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retina. But this defect is one that is little
Years of Age.
Inches of Focus, thought of, and is easily remedied by glasses. The manner in which concave glasses improve the vision of near-sighted persons is, by causing a divergence of the rays of light before the eye, thus counteracting the over-refractive condition of that organ. The glasses most useful to near-sighted persons are double concaves, of equal concavity on each side. They'are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., beginning with the longest focus or shallowest concavity. There is, however, no uniform standard adopted in the manufacture of these glasses. What one optician It has been conceived, though with little calls No. 1, another calls No. 2. It is foundation, that spectacles were in use therefore advisable that those who wish to among the ancients. Most authorities, howfind a pair of spectacles adapted to his wants ever, give the latter part of the thirteenth should try a series of them, and they should century as the period of their invention. be content with the lowest number with Some attribute the invention to Alexander which they can see objects clearly across the Spina, a monk of Pisa, and suppose its street. It is also advisable not to wear date to be about 1300 ; but Roger Bacon, them constantly, but only on occasions who died some years before, makes mention when the wearer absolutely requires their of magnifying glasses, which justifies the assistance.
belief that something like what we call Far-sightedness is a state of vision to spectacles were in use several years earlier. which old age is almost invariably subject; From that period to the present time, and is an affection the reverse of the one varions alterations have been suggested; just described. Either the refractive powers but the simplest form of spectacle-glasses of the eye are too feeble, or its axis is shorter has been the one most used, and the small than is natural; the result of which is an extent to which any of the alterations have imperfectly-formed image on the retina, been adopted seems to indicate that the from the rays of light not conveying soon common forms are, on the whole, the best, enough to be brought to a focus. The time although others may have advantages in of life at which far-sightedness first shows certain circumstances. Dr. Franklin thus itself
, is generallyabout forty-five, and afterit describes a curious pair of spectacles which has once appeared, it generally goes on in- he used to wear: “The same convexity of creasing, so that an individual thus affected glass through which a man sees clearest and requires to change his glasses from time to best at a distance proper for reading is not time for those of a higher power.
the best for greater distances. I had thereNow if spectacles had only been invented fore formerly two pairs of spectacles, which for the above two ills of life, they would I shifted occasionally, as in travelling I have proved a great blessing ; but the eye sometimes read, and often want to regard is subject to other infirmities. It is some- the prospects. Finding this change troubletimes afflicted with weakness, and then some, and not always sufficiently ready, I coloured spectacles, green, blue, or grey, are had the glasses cut out, and half of each found to be very useful. There is also an- kind associated in the same circle: the least other affection of the eye, called visus dupli. convex, for viewing distant objects, in the catus, or double vision, to aid which a double upper half of the circle: and the most conconcave lens has been used with great ad- vex, proper to reading, in the lower half of vantage. Indeed, there is no defect of sight the frame! By this means, as I wear my which cannot be greatly assisted by the skill spectacles constantly, I have only to move of the optician. Varieties in the conforma- my eyes up or down, as I want to see distion of the eyes, and in the manner and tinctly far or near; the proper glasses being degree in which they are affected by use, always ready. Although I cannot distinrender it impossible to lay down any rules guish a letter, even of large print, by the for the focal length of convex glasses for naked eye, with the assistance of this invenpersons of a given age;
yet the following tion my eyes are as useful to me as ever table, extracted from Dr. Kitchener's “Eco- they were ; and if all the other defects and nomy of the Eyes gives the average result infirmities of old age could be as easily and of fifty years experience of an eminent opti- cheaply remedied, it would be worth while cian, and may prove useful.
to live a good deal longer."
