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in this distinction as the redeeming point HAIR.
of her destiny. Often would a blush of Hair is an eloquent emblem. It is the pleasure suffuse her cheek as she caught mother's pride to dress her child's rich a stranger's eye regarding them admirlocks; the lover's joy to gaze on the hair ingly, when at her lowly toil. The home. locket of his mistress; the mourners de- liness of her gait, the poverty of her conspair to see the ringlet stir, as if in dition, were relieved by this native adornmockery of death, by the marble cheek ment. It is wonderful to what slight of the departed. How the hue of hair tokens the self-respect of poor mortals is hallowed to the fancy! From the will cling, and how the very maintenance
glossy raven,” to the "silver sable," of virtue depends upon some frail assofrom the “brown in the shadow, and gold ciation. A strain of music, glimpses of in the sun," to blond and silken thread, a remembered countenance, a dream, a there is a vocabulary of hues appealing to word, will often annihilate a vile inteneach memory:
tion, or unseal the fountain of the heart. The beautiful economy of nature is A palm-tree in England drew tears from signally displayed in the human hair. an Eastern wanderer, and the native The most simple expedient in the animal wisdom of Jeannie Deans led her to make frame, the meanest adjunct, as it were, to her first visit to the Duke of Argyle, the figure, yet how effective!
arrayed in a plaid, knowing his honour's “ Hyacinthine locks
heart “ would warm to the tartan." And Round from his parted forelock manly hung thus, to the simple-hearted maiden hér Clustering, hut nut bencath his shoulders broad; She, as a veil, down to the slender waist,
rich and flowing hair was a crown of Her unadorned tresses wore,
glory--the only circumstance that eleva. Disheveled, but in wanton ringlets wavid,
ted her in her own estimation. And As the vine curls her tendrils, which implies when the iron necessity of want came Subjection, but required with gentle sway, And by her yielded, by him best received, upon her, and she was a homeless orphan Yielded with coy submission, modest pride, when everything had been parted with And sweet, reluctant, amorous delay.”
and all appeals to compassion had failed, In this passage, the blind bard of Para- the spirit of the poor creature yielded to dise has interpreted the natural language hunger, and she sold her hair. Before of woman's hair before the artifices of this sacrifice, she had resisted, with the fashion had curtailed its natural grace. heroism of innocence, the temptation to W ever has attentively perused one of purchase food at the expense of honour. the pictures of the old masters, where a But when the wants of nature were female figure is therein represented, must appeased, and she went forth shorn of have perceived, perhaps unconsciously, her cherished ornament, the consciousthat the long, flexible ringlets conveyed ness of her loss induced despair, and she an impression to the mind of dependence. resigned herself hopelessly to a career of The short, tight curls of a gladiatorial infamy. statue, on the contrary, give the idea of Abundant hair is said to be indicative self-command and unyielding will. There of strength, and fine hair of susceptibility. is a poetical charm in the unshorn tresses in the hair are written the stern lessons of a beautiful woman, which Milton has of life. It falls away from the head of not exaggerated. I have seldom re- sickness, and the brows of the thoughtful. ceived a more sad conviction of the bitter. The bright lot of childhood is traced in ness of poverty, than was conveyed by its golden threads, the free buoyancy of the story of a lovely girl in one of the youth is waked by its wild luxuriance; continental towns, who was obliged to the throe of anguish, the touch of age, sell her hair for bread. She was of hum. entwine it with a silver tissue; and the ble parentage, but nature had adorned intensity of spirit will there anticipate her head with the rarest perfection. Her the snows of time. The hair of Columbus luxuriant and glowing ringlets constitu- was white at thirty; and before that ted the pride of her heart. She rejoiced period, Shelley's dark waving curls were
dashed with snow. In the account of the the heart. Laura's flying tresses haunted execution of the unfortunate Mary, the Petrarch’s fancy : last touch of pathos is given to the scene "Qual Ninfa in fonti, in selve, mai qual Dea when it is stated that, as the executioner Chiome d' oro si fino a l'aura sciolse ?" held up the severed head, it was per. ceived that the auburn locks were thickly sical existence :
It is the surviving memorial of our phystrewed with grey. Associations of sentiment attach strongly It is the gentlest, yet the strongest thread
"There seems a love in hair, though it be dead to the hair. Around it is wreathed the of our frail plant-a blussom from the tree, laurel garland of fame. Amid it tremble Surviving the proud trunk; as if it said, the flowers of a bridal. The Andalusian Patience and gentleness is power, In me
Behold affectionate eternity." women always wear roses in their glossy black hair. The barbarous practice of
D’Israeli paints Contarini Fleming, the scalping, doubtless originated in a savage creature of passion, after his wife's death idea of desecrating the temple of the soul, them about his neck, and springing from
as clipping off her long tresses, twining as well as of gathering trophies of victory. The head is shaven by the monks in a precipice. Miss Porter makes Ellen token of humility, and the stationary Mar embroider into the banner of Wallace, civilization of the Chinese is indicated by
the ensanguined hair of his murdered no custom more striking than that of Marion. Goldsmith's coffin was opened wearing only a single forelock, the
to obtain some of his hair for a fair ad.
