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of a silver pocket-knife, and draw out each fibre ments show that no salt of iron, and no preparaof the feather separately. They will be found to tion of iron, or green copperas, equals the common curl easily and effectually. Care must be taken to sulphate of iron or green copperas, for ink-making; draw them gently, but firmly, or the fibres will and that even the addition of any persalt, such break. Those I have done in this way are as as the nitrate or chloride of iron, although it good as new.-Fatima S.

improves the colour, deteriorates the durability of 4. INVALID. — VALERIAN.–The root of the ink. The ink Dr. Stark prefers for his own use Valeriana Officinalis, of the natural order Vale- | is composed of 12 oz. of the best blue galls; rianacee, is used medicinally on account of its 8 oz. sulphate of indigo; 8 oz, copperas; a few antispasmodic properties; it has a strong and cloves, to prevent mouldiness; and 4 or 6 oz. of peculiar odour, to most persons extremely nn- gum-arabic, for a gallon of ink. Dr. Stark re. pleasant, but to cats very attractive, and even, it commends that all legal deeds or documents is said, intoxicating. Its action is chiefly upon should be written with quill-pens, as the contact

of steel invariably destroys more or less the durability of every ink. The author shows that a good copying-ink has yet to be sought for; and that indelible inks, which will resist the pencillings and washings of the chemist, need never be looked for. We appear to have lost the art of making writing-ink permanent. Manuscripts of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, now in our State-Paper Office, are apparently as bright as when first written; while those of the last two hundred years are more or less illegible, and some of them entirely obliterated.

7. ALFRED.-UNION JACK.- The term “union jack” is one which is partly of obvious signification, and in part somewhat perplexing. The * union” between England and Scotland, to which the flag owed its origin, evidently supplied the first half of the compound title borne by the flag itself. But the expression “jack,” involves some difficulty. Several solutions of this difficulty have been submitted, but, with a single exception only, they are by far too subtle to be considered satisfactory. A learned and judicions antiquary has recorded it as his opinion, that the flag of the union received the title of “unionjack” from the circumstance of the union between England and Scotland having taken place in the reign of King James, by whose command the new flag was introduced. The name of the King in French, “ Jaques" would have been certainly

used in heraldic documents: the union flag of the nervous centres, and it is found useful in King, “ Jaques” would very naturally be called dyspnea, dyspepsia, epilepsy, hysteria, and neu, after the name of its royal author, Jaques' union, ralgia; it also acts as a vermifuge. Its medicinal or union Jaques, and so, by a simple process, we properties are due to a peculiar yolatile oil, arrive at union-jack. This suggestion of the late which contains Valerianic acid. Various Valeri- Sir Harris Nicholson may be accepted, I think, anates are formed by this acid, combining its without any hesitation. The term "jack” peculiar antispasmodic properties with those having once been recognised as the title of a flag, of the bases with which it is united; thus we it is easy enough to trace its application to have Velerianate of Quinine, of Iron, Zinc, &c.- several flags. Thus, the old white flag with the Family Doctor.

red cross is now called the "St. George's jack 5. HELOISE.—THE TURNPIKR originally meant and English seamen are in the habit of desigwhat is called a Turnstile; that is, a post with a nating the national ensigns of other countries as moveable cross fixed at the top, to turn as the the "jacks” of France, Russia, &c. passenger went through. Ben Johnson, in his 8. C. B.D.-GINGER BISCUITS.-- Take 3 oz. Staple of News, has,

fresh butter, 2 lb. flour, 3 oz. pounded sugar and

2 oz. ginger finely powdered ; knead these ingreI move upon my axle, like a turnpike.

dients into a stiff paste with new milk. Roll it This seems originally to have belonged to fortifi. thin, stamp out the biscuits with a cutter, and cations, the points being made sharp, to prevent bake them in a slow oven until they are crisp the approach of horses: they were therefore pikes through, but keep them of a pale colour.to turn back the assailants.-Nares's Glossary, INDIGNUS. new edit.


