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each 1 ch 3 times; 3 ch Dcu 3 ch ; 3 ch 1 Lu GAUNTLET CUFF IN CROCHET

next chs; 3 ch 1 L u same; 3 ch Dc u chs APPLIQUE FOR PLAIN MUSLIN

at the beginning of Dc; 5 ch Dc u next; 3 SLEEVE.

ch 3 Dc on 3 Dc; 3 ch 5 Dc u next chs; 5 Materials. Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s ch Dc u 3 ch; 1 ch 1 L u next chs; 5 ch 3 Boar's Head Cotton, Nos. 30 and 40, and their No. Dc u same; 5 ch 3 Dc u next chs; 5 Dc u 10 Embroidery. Á quarter of a yard of fine next chs; 5 Dc u next; ch T, a row of Scotch or French cambric, the latter is best.

Dc on Dc; 9 Dc u next chs; 3 ch 1 L u 9 ch unite in a circle, u (or under) this next; 3 ch i L u same; 7 ch Dc u 5 ch; 3 circle work 7 Dc; 7 ch 5 more Dc u same ch T7 Dc u next chs; 3 ch 1 L 1 ch in next circle; 5 ch T (or turn on reverse side) 1 L chs for 4 times (that is, 4 long altogether); u the 7 ch ; 5 ch 7 Dc u same chs; 7 Dc on 3 ch a row of Dc on all the Dc; 3 ch T I'L the Dc; 7 'ch Dc u next chs; 9 ch T 9 Dc 1 ch in each alternate loop of the Dc for 9 on Dc; 3 ch T 9 De on Dc; 3 ch 1 L u times; 1 ch 1 L 1 ch u each 3 ch, and 1 ch next chs; 3 ch 1 L u same; 3 ch 1 L u for 5 times (14 L in all); 5 ch Dc'on centre same; 5 ch 4 Dc u same chs; 7 ch 5 Dcu' of Dc; 5 ch T 1 L u íst chs; 3 ch 1 L U

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next; 3 ch 1 L u next; 7 ch 7 Dc u same ; , chs between the L stitches; 3 ch 1 L 1 ch u 5 ch Dc u 3 ch at the end of L stitches; 3 same ; 5 ch Dc u 2nd 1 ch;; 5 ch Dc u next ch 1 L 1 ch in each alternate loop of the Dc 2nd 1 ch again; 5 ch Dc u every 3rd 1 ch for 4 times; 3 ch 1 L u next chs; 5 ch Dc u for 3 times (5 chs of 5 from the L stitch); next; 5 ch' Dc u next; 5 ch 1 1 on centre 5 ch Dc u the chs at the end of L stitches; of the 5 Dc; 7 ch 7 Dc u next chs; 5 Dc 4 ch 1 L u the 1L; 5 ch Dc u next chs; on Dc; 3 ch í L u 2nd of the chs; 5 ch 1 L 5 ch Dc u same; 5 ch 1 L u next; 3 ch 1 L u same; 7 ch 5 Dc on Dc; 3 ch 'T 4 Dc on u next between the 2 L stitches ; '7 ch Dc % Dc; 5 ch 5 Dc u next chs; 13 ch Dc u same next chs, 7 ch Dc u the 5 ch; 6 ch Dc u 3 chs; 1 ch T 6 Dc u chs; 2 ch T 1L u next ch; 3 ch 1 L u 1st 1 ch; 7 ch T Dc u the chs : 7 ch 1 L u next; 7 ch 5 Dc on Dc; 6 ch; 5 ch 1 Lu the 7 ch; 3 ch 1 L * 7 ch 1 L u next chs; 5 ch 1 L u same; 5 same; 3 ch 1 L u next; 5 ch T 1 L uchs ch 7 De u next chs; 5 ch T 5 Dc on Dc; 5 between the L stitches; 5 ch 1 L u same; ch 1 L u next chs; 7 ch T Dc u 5 ch at end 5 ch Dc u next chs; 5 ch Dc u next; 5 ch