very acme of unpicturesque. There were few mirer, and there is a striking anecdote of more characteristic indications of a highly
a man who was prevented from declaring artificial society than the absurd state of love to his friend's betrothed, by recogdressing the head once so fashionable. nising on the hand he had clasped, a ring Even at the present day, no part of containing the hair of his rival. With female costume betrays individual taste what a pathetic expressiveness does the more clearly than the style in which the
“ Cenci” conclude :hair is worn. To tear the hair is a true Beatrice.-Give yourself no unnecessary pain, expression of despair, and the patriarchal My dear Tord Cardinal. Here, mother, tie ceremony of scattering ashes on the head, in any simple knot; ay, that does well
. was the deepest sign of sorrow. How and yours, I see, is coming down. How often much the desolate grandeur of the scene
Have we done this for one another ? and novo
We shall not do it any more. My hood! on the heath, in Lear, is augmented by We are quite ready. Well, 'tis very well.” his “white flakes” that “ challenge pity,' and what a picture we have of Bassanio's
The dialogue between King John and love, when he says
very significant :
King Philip.-“ Bind up those tresses, Oh sunny
locks Haug on her temples like a golden fleece,
In the fair multitude of those her hairs! Which makes her seat at Belmont, Colcho strands, Where, but by chance a silver dross hath fallen, And many Jasons come in quest of her."
Even to that dross ten thousand wiry friends The women at the siege of Messina, Do glue themselves in social griet; wrought their hair into bow-strings for Sticking together in calamity."..
Like true, inseparable, faithful loves, the archers, and on a similar occasion in Constance.—“To England : if you will." the Spanish wars, the females of a small King Philip.-“ Bind up your hairs." garrison bound their hair under the chin,
Constance. -“ Yes, that I will, and wherefore to appear like beards, and arranging them. I tore them from their bonds ; and cried aloud, selves on the ramparts, induced the Oh, that these hands could so redeem my son,
As they have given these hairs their liberty! enemy to surrender.
But now I envy at the r liberty, Sampson's hair was singularly associa- And will again commit them to their bonds. ted with his misfortunes, and the abun- Because my poor child is a prisoner.” dant locks of Absalom wrought the down. fall of his pride. It is often a net to that alters colour with every motion towards the
SOMB men's minds are made of changeable stuit entrap the affections. The hair speaks | light-Butler.
what love I note
will I do it?
of the poet Montgomery, when he penned ZOOLOGY-No. VIII.
« The firmament CLASS IV.-RADIARIA, OR RAYED
Was throng'd with constellations, and the sea ANIMALS,-continued.
Strown with their images."
Let us, however, now regard them, not The figure of a Star-fish was introduced with the eye of the poet, but with that of
the naturalist, at page 82, previous volume, as an example of what is meant by a rayed or radiated animal. We have now reached the class to which the Star-fish beiongs, and as the
ORDER ACALEPHÆ, OR SEA-NETTLES. rayed appearance here attains its highest “Far as the breeze can bear, the billows foam, degree of development, to this group the Survey our empire, and behold our home! title Radiaria is given. Here are found
These are our realms."