STATIONER.—THE BEST MARRIED WOMEN ARE CALLED SPINSTERS,WRITING-INK.-Dr. J. Stark, of Edinburgh, has Because formerly all unmarried women used to manufactured upwards of 230 different inks, and employ their time in spinning, and were not tested the durability of writings made with these considered marriageable till they spun all the on all kinds of paper. His numerous experi- I linen rəquired for household use.-Y. H. Y.


to chat or meet their friends; and the private baths being necessarily small, are incapable of accommodating more than six or eight persons at a time; so that on grand occasions, fasts, feasts, &c., the women are obliged to hire one of the public baths. Some large towns have a bath for the women, and another for the

men ; but the small ones admit the EASTERN RAMBLES AND

women on certain days, and the men on REMINISCENCES.

the intervening days; or the men from morning until noon, and the women from

noon till sunset, which is the most usual RAMBLE THE SECOND.


We paid our fee-about eighteen pence DAMASCUS.--THE BATH-CONSULAR ABODE-BAZAARS.

- at the door, to an old Turk, who was

regaling himself with a pipe, and sipping “The carved and broken stone Tells of glories overthrown;

coffee; and then, passing through a narReligions, empires, palaces, are-where?” row passage, we entered the outer apart. :

L. E. L. ment or entrance chamber, which was LEAVING our muleteers in charge of spacious, and surrounded by a platform, the luggage, and having ordered an early on which reclined, supported by cushions, dinner, we set off for the bath.

several persons who had undergone the The Turkish bath is one of the greatest process of parboiling—for the Turkish luxuries enjoyed by the Easterns. The bath is certainly akin to it—and were rich have baths in their own houses, but now endeavouring to refresh themselves they go to the public ones occasionally, with sherbet, coffee, or smoking. In the


centre of the paved floor was a very large able, but at that time it was really marble basin,

anything but pleasant, for the attendants “Where a spring

appeared to us, inexperienced in such matOf living water from the centre rose,

ters, to be utterly regardless of European Whose bubbling did & genial freshness fling."

life, by the manner in which they twisted Flowers were ranged round the fountain, the head on each side, and sat upon the and innumerable wooden clogs assisted chest. We can assure you, gentle reader, to fill up the vacancy at the base. The that the operation looks very formidable; whole apartment was paved with marble; but custom prevails, and your fears it had a flat roof, with small, round, speedily subside. Having sufficiently blue-glazed windows at the side, and the amused themselves by proving the quawalls fantastically coloured, red and blue lity of our flesh by its firmness, and the on a white ground. Above the platform pliability of our joints, the attendants were strings, on which towels were hung, directed us to lay down flat upon low some half dry, and others thoroughly stages placed in various parts of the wet, just as they had been taken from chamber. Kneeling with one knee upon the bathers.

the ground, my attendant put on a pair Our guide conducted us to the plat. of horse-hair gloves, and seizing one of form, which was carpeted and cushioned; my arms, rubbed away in first-rate style, and each one having undressed, and the effect of which was to bring long placed a towel round the waist, and solid rolls from my skin, and make it as another over shoulder, the làwingee, smooth as satin ; every six or eight rubs or bath attendant, directed each of us to the attendant removed his hands, rubbed slip on a pair of wooden clogs, called them together, and slapped them down cob-cobs, and follow him into the pre. again with tolerable force. My head, paratory warming apartment, as

we chest, and legs were submitted to the terméd it.

operation, and then I was well soused This chamber' was surrounded with with hot water dipped from the hanafeyeh, seats, paved with marble, and coloured or tank, with small bowls. “Surely we like the one we had just left; but the are clean now,we exclaimed, and were roof had domes, with small, blue-glazed preparing to depart, when our tormentors apertures, instead of being flat; and the again approached, each with a bowl in temperature was about 90° Fahr., and his hand, rubbing away with a lump of humid.