5 ch 1 L'u next chs; 3 ch 1 Lu Dc u the 1 L stitch which goes across ; 5 ch same; 7 ch Dc u next chs: 5 ch T 1Lu 1 Lu Ist 1.ch; 5 ch Dc ý next 3 ch; 7 ch next chs; 5 ch T Dc u 1st chs; 3 ch Dc u Dc u 2nd of the chs ; 7 ch Dc u 7 ch, 5 ch

of Dc;

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Dc u next chs; 5 ch De in centre of the we shut our eyes, thus assuming artificial Dc; 5 ch Dc unext chs; ch Dc u next; blindness. Diderot used often to talk with 7 ch De u next : 5 ch De u next chs between his eyes closed, and at such times became the L stitches; 7 ch Dc u same; 7 ch Dc u sublimely eloquent.” There was lately each of next chs for 8 times; 7 ch Dc u 2nd living in the county of York, England, a of the chs; 7 ch Deu 3 ch ; 7 ch Deu L gentleman of fortune, who, though totally stitch ; 7 ch Dcu, the chs between the 2 L blind, was an expert archer; so expert," at the point; 5 ch De u same, and fasten off, says our informant, “that out of twenty Make 5 of these ovals in crochet, which shots with the long-bow he was far my must be the size of the blank oval engraved. superior. His sense of hearing was so keen, Trace off the outline of shape of cuts, with that when a boy behind the target rang a pencil on to the muslin (this pencil outline bell, the blind archer knew precisely how to is where the dots are worked). Now cut it aim the shaft.” an inch beyond this, and run another out- The tenacity of the memory of the blind line just outside, but nearly close to the is well known. This characteristic faculty first; this latter must be overcast with the is, according to Father Charlevoix, turned embroidery cotton. Now double the cuff in to good account in Japan, where the public the centre, double also in the long way one of records of the empire are committed to the crochet ovals, and tack in the centre of memory by chosen blind men. An old the cuff; tack the others on each side, and blind mat-maker in England can (if he still with the 40 cotton overcast the crochet | lives) repeat Thomson's Seasons," and on to the muslin. Do not cut the muslin one or two other long poems, besides having away at the back, till all are completed, an almost equally ready knowledge of seveotherwise it will pull out of place.

ral of the Gospels.

Men of genius have sometimes triumphOPEN GUIPURE EMBROIDERY.

antly thrown off some of the worst dis

abilities of blindness. Genius ever devises Materials. · Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s. ways and means of its own. It has a thouNo. 20 Embroidery cotton, and No. 10 and No. 40 sand little contrivances unknown to the orBoar's Head. Fine Jacconet muslin, a small blue- dinary student, who is content enough to ball, or a fine hard drawing pencil.

travel along the beaten road which others Trace off the design. Then with 40 cot- have fashioned for him. Saunderson, the ton slightly sew the No. 10 cotton round the blind mathematician's whole machinery for outline, which is continuous; afterwards computing was a small piece of deal, divided overcast with embroidery cotton. The T- by lines into a certain number of squares, shaped bars at the edge are worked with and pierced at certain angles with holes needle and cotton—then overcast. The edge large enough to admit a metal pin. With has two rows of overcasting.

this simple board and a box of pins he made

all his calculations; yet, in 1711, he was the CURIOSITIES OF BLINDNESS.