Every one knows that the frames of spec
HOW MONEY IS MADE. tacles are of various material-gold, silver, steel, and tortoise-shell. If tortoise-shell INGOTS of gold or silver are first thrown frames be used, the front should be black, | into melting pots and reduced to fluidity. as the variegated colour might be hurtful to After this they are cast into bars of the eyes. In the days of our childhood such various sizes, proportionate to the kind frames were very common; and while we of coins to be produced from them. These write we can almost fancy we see an old lady bars are next passed forward to rolling who used to be called “old Mother Four-mills of great power (we speak here of eyes” looking at us through a huge pair of the English Mint), and laminated, or spectacles thus mounted. At the present drawn out by pressure to a state of atđay, light steel frames are the most common, tenuity marvellously different to the rigid but some persons prefer silver, though con- form in which they left the moulds. The siderably heavier. Dr. Kitchener remarks. bars, in fact, are now converted into ribands, that though the superior lightness and elas- flexible as the wand of Harlequin; and ticity of a steel frame may for a time render these, being beautifully adjusted in thickit pleasanter than one of silver, the latter ness for the pieces to be obtained from them, soon adapts itself exactly and comfortably are passed to a set of pinching-presses
, to the head, and becomes infinitely easier where they are perforated-honey-combed and pleasanter than the springy steel. A from end to end. The discs of metal thus Mr. Hawkins, some years ago, suggested an obtained are blank sovereigns, very much improvement with a view to obviate the resembling shankles brass buttons; or blank necessity of supporting the spectacles on the sixpences, as it may happen to be sovereign nose. He introduced a pair of extra arms or sixpenny “ribbons” which are being dealt or joints, which passed upwards over the with ; and are then carried forward to the temples; these, in addition to the common weighing machines. Marking machines horizontal joints, held the spectacles to the raise partially the protecting edges of the head without the necessity of resting them future coins, which are then again submitted on the bridge of the nose, and enabled the to a fiery ordeal in the shape of an annealing wearer to place them at any required dis- oven. This operation softens and tempers tance from the eye. We are not sure whe-them. They are made—as young ladies are ther the primitive mode of wearing spectacles said to be susceptible to impressions, and adopted by the Chinese is not superior to are then pickled, or blanched, in a weak such an improvement. A wood-cut before solution of sulphuric acid. This gives them us, depicting a Chinese wearing spectacles a bright surface, and removes all impurities
. of rock crystal polished with the powder of Drying is the next process, and this is percorundum, represents a pair of these primi formed over a hot iron plate-a la muffin tive optics slung over his ears with silken and crumpet. The blanks are now ready to strings and weights; and as the wearer pores receive the “image and superscription" of over his book, they impart to his countenance the Queen-God bless her! 'This finishingà most sapient appearance.
The use of touch is given in the press-room. The spectacles among the Chinese is very re- pieces are now weighed out to a number of markable; for, without knowing anything boys, who attend and feed the presses with of that theory of optics which treats of the them. On one side of the presses blanks convergence and divergence of rays of light are put into tubes, and on the other they by lenses of different shapes, they use both are thrown out coins. They get, however
, convex and concave glasses, or rather crys- a mighty hard squeeze in the middle tals, to assist their sight.
passage, between two beautifully-engraved The European optician obtains the mate- head and reverse dies, and are at the same rial from which his lenses are made from time prevented expanding unduly by means the flint-glass manufacturer. It has been of a collar of steel, Aluted or misled on its ascertained that there is a certain state of inner circumference, which encompasses fused glass best calculated for optical pur each individual piece at the moment the poses; and when the mass has attained this dies strike it. The outer circumference of state, about seven pounds weight is taken up the piece of gold or i silver becomes thus in a conical ladle, and blown into the forin serrated, or milled at the instant of coinage. of a hollow cylinder. This cylinder is cut the finished ssoereigns or sixpences, or open and flattened into a sheet twenty inches whatever coins may be in process of manilong by fourteen wide, and from two to three pulation, now tumble out from the presses eighths of an inch in thickness. In this in rapid and glittering snecession, and side form it passes into the hands of the optician. I down inclined planes into trays.
CHEERFULNESS. Yes, I am ready for the cloud to come,
That will for ever darken my life's sun
'Tis a hard task to say, “Thy will be done;" To have the soul imprisoned in its home, Because 'tis welcomed in no other dome.
It is most bard on sorrow's path to shun,
For it is easy to a suffering one,
That all by looking in the tearful eyes,
May learn for him to feel and sympathise, And speak with pity when he's in the tomb;
But 'tis forbidden-we must speak and smile, Even though our hearts be breaking all the while !
MATERNAL LOVE. AI! if there be one trace of Eden left On this dull earth: one ray of love divine To light our weary pilgrimage of sin, And soften the rough path, which all must tread: Surely, 'tis concentrated in a mother's love. Ah! she alone can tell the kindled hope And bright anticipations which arose Within her breast, ere she beheld her babe. Though well she knew long nights of restless
sleep, And days of pain must come e'er she could clasp The tiny treasure to her throbbing breast. Who, who, can tell the wealth of love bestowed On the unknown, the nameless little one ? Perchance the jealous thought would oft intrude, Another's hand, not mine, may rear my tender
child: Another's ear may liste : ') its cry: Another's voice may lun. him to repose : Another watch beside his little bed : Support the tiny form, whose tott'ring steps Proclaim how needful of a mother's care, Is that all precious one: while she whose love Begun e'er he had seen the light of day May slumber in the chill embrace of death. Well may her heart with fear grow sad and cold, As thoughts like these come stealing o'er her
brain; And fervent is the prayer in which she seeks Divine protection for her little one. Her love, unquenched by coldness or neglect, Will brightly burn through long and weary years; Still will she fondly picture with delight When the first smile illum'd his infant face, When first he lisped the endearing name of
mother. Though stern ambition may enshroud his soul, Or thirst for wealth, or fame, cnchain his thoughts, Some tender memory must surely come Of her, who loved him with a mother's love.