raw silk at some almond soap, so furiously After remaining a short time in this as to create a fine lather; and without any chamber, we were conducted into the intimation of what was coming, dabbed inner one,

it in our eyes and mouths, and then fin. The khararah, or inner chamber, is ished their amusement by upsetting the very hot, and when we entered, it seemed remainder over our heads; another scaldalmost impossible to remain there, but ing or sousing completed the operation. the humid heat produced by the hot We were then supplied with clean towels water of the tanks, fountain, and boiler for the shoulders, loins, and head, à la (which ranges from 103° to 112° Fahr.) Turque, and conducted to the first, or soon produced a profuse perspiration. entrance chamber, where the towels were Almost before we could recover our sur. again removed and fresh ones supplied. prise at the scene within this chamber Thus enveloped, we reclined upon the one in which we were soon to take an carpets, supported with musnuds, in the active part, or, to write more correctly, a manner we had seen the persons on our passive one-the attendants seized upon first entrance, and like them, sipped us, and commenced cracking our joints coffee or sherbet; while those that felt to render them snpple, and kneading the inclined smoked the nârgélèh, or Persian flesh as if we really had not any feeling. water-pipe, called by our sailors hubbleWhen we afterwards became accustomed bubble, from the peculiar bubbling noise to such proceedings it was rather agree it makes during the time it is being used,

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The effect of the Turkish bath is to the walls were stained blue, and ornarestore vigour to the weary and jaded mented with white flowers and arabesques, traveller, and give a feeling of elasticity whilst the windows of an adjoining saloon, that it is difficult to describe. It must and the three sides of the alcove, were be felt to be appreciated; and those who furnished with a handsome divan. have enjoyed its luxury after a fatiguing

Soon after we were seated, our host journey will probably dwell with pleasur. astonished us by clapping his hands twice able remembrance on the foregoing pas- or thrice, for we were then unacquainted sages, descriptive of its varied stages. with this Eastern method of summoning

When we had rested long enough, domestics. It is a very comfortable and sipped a due and proper quantum of coffee lazy way of procuring the assistance of a and sherbet, and smoked more tchibouques servant, for there is very little exertion and nárgélèhs, than were quite necessary, required, and each servant can understand we dressed, gave a present to the làwingee, as well who is desired by this method, as and departed to pay our respects to Mr. if the name had been called. Wood, the British consul.

A well-fed youth appeared to answer Following the guide through several the summons, and after giving him some narrow streets, we arrived at Mr. Wood's directions, the consul resumed his tchihouse, which is situated in a dull street. bouque and the conversation, which natuThe cavass led us through some passages rally turned upon European affairs. This of rather mean appearance, partially occu- was soon interrupted by the domestic pied by lazy Janizaries, and other consular announcing breakfast, which our kind servants. Passing through a small court, host had ordered in one of the adjoining we entered the grand court of the house apartments. and were allowed a few minutes to observe After partaking of a most sumptuous its beauties, while the cavass announced repast, the consul conducted us to the our arrival to the consul,

room adjoining the alcove, a gem of In the centre of the court was a long beauty that forcibly brought the following marble tank, filled with pure crystal-like words of Moore, so descriptive of its water, whose surface refleeted the luxu- appearance, to my mind rious trees that surrounded it. The sweet- • And here at once the glittering saloon smelling mimosa, with its golden blog- Bursts on his sight, boundless and bright as soms; the weeping willow, hanging

Where, in the midst, reflecting back the rays gracefully, yet melancholy; the laurel, In broken rainbows, a fresh fountain plays and

High as the enameli'd cupola, which towers “The garden's queen-the rose;"

All rich with arabesque of gold and flowers;

And the mosaic floor beneath shines through commingled with the myrtle, the orange, The sparkling of that fountain's silvery dew; the lemon, and other trees, afforded a Like the wet, glistening shells, of every die, delightful shade for those that were That on the margin of the Red Sea lie.” inclined to linger around the crystal lake, It was fitted up in the most elegant and gaze upon the surrounding beauties. and luxurious Oriental style, the mosaic

Three sides of the spacious court were work and panels being of the most elabooccupied by various apartments, the rate kind used, and the fountain in the fourth was à lofty alcove, where our host centre refreshing and playful in the reclined upon a handsome divan, smoking extreme. the tchibouque, or long pipe of the country. The Orientals, on account of the heat Here and there well-arranged parterres and dryness of the climate, are obliged to of delicate flowers relieved the mosaic employ mosaic work for their panels, cuppavement, and made the scene more boards, &c., for if made otherwise, the beautiful.