friend of Sir Isaac Newton, and by his in

terest was elected Lucasian Professor of MaAPPALLING as the deprivation of sight thematics at Cambridge. It is most probable may be, it is not without some remarkable that he never beheld the distant orbs of heacompensations. Other faculties, both of ven, yet with the highest skill he reasoned intellect and of sense, often seem to gain by of the laws which control them; unfolding it; and Dufau, a French writer, affirms and explaining the nature and beauty of that the blind seldom becomes imbecile, and light which he could not behold, and the still less frequently insane. Profound glory of that bow in the clouds which he had thinkers practically admit that vision inter- never seen. Thus also was it with Huber, feres some what with deep cogitation. Malle- the blind philosopher of Geneva. His disbranche, when he wished to think intensely, coveries in the honeyed labours of bees have used to close his window-shutters in the equalled, if not surpassed, those of any other daytime, excluding every ray of light; and, | one student of nature. It remained for for a like reason, Democritus is said to have Huber, not only to corroborate truths which put out his eyes in order that he might others had partially discovered, but also to philosophise the better; which latter story, detect and describe minute particulars which however, it should be observed, though told had escaped even the accute observation of by several ancient writers, is doubted by Swammerdam. It is true that others supCicero, and discredited by Plutarch. Speak- plied him with eyes, but the furnished them ing on this point, M. Dufau says "When with thought and intellect; he saw with we wish to increase our power of attention, their eyes. Thus be clearly proved that there are two distinct sets of bees in every is not only a mathematician, but an infallible hive-honey-gatherers and the wax-makers botanist and zoologist, correcting mistakes and nurses; that the larvæ of working-bees of keen sportsmen as to birds and vermin, can, by course of diet, be changed to queens: His face is all one eye. The eyes of Moyes, thus also he accurately described the san- although he was totally blind, were not inguinary conflicts of rival queens; the recog- sensible to intense light. Colours were not nition of old companions or of royalty by the distinguished by him, but felt. Red was use of the antennæ; thus he explained the disagreeable; he said it was like “the gratbusy hum and unceasing vibration of wing ing of a saw; while green was very pleasant, ever going on in the hive, as being necessary and similar to a smooth surface, when for due ventilation. One of the last inci- touched.” In some instances, blindness dents in the old man's life that seemed to seems to have gifted the sufferer with new rouse and interest him was the arrival of a powers. A Dr. Guyse, we read, lost his present of stingless bees, from the discoverer, eyesight in the pulpit while he was at prayer Captain B. Hall. Unwearied diligence, and before the sermon; but nevertheless managed love for his work, no doubt, greatly aided to preach as usual. An old lady of the conhim in all these discoveries ; but genius gregation hearing him deplore his loss, thus effected for him what mere assiduity would strove to comfort him :-* God be praised," never have accomplished. She taught him said she, “that your sight is gone. I never in a few minutes to swim the river of dili-heard your reverence preach so powerful a culty, while others spent hours in searching sermon in my life.” for å ford.

The detection of colour by the touch of It is the union of diligence and genius the blind is a mooted point. Several anecwhich has made so many a blind man famous dotes are told of blind persons who had the among his brethren with not only the power of discriminating colours by the touch, head to conceive, but the hand to carry out but if the testimony of a large body of blind and achieve, in its own way, the plan of wis- children can be relied on, the detection of dom and of beauty. Thus Metcalf, the colour is utterly beyond their reach. Saunblind guide and engineer, constructed roads derson's power of detecting by his finger or through the wilds of Derbyshire ; thus tongue a counterfeit coin, which had deDavidson ventilated the deepest coal-mines, ceived the eye of a connoisseur, is a totally and lectured on the structure of the eye; as different question. We are hardly aware did Dr. Moyes on chemistry and optics; how much of our dexterity in the use of the thus Blacklock, poet and musician, master eye arises from incessant practice. Those of four languages beside his own, wrote both who have been relieved of blindness at an prose and poetry with elegance and ease; advanced, or even an early period of life, thus, nearer to our own time, Holman, thé have often been found to recur to the old traveller, has made himself a name far be- and more familiar sense of touch, in prefeyond the shores of Great Britain. We know rence to sight, especially during the first not what Sauudersons or Hubers the present few months after recovering their sight. generation is to see. One name equally Coleridge, in his " Omniana, "mentions a great in another path of fame it already has: most remarkable instance of a blind man at Prescott, the historian of "Ferdinand and Hanover, who possessed so keen a touch as Isabella, “ Mexico and Peru," &c., who, to be able to read with his fingers books of though 'not blind, has a defect of the eyes ordinary print, if printed, as most German which prevents him from reading and writ- books are, on coarse paper. ing, but whose literary labours have nevertheless delighted and instructed thousands both in the Old and New World.