BYRON, those creatures which may be regarded as I was staying with my family at the the representations or types of the Radiate sea-side, during the summer months, and animals, such as the Star-fish, with its rays was returning home one evening, when, as or arms round a centre; and the Sea- I approached the door, I heard loud and Urchin, with its rows of little knobs and violent crying. Quickening my steps, I spines diverging from a central spot. There found the cries proceeded from one of my are, however, other animals, which are not boys, a little fellow about eight years old, furnished with a hard, leathery, or prickly He was sitting in the hall more than half covering; but, on the contrary, are soft and undressed, and roaring with pain. I found jelly-like, such as those which are known he had been bathing, and had been severely round the coast by the names of Jelly-fish, stung, by a jelly-fish. These creatures Sea-jellies, or Sea-blubber. In them, how- have long been celebrated for this stinging ever, there are rays proceeding from the power. It was well known to the old Greek centre to the circumference, like the radii naturalists, who gave to the order the scienof a circle, so that they also belong to this tific name Acalephe, signifying a nettle, division. The difference in structure and a term which they still retain as their discovering points out, however, a very natural tinctive appellation. division of the class : just as if it were But although some species might, bearranged that two corps intended to live cause of this power, be justly raised “ to under very different circumstances, should that bad eminence,” the name is not reeach bear its distinctive uniform, adapted stricted to them; and hence the innocent to the exigencies of the service, and the are confounded with the guilty. Not more safety and comfort of its members. The than three or four species of those known spine-covered Radiaria form a group whose on the British coasts do in reality sting; duties are performed about the shores, or at all the rest are harmless. moderate distances from land, and_at The appearance of the large tawny fathomable depths. The gelatinous Ra- coloured species, when seen in the water, diaria, on the contrary, have as their on a fine summer or autumn day, is exdwelling
tremely beautiful, as it gracefully moves “The sea, the sea, the open sea."
by the contraction and expansion of the
outer margin of the “umbrella,”. or disc, Shakspeare tells us of
exhibits its fringed margins, and rises to “ A mermaid on a dolphin's back,
the surface, or sinks at pleasure beneath. Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath, Earlier in the year, we may find our boat That the rude sea grew civil at her song; surrounded by others marked with purple And certain stars shot madly from their spheres, To hear the Sea-maid's music.'
circles, and so numerous are these "jelly
fishes that on some occasions its progress I will not venture to affirm that these is even retarded by the resistance they stars were changed into Sea-jellies and offer. Our walks along the shore furnish Star-fishes, and that this is the reason they us with examples of many hundreds of both still retain a certain degree of resemblance kinds stranded on the beach, and known by to their original form. But I may assert, the classic appellation of Medusæ. that the common nimes, both in our own It is curious to examine one of these and in foreign dialerts, evince a popular great pads of jelly, and find how little solid recoguition of a real or supposed likeness. matter it contains. One tested by Professor Such an idea must have been in the mind l Owen weighed two pounds, at the time of
its removal from the sea; but when the The sexes in the Medusæ are distinct. watery parts were drained away, and the From the eggs, while yet within the ovaries remainder dried, there remained but a thin of the mother, the young are developed, and membrane not exceeding thirty, grains in pass into pouches observable on the lower weight. This remarkable peculiarity is so surface of the body. Each of these four little known, that I shall extract from Pat- pouches is a nursery, where, secure from terson's “Zoology for Schools” the follow- harm, the first stages of helpless infancy ing illustrative anecdote :-“An eminent are passed; here the young become covered zoologist, now a professor in one of the with the minute, hair-like bodies, called English Universities, had been delivering cilia, and are thus enabled, when they forsome lectures in a seaport town in Scotland, sake the parent, to swim about in the water. in the course of which he had adverted to We read with interest and wonder of the some of the most remarkable points in the marsupial pouch of the Kangaroo, where economy of the Acalephæ. After the lec- the immature young is nourished; here is ture, a farmer who had been present came an analogous contrivance, belonging to an forward and inquired if he had understood animal of humble rank, living by thousands him correctly, as having stated that the on our own shores. Medusæ contained so little of solid mate- Let us now pursue the progress of the rial, that they might be regarded as little young Medusa. After swimming about for else than a mass of animated sea-water? some time, under the form shown at fig. 23, And on being answered in the affirmative, it fastens itself to some fixed object (fig. 24), he remarked that it would have saved him and four arms are gradually developed many a pound had he known that sooner, for he had been in the habit of employing his men and horses in carting away large quantities of jelly-fish from the shore, and using them as manure on his farm, and he now believed they could have been of little more real use than an equal weight of seawater. Assuming that so much as one ton weight of Medusæ recently thrown on the beach had been carted away in one load, it
Fig. 23. Fig. 24. Fig. 25. Fig. 26. will be found that, according to the experi- which are succeeded by four more (Fig. 25), ments of Professor Owen, the entire quan- so that in ten days from the time it left the tity of solid material would be only about parent receptacle, it is furnished with eight 4 lbs. avoirdupois weight, an amount of arms, which are busily employed in the solid material which, if compressed, the capture of food. At first it swam about in farmer might, with ease, have carried home the manner of a Polygastric animalcula in one of his coat pockets !'
