing- same.) that, at the request of the pupils stick of the printer. The letters being first themselves, a concert was given by them in of all arranged in alphabetical order in a aid of the Patriotic Fund; and the proceeds, frame, the blind person selects (by feeling amounting to 542. 123. 11d., were handed the raised impression of the letter, &c., on over to this excellent object. In the York the upper surface) what letters he needs to school the pausical instruction is conveyed
orally, raised musical types not being used; | raised type. I was sorry to hear that, but it must be added that the theory of owing to want of sufficient support, it was music is not neglected, the advanced musical feared the magazine would have to be dispupils receiving constant lessons in coun- continued. In some schools the pupils play ter point, &c. It is a curious sight to see the at draughts in their hours of recreation. blind working their exercises in thorough- The game is played thus; the alternate bass. A small mahogany board has a num- squares of the board are covered with sand, ber of grooves cut in it lengthwise, to de- and in each there is a small hole, fitted to note the musical lines and spaces; these receive a pin attached to the piece, which is lines, &c., are divided at right angles by tbus retained, slits into several portions. In these slits Whatever truth there may be in the resmall pieces of metal are intended to be in- marks that “the ear is the vestibule of the serted by the pupil, to express bars. The soul," and whole board is pierced all over by a number of holes large enough to thrust a pin. The
"That if one sense should be suppressed
It but retires into the rest," notes, semibreve, minim, crotchet, quaver, &c., together with their rests, flats, sharps, certainly it may almost be said that some naturals, dots, &c., are all expressed by blind men have learnt to see with their pins bent and twisted in different ways. hands and ears; as it has been said that Thus, a minim is a pin bent like a button- certain deaf persons have learnt to hear hook; a minim rest is the same without the with their eyes. The names of more than a head of the pin; and so on. These are all few blind men are written in the annals of arranged in different divisions of a small fame; and if the limits of this article permahogany box, and the pupil, knowing mitted, many, various and interesting de. where to feel for each, inserts it by turns in tails could be furnished to such distinthe proper hole of the board, putting, where guished characters. I need not do more necessary, the slips of metal in the slits, to than mention the names of Homer and denote the bars; and thus he proceeds with Milton; they had probably been long achis exercise.
quainted with the visible world before they The recreation of the blind is an im- lost their sight, and therefore their descripportant matter. As they have naturally a tions may be the result of feelings which painful sense of their own incapacity, a fired their bosoms before blindness came strong propensity to despondency is con- upon them. But what shall we say of the tinually working in their minds : hence it productions of such men as Sanderson and has been recommended not to be too ready Blacklock, both of whom became blind to offer assistance to the blind in any office within a year after birth? We regard their which they can perform, whether prompted excellent works with amazement and adby amusement or necessity. “Let a blind miration. Dr. Sanderson was a professor boy (says a competent authority) be allowed at Cambridge. His attainments and perto walk through the neighbourhood without formances in the languages, and also as a a guide. If he have a mechanical turn, let learner and teacher in the abstract mathehim not be denied the use of tools-it is matics, in philosophy and music, were truly better that he should lose a little blood astonishing Numbers came to hear and than be perpetually confined to the same admire a blind man give lectures on optics, place, and so debilitated in body and de- discourse on the nature of light and colours, pressed in mind.” Walking exercise is explain the theory of vision, the phenomena especially to be recommended; as also, of the rainbow, and other objects of sight, where practicable, that of riding. During He possessed the sense of feeling in such last summer the pupils of the York school perfection that he could in a set of Roman had one or more excursions by water up the medals distinguish the genuine from the River Ouse. The pleasure derived by the false, though they had been counterfeited blind from an excursion of this sort arises in such a manner as to deceive a connoisfrom the sound of the ripple of the water, seur who judged of them by the eye. He the freshness of the breeze, the enjoyment could judge of the size of a room into which of their own music, the reading aloud of he was introduced, and of his distance from some kind friends, which to the blind is the wall. Dr. Blacklock, who lost his sight always a source of gratification. I was glad before he was six months old, nevertheless to find in the York school several numbers made himself master of various languages, of the Magazine for the Blind, a work ex- Greek, Latin, Italian, and French; and pressly designed for the instruction and also acquired a deserved reputation as an amusement of the blind, and printed in excellent poet, Huber, the celebrated Swiss
naturalist, who wrote so well on bees and picious, vindictive, and implacable. Add ants, became blind at seventeen years old. to which, they are accused of having a great Leonard Euler, the mathematician, was tendency to atheism. Let us hope that blind during the latter part of his life. constant and careful religious instruction James Holman became blind when a young has rendered this reproach, at least as reman : his travels round the world excited gards the blind in the Asylums of this coungeneral curiosity and interest. John Met-try, groundless. calf, a native of Knaresborough, became The case of blind mutes—those unfortublind at six years of age. He was a pro- nate persons who are deaf, dumb, and blind jector and surveyor of high roads in difficult -though full of interest, cannot be treated and mountainous parts. In this capacity, of here. The following table gives some with the assistance of a long staff, he would information as to the causes of blindness. traverse the roads, ascend precipices, ex. During forty-three years the Liverpool plore valleys, and investigate their several Blind Asylum received 929 persons: the extents, forms, and situations; and this he following were the causes which led to this did with consummate ability and accuracy. partial or total blindness :The following observations are curious :
Total many of them are given on the high autho
tially. rity of Dr. Guillié. It frequently happens Blind from their birth ... 49 2877 that more than one child in a family is born
165 42 207 blind. This is probably owing to the force
Inflammation .. 174 of imagination. The mother of two blind
34 children stated that she owed the blindness
External injury 47 of her second child to the fact of constantly
Defect in the looking on, and thinking of, the calamity of
60 the other. Many of the blind can discover,
Imperfectorby the voice, whether a person is tall or
ganisation 2 8 10 short; and describe his form and beauty, Lost their sight at sea
9 &c. They kvow the steps of their com
By gradual decay panions; and on hearing a sermon, they After fever
7 can tell by the sound whether the preacher
3 uses notes. Currents of air tell them when
After hooping cough they approach buildings, &c. A person born
5 blind never dreams that he sees the objects From other causes.. 14 12 26 of his dreams. The blind are said to be generally deficient in modesty or shame;
108282 78 112 27 74
572 and are often destitute of sensibility and gratitude, being frequently irritative, sus
to challenge imitation. A pretty girl is PAYING TOLL IN ZEALAND.
