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tiples of 8ths; with sulphur in halves; and with THE EDITOR TO HIS FRIENDS.

lead in multiples of 7}; and, in general, if 100 of ADDRESS :-9, BELL SQ., FINSBURY, LONDON.

a metal combines with any proportion of oxygen

in the lowest state, all other combinations are It is very encouraging to find that our efforts 2, 3, 4, or 5 times that proportion; and the gases to amuse are responded to in good earnestness by combine also in regular proportions, 57 parts of those Friends who devote themselves to our Pas- oxygen gas combining with 100 of nitrogen, and time. The game of “Conglomerations" has ex- its multiples by 2, 4, and 5, forming successively cited unusual attention, and some very clever nitrous oxide gas, 100+57; and 100+57x2 ni. little sketches (embodying the proposed words) we trous gas; or 100+ 57 x 4 nitrous acid gas; and have received in reply. This game will be found 100 + 57 x 5 nitric acid gas. an efficient aid to composition, and we trust that 43. Patriot. – TIE PROFESSIONS IN LONour friends will continue to give it the attention DON.-According to the returns of the last census, they have already bestowed on it. All are at the gross number of persons living by the exerliberty to propose words who are prepared to send cise of their talents in London, amounts to at the same time a good embodiment of them. 47,746; and this out of a population of 2,362,236;

With the hope that the same talent may be so that the proportion is just upon one-fiftieth of shown in our second “Conglomerations” as in the whole. Hence we find that, whereas there the first, we submit the following words for a are eleven people in every thousand belonging to sketch, grave or humorous, as the fancy of our the intellectual classes throughout Great Britain, friends may dictate. We shall do ourselves the or rather more than 1 per cent. of the gross popupleasure of publishing the best in literary excellation, the ratio in the capital is a fraction beyond lence and purpose:

twenty to the thousand, or about 2 per cent. of 1. PHILOSOPHY. 7. FALSEHOOD.

the entire metropolitan people. Included in the

gross number of metropolitan professionals are 2. CHASM.


5,863 lawyers, 5,631 doctors, 2,393 clergymen and

ministers, and 11,210 “subordinates, making 4. NEIGHBOUR,


altogether 25,007 persons belonging to the so

called “learned" professions; whilst to these 6. Love, 12. BIRTHDAY,

must be added the sum of 22,649 persons conFIRST CLASS.

nected with the “unrecognised” professions; and

including 1,195 literary men, 17,241 teachers, 156 Narissa (you perceive that the error has not professors of science, and 4,057 artists and archibeen persisted in).- Evelina (to all, our sole ob

tects. ject being to develop the intellect'.-Marie and Elise.-Amelia (we are often the victim of decep- of the other four orders of architecture, as repre

44. COMPOSITE ORDER.--A rich combination tion).-J. C, L.-M. W. Merritt.-Chorley (no sented. name sent, so we give the address).-Juanita.Lizzie E. R. - Tabitha. --- Estelle. --- Assurance:- orders; the composite was not considered by them

Strictly speaking, the ancients had but four D. M. R. --Will-o'-the-Wisp.--F. L. Mills.-Ro

as a distinct production. Vitruvius expressly tells lando (your poetic “conglomerations” are both

us that upon Corinthian columus other capitals of clever and amusing, but not, in style, suited to

various kinds were employed, which, nevertheour sober “Friend”).-H. A. J.-W. H. H.--ago. less, ought not to change the names of the co

Fanny. - Lily H.-Agnese. -- Irene. ---Nellie.lumns, because the proportions remained still the M. A. and S.--Little Giggie (a bustling time, and

same. The moderns, however, have ranked the we sympathise with you; enigma faulty in com- Composite with the four orders mentioned by position).--Azile. -Undine and L’Eclair.