By E. W. HUDDLESTON. Ort in passionate appealing,
Oft in love-congealing hate,
Yet my tears unbidden flow;
Any hidden solace show? Sitting musing o'er the olden
Beauty of the passed-away, Memory-bidden, lives the golden
Radiance of evanished day; Gazing on the flickering glories
Panorama'd on the wall, Listening to the ancient stories,
Murmured through the lonely hall. Silvery songs from harping angels,
Silent looks from saintly eyes, Faltering tones, Hope's faint evangels,
Whispers floating from the skies; Dim and dreamy ghosts immortal,
Flit before my trembling eye, All that issues from the portal
Of a life-loved memory! Many treasured tendernesses,
Souvenirs of the bliss of yoreFaded blossoms, silken tresses,
Clinging memories, evermore Breathing of the blighted maiden,
Whom I loved in days gone by; Thoughts of all things anguish-laden
Hover here continually.
Fierce and unattained desire
Who shall still this quenchless fire ? Is there in the cloudy morning,
Aught serene behind the veil ? Must I ever deem in scorning
Hope a mere imagined tale ? Shall a joy’s-sun vivid shining,
Sorrow's dew exhale in tears Banish all the bitter pining,
Conquer all the woes of years ? Questioning, but answered never,
Save by echoes, still must I Wander wearily for ever Pondering on Memory!
thou rivulet murmuring lightly. Thro' the green meadows thy pure waters lave, Sparkling in sunbeams that fall on thee brightly,
Gilding the lymph of thy smooth-rolling wave. Sprinkling thy crystal drops over the flow'r That bloom where thy wavelets flow dimpling
along; Scatter thy spray, like the soft April show'rs,
Then hasten away with thy murmuring song. Mirror the trees that are growing beside thee, Which dip their green branches thy wavelets
among, And gracefully twine, so as almost to hide thee
Where silv'ry and threadlike thou glidest aleng. Flow on, those rivulets murmuring lightly,
And in the evening, with eloquence deep, When the pale moonbeams shall smile on thee
brightly, Pour forth thy carol and sing me to sleep!
BETWEEN FRANCE AND SPAIN.
d'Essos, which I am able to testify by my own experiences; there, to get along at all
, THE Pyrenees, in the neighbourhood of one ought to be furnished with Mercurial the waters,” are well-known to tourists ; appointments, in the shape of winged feet. the roadways are tolerably good, and every- It may be all' very well for the inhabitants where the mule at least finds a sure footing of the district, who think nothing of taking
But matters are vastly different at Vic | their evening's walk up perpendicular rocks. providing there is the slightest irregularity the dimensions of a beer-barrel. The path on which to rest the toe, or the least symp- lay along the mountain-side, following the tom of a crevice in which to thrust the fine course of the little turbulent stream of Vic gers.
d'Essos, which here and there resolved itI had been passing the summer months self into a cataract, taking a plunge into in the south of France, and had made up some leafy hollow. For a time we got on my mind to get a glimpse of Spain from the famously, and I began to think that, after slopes of the Pyrenees. Fortunately chance all, there was not so much in mountain tras threw into my way an old friend, who had velling as some people would have us supbeen wandering about "promiscuous-like,” pose. But soon my growing confidence reand was only too glad to have some settled ceived a check; before us stood a hut at the object in view. We accordingly found our foot of a rock, the summit of which apselves one fine evening making inquiries for peared to me about as accessible as the top guides in the vicinity of Vic d'Essos, and of the Monument, to be got at from the outhaving succeeded in making a satisfactory side. Here we were to make our first halt, bargain with a stout-limbed peasant, named and here we were to leave behind us the Ruffier, we retired early to rest to prepare mules that did not enjoy the faculty which ourselves for the morrow's fatigues, We allows flies to walk up the wall of a room. were awoke betimes by our mountain cha- We took this opportunity to examine what peron, who had everything in readiness for we had in our havresacks, and soon a porour departure, and, making a hasty toilet, tion of their contents was transferred to the we mounted the mules provided, and fairly yawning regions beneath our waistcoats. I commenced the passage of the Pyrenees. have since had my doubts as to the wisdom Before us rose the lofty peaks, that had not of this proceeding, as I apprehend that, in yet divested themselves of their misty night- climbing, it is advisable to be as light and caps, and in front of us was a winding path unencumbered as possible. It seemed to me about six feet wide, plentifully besprinkled that the plentiful meal I had just partaken with boulders from the size of a bullet to of, would have been much better on Ruffier's