(p. 84); now it catches its prey, moored As the Medusa moves gracefully through the water, we might suppose that the entire of the disc, or “umbrella,” contracted and expanded. But this is not the case; it is the part round the margin that alone possesses this contractible power. The lower surface of the body has a fine net-work of vessels, wherein the circulating fluids are exposed to the vivifying influence of the oxygen of the water. Each movement becomes, therefore, an act of respiration ; by the same impulse it both breathes and moves. This beautiful and economic arrangement has suggested the application of a term
by which this peculiarity is indicated. The tribe has been termed Pulmograde, from two Latin words, pulmo, a lung, and gradior, I advance. Analogous terms, some of wbich will be mentioned in the next chapter, have been suggested by peculiarities in the mode of locomotion, observable in other tribes.
Fig. 27. Fig. 2
like one of the Rotifera (p. 85), and em- 1 ster gems of a regal crown. There is not ploying its arms like one of the hydraform | a Medusa in all the ocean which can match, polypes (p. 207). Sometimes it sends out, for beauty, with the minute creature now what in a strawberry plant would be termed before us, though its smallness is such that a runner-sometimes buds grow from its side (Fig. 26). When the body has attained its full length, wrinkles are formed round the body (Fig. 27); these increase in depth, until the segments of the body seem almost detached, or resembling a pile of cups (Fig. 28). Finally these separate; each, after certain intermediate changes, puts on the form shown in Fig. 29, and becomes converted into the common Medusa of our shores, Medusa aurita, with the four purplish heart-shaped markings.
In the latter months of summer the ova are mature; the young become fixed in the autumn; pass the winter in the polype condition; appear again in the immature state in spring, and increase to their full size as the summer advances. The series of changes, is truly wonderful; so much so, that if it were not given on the testimony of several distinct observers of high character, its accuracy might be doubted. It may be summed up thus.--1. The Medusa produces eggs. 2. The eggs produce Infusoria. 3. The infusoria fix and become hydroid Polypes. 4. The hydroid polypes produce Medusæ. For fuller information, the reader
Fig. 30, is referred to one of the publications of the Ray Society, Steenstrup On the Alternation a split pea would overtop it. Yet, small of Generations,
though it be, it has shape, colour, and subThe Medusæ we have been considering
stance so disposed, that as yet no explorer round their margins they have eye-like the smallest of sea-fairies, and suficiently are of large size. At certain distances of the sea has met with another like it. It
is gorgeous enough to be the diadem of bodies, which are regarded as light-per: graceful to be the night-capof the tiniest ceiving organs, of a rudimentary kind; and prettiest of mermaidens." and these are protected by hoods, or coverings. There are, however, numerous spe
The next is a figure (Fig. 31) of Thaucies, small in size, more simple in structure, and with the eyes unprotected. I would wish to introduce these animals to my readers by extracting a few passages from the highly interesting and valuable monograph of Professor Edward Forbes, on the Naked-eyed Medusæ,” another of the Ray Society's volumes.
The accompanying figures will show that among the naked-eyed Medusæ, there exists considerable difference of form Fig. 30 is an enlarged representation of Modeeria formosa ; but wanting, of course, the bright crimson tints that decorate the original. Professor Forbes states that it was taken by him and his friend, Mr. McAndrew, off
Fig. 31. Mull, in the Hebrides, and thus introduces mantias pilosella, which sometimes attains it to his readers :-"The largest objects are the diameter of two inches. Of this genus not always the most beautiful. Little dia- Professor Forbes describes no less than monds may sparkle brighter than the mon- seventeen British species, They swarm in