crossing a rustic bridge, and her lover THERE is a proverb that when you are' claims the toll, in the shape of a kiss, in Rome you should do as the Romans which seems to have been as freely given do; and by a parity of reasoning, it may as received. In the background we see be assumed that when in Zealand it is ex. another Zealandish maiden, whe is accoinpedient to do as the Zealanders do. The panied by no less than two swains. We sample of Zealandish doings which we perfectly agree with the financial prin. have before us is of a nature well fitted ciple enunciated with regard to the
bridges of Zealand ; but we hope the
THE PIERCED GROTTO. young gentlemen who escort the fair one attired in the picturesque costume At the extreme end of the harbour of of the country will not demand double Brest, beneath the narrow promontory of toll.
Kelern, is situated a little hamlet, em. We may add, for the information of bowered amid a grove of elm, beech, and those of our readers who might otherwise ash trees. This is Roseauvel, whose imagine Zealand to have some remote pointed spire rises high above the surconnection with the Cannibal Islands, rounding trees, and serves from afar as a where the principal dishes at the tables guide to the wayfaring man. of the natives are cold-boiled missionary The village consists of about thirty and baked young woman, that Zealand is houses, in the midst of which stands the the most southern province of the Nether- church, surrounded by its burial-ground, lands, and that it comprises a number of and shaded by two magnificent walnutislands between the mouths of the Scheldt trees. A few paces distant from one of and Maas, among which is Walcheren, these, a grave had recently been dug, and where the English made so disastrous a the black wooden cross, watered with failure in an armed expedition in 1812. tears (which in the country churchyards The surface of Zealand—or Zeeland, as of Britany often replace the monumental the Dutch call it—is a little above the stone) had been newly planted at its level of the sea. The climate is very head. damp, and most unhealthy to strangers. A man knelt with uncovered head upon The principal products are cattle, butter, the turf, and two young children prayed madder, seeds, and potatoes. The prin. by his side. This humble tomb contained cipal town of Zealand is Middleburg. the earthly remains of her who had been Slight as is the back-ground of the en. to them a tender mother, to him a faithgraving, a sufficiently accurate idea can ful wife. Gentle and courageous woman! be acquired of the general characteristics for ten years she had struggled against of this not very pleasant country. Low, poverty, infirmities, and nights of weary swampy, marshy lands, innumerable watching, and had at length died in sufdykes, and a plenitude of dams, all bear fering, without having suffered one murout the description given by an old tra- mur to escape her lips. His prayer conveller of Belgium and Holland, “An oglie cluded, Claude Morvan rose from his countrye, rasyshed from ye see, and which knees; his children followed his example, had moch better remained therein." and all pursued in silence the road which
led to Kelern. The death of Catherine had left a deep wound in the peasant's
heart, for he had loved her as dearly as a IMPORTANCE OF MORAL EDUCATION.- woman could be loved, but his grief did Under whose care soever a child is put to be not diminish aught from his manly coutaught during the tender and flexible years rage. He concealed it even as we bide of his life, this is certain ; it should be one those wounds which we cover up, lest who thinks Latin and languages the least part of education; one who, knowing how their sight should make us faint ; and he much virtue and well-tempered soul is to be continued to love her who was no more, preferred to any sort of learning or language, in the children whom she had left behind makes it his chief business to form the mind to his care. The eldest of these, the of his scholars, and give that a right dis- little Peter, was just nine years of age, position ;, which, if once got, though all and lad that ready aptitude for turning the rest should be neglected, would in due his hand to everything, which necessity time produce all the rest ; and which, if it so early teaches to the children of the be not got, and settled so as to keep out ill and vicious habits-larguages, and sciences, poor, He not only took care of his sister and all the other accomplishments of educa- Rénée, two years younger than himself, tion, will be to no purpose but to make the but he assisted in household matters, worse or more dangerous man.
went on errands, and assisted his father