GRACE AND ELEGANCE.--Grace is, in a great Coleridge remarks that “a diseased state measure, a natural gift; elegance implies cultivaof an organ of sense will perpetually tamper, tion, or something of more artificial character. A with the understanding, and perhaps at last rastie, uneducated girl may

be graceful; but an overthrow it. But when one organ is obli- trained. It is the same with things as with perterated, the mind applies some other to a sons; we talk of a graceful tree, but of an elegant double use. Some ten years back, at Sowerby, house or other building. Animals may be

graceI met a man perfectly blind—from infancy: fal, but they cannot be elegant. The movements His chief amusement was fishing on the wild of a kitten or a young fawn are full of grace; btit uneven banks of the Eden, and up the diffi- to call them elegant animals would be absurd. cult mountain streams. "His friend, also lifications, which “gracefal” never can. stone blind, knew every gate and stile of gance must always imply something that is made the district. John Gough, of Kendal, blind, 1 or invented by man.

cording to the state of science at the time ZOOLOGY.-No. XII.

such classification was adopted. Recent

accessions to our knowledge of structure and RETROSPECT.

transformations point the way to changes of What great events from trivial causes spring !” been shown to exist, those animals which

arrangement; for when a real affinity has For the twelfth time I address the readers are closely allied to each other cannot long of the Family Friend. In the preceding continue to be arbitrarily separated. The papers, I have led those who have journeyed boundaries of different groups will therefore, with me over one of the great empires into at a future time, be most probably enlarged which the animal Kingdom is divided. Our or diminished; nay, the position of certain path has lain among the Radiate animals; groups altogether changed. let us now glance back upon them, pause a It must be recollected, however, that all little on their array, and ponder on the such changes are demanded by the progressive powers with which they have been gifted. advance of knowledge. Genera, families,

The first tribes that we encountered, the and orders, are human inventions, and liabló Infusoria, were made known to us only by to the mutability of all human affairs; but the aid of the microscope; yet so far do cal species have a real existence in nature, and culations as to their size and numbers tran- they remain unchanged, though we change scend the limited faculties with which we the manner in which we group them toare here endowed, that, to use the words of gether. Burke, we become amazed and confounded I would not like my readers to be satisat the wonders of minuteness; nor can we fied with knowing the little that is here distinguish in its effect the extreme of little- put down for them. I would hope that in ness from the vast itself."

other books, and in the great field of nature, Next we were introduced to those who they would learn and observe far more than “shun the glare of vulgar light,” and pass I can impart. Nor should I wish them to their lives within the bodies of other ani- stop even then_o be content with a knowmals, the Entozoa. A strange and motley ledge of what they read or what they see, group! some of them more simple in their and go no further. My favourite pursuit structure than the simplest polypes; others would fail in its highest ground of recomso highly organised that it is doubtful if mendation, did it stop there. It should be they might not with greater propriety be suggestive of long trains of thought, rising classed among the articulated or jointed ani- from the creaturc to the Creator. How is mals, such as worms and insects.

it possible we can contemplate the varied And then came the Zoophytes, surpassing means of reproduction observable among in their reality all the wonders of classic the Radiate animals, and not feel that an fable; gifted with strange powers of increase, Almighty power has been at work, not only multiplying under treatment that would to in forming them originally, but in gifting other animals be destruction, investing with them with the means of increase, and in ex. delicate lacework the frond of the huge sea-tending a watchful care over their defenceweed, and giving to the shallows of the less young! We see on all sides a bountiful tropical sea the beauty and variety of the provision made for their safety, so that not most cultivated parterre.

one species, however humble, is allowed Then passed we on to creatures, the Acale- to perish, until the period allotted for its phee, that seemed little else than masses of continuance has been fulfilled. vivified sea-water. So frail are the tissues If we turn our thoughts in another diof their body, that they can be likened only rection, and consider what great results are, to the web of the spider; so that the term under the providence of God, produced by Arachnodermata, expressive of this peculi- agents apparently the most powerless, the arity, contrasts with that of the adjoining Coral Isles of the Pacific offer a familiar group, which bears the name of Echinoder- and most striking illustration. But we may mata. At last, in our onward progress, all find another example among, organisms radiated arrangements of parts or of outline still more minute, and living in our own disappeared, and we found ourselves among seas and rivers. I allude to the Infusoria. beings which presented the appearance, and Among these are some which possess even adopted the appearance of worms. the power of withdrawing silex from the

It is, I hope, distinctly understood that water, in which it is held in solution, and the classification and arrangement that has depositing it in a solid form, in varied, been adopted, is not that which is absolutely definite, and very beautiful patterns. The best, but only that which was the best ac- great improvements made within the last

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