wood warps and shrinks so much that the The cavass returned, and conducted us articles appear as if they had been placed to Mr. Wood, who received us most kindly in an oven. in the alcove. The ceiling was richly Our stay being limited, and the duties carved, and inlaid with gold and crimson; l of our host pressing, we thanked him for


his courtesy, and wandered forth to view confess the truth, I rather blew down the the city.

pipe stick, than inhaled the nauseous Our first essay at sight-seeing was in fumes. A kavedgi soon appeared with the bazaars. Let not the untravelled hot coffee, and cold water for the mer. reader imagine that an Tastern bazaar is chant and myself – both very acceptable, similar to one in England, with its neat for the tobacco had heated my throat and stalls, pretty attendants teeming with tongue, and turned me sick. civility, and frequently too attentive, and The purchase being concluded satisfacits comfortable interior ; on the contrary, torily to all parties, we strolled on to the an Eastern bazaar is divided into nume- Arms bazaar, through such varied grouprous departments, every trade has its own ings of costume, that even Baron Nathan class of bazaars, and they are nothing would have been puzzled, amazed, and more than a covered street or streets of most probably gratified. Now jostling a shops containing the same articles, some haughty cavass, bearing the silver headed displayed more attractively than others. staff, denoting his consular authority; They are enclosed and roofed with arches, then dodging an impetuous Albanian, so as to afford shelter from the sun in with lofty mien, and hand upon his summer, and rain in winter; and on pistols, swaggering through the crowd as either side are rows of very gloomy-look. if master of all; anon coming in contact looking recesses, in which may be seen with some veiled lady upon a donkey, the lazy merchant smoking the bubbling whose gingling accoutrements warned nirgélèh or blowing luxuriantly curled his approach, and whose owner led or smoke from the tchibouque, surrounded urged him on; saluted on this side by with his articles of merchandise invitingly the rattling brass basins of the waterdisplayed, to tempt the traveller or stroll- carriers, and their shrill cries; on the ing citizen. In front of the merchant is other side, by confectioners bawling the a sınall platform covered with a carpet, delights of their compounds—we got into and furnished with a cushion for the pur- a throng whose costumes, gesticulations, chaser to sit or recline upon; at night cries, and odours of musk, garlic, violet, this platform is turned up, and the doors &c., was too confused to admit of distincof the recess, on which the goods are dis- tion. played during the day, are shut, and each Swept on by the mass, we entered the bazaar is closed with iron gates, some Arms bazaar, and wandering amid its watchmen only remaining within, to curiosities and beauties, did not observe guard the shops from plunder and fire. that the day was fast merging into eve.

Wishing to purchase trifles for some of Promising ourselves, therefore, another my fair friends in dear old England, I visit, we returned to our hotel and paid a visit to the silk bazaar, with the dined. intent to commence with a silk dress, for It being the time of Ramazan, every the Eastern dresses are much prized by minaret and dome was brilliantly illumisome persons.

nated; and towards midnight shrill cries Seating myself upon the platform, by issued from all quarters, which, on in. the direction of our guide, I requested to quiry, proved to be the chaunting of the view some of the dresses, and had several inhabitants of the harems, answered by handed down; at the same time, the the Muezeen from the adjoining minarets. merchant filled a pipe, drew it up, and The peculiar cry is a joyous chorus, wiping the mouth-piece, handed it over sang, or rather screeched, by the women, to me with a profound salaam. Not at their fasts, and is alluded to by Moore, accustomed to smoke, the odour of the in his Lalla Rookh, where he writestobacco was not too agreeable--although “The minaret-cryer's chaunt of glee, excellent-but to have refused would Sung from his highest gallery, have brought a terrible shower of abuse And answer'd, by a Ziraleet,

From neighbouring harem, wild and sweet." upon the party, so for their sake I had to do the penance of smoking; though to

(To be continued.)

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