Vitruvius, having among the great number of SECOND CLASS.

capitals to be met with in the remains of an

tiquity, chosen for a model that which had been R. Dumville. - Mary Anne.-W. G., jun. - used in the triumphal arches in the temple of L'Esperance. Eliza. – Florence. - Blue Peter Bacchus and the baths of Dioclesian, rather as (your gratifying note shall have due attention). agreeing more with the description of Vitruvius, Wilhelm.--Kate (we have two “Kates” in the (who observes that they were composed of the Classes; choose some other nom de plume, or Ionic, Doric, and Corinthian,) than from any prethere will inevitably be confusion).- Ethol (the ference in point of beauty to many others. It Certificate is in preparation).-J. Greenfield (you does not appear that the ancients affected any are entitled to a second-class Certificate; send ad- particular form of entablature to this capital. dress, and it shall be forwarded.--Marguerite.- Sometimes the cornice is entirely plain, as in Bertha S.-Ruthenpharl.-G. W. R.-C. M. S.- the temple of Bacchus; at others, as in the arch Filbert and Sophia (new subscribers have the of Septimus Severus, it is enriched with dentils, same privileges connected with the Pastime as old differing very little from the Ionic, and in the ones). -Captain J. R.

arch of Titus there are both dentils and modillions, the whole form of the profile being the

same with the Corinthian, as executed in the QUESTIONS ANSWERED. antiques of Rome. The height of the column is

twenty modules, and that of the entablature five; 42. J. C.-HARDCASTLK.-DEFINITE PROPOR- the base is Attic, and it measures the same as in TIONS.--A term invented by Dalton, to express the Doric and Ionic orders, but as the module is the even multiples and regular proportions with less, all its parts are of course more delicate. which elementary bodies always combine. Thus, The shaft is enriched with flutings, which may be copper combines with oxygen in 8ths and mal. I to the number of twenty-four, as in the Ionic

order, for there is no reason why their number in the possession of a well-known reverend comshould be augmented.

poser of Worcester, who has satisfactorily traced The module is less; the futings will therefore the composition-not to Luther, nor Douland, nor be less likewise, and correspond exactly with the Ravenscroft, nor Purcell, to all of which com. character of the rest of the composition. The posers it has been attributed, but to William capital is of the same kind that all the moderns Franc. have employed in this order, and enriched with

46. CHURCHMAN. - BELLS were first introleaves of the acanthus, as all the antique capitals duced into English churches in the year 700, and of this sort are. The parts of the entablature used to be baptised and named before they were bear the same proportion to each other as in the hung. The number of changes may be found by Ionic and Tuscan orders.

multiplying the digits in the number into one The architrave is nearly the same with those of another; thus four bells will give 24 changes, Palladio and the basilica of Antonius. The frize and six bells 720; and ten changes may be rung is enriched with foliages in imitation of those of in a minute. Nero's frontispiece, whose most prominent parts

47. Tom THUMB.-"HIE, BETTY MARTIN." ought never to project beyond the uppermost - Many of our most popular vulgarisms have moulding of the architrave. The Romans used their origin in some whimsical perversion of lan. the Composite order more frequently in their triumphal arches than in any other buildings, guage or fact. St. Martin is one of the worthiest

of the Roman calendar, and a form of prayer commences with the words, “O mihi beati Mar. tin," which was corrupted to "My eye and Betty Martin," and still further to “Hie! Betty Mar. tin.”

48. E.S.M.-RHEUMATISM IN THE HAND.One raw egg, well beaten up with half a pint of vinegar; one ounce of spirits of turpentine; quarter of an ounce of spirits of wine; and a quarter of an ounce of camphor. Beat these well together, and put it in a bottle and shake for ten minutes, then cork it down so as to exclude the air. In half an hour it will be fit for use, and should be robbed in two, three, or four times during the day.-FANNY.

49. LEONATUS. - DITTO, or aforesaid, from dette, participle of the Italian verb dire, to say.D. M. R.

50. EDWARD BRIDGES.-PALMÆ.—The 25th Iannon

class of the Linvæan system of plants, consisting

of trees and shrubs, with a stem, bearing leaves meaning, as Serlio supposes, to express their dominion over those nations that invented the orders of which this is composed. “It may,” says Le Clerc, “be used with propriety wherever elegance and magnificence are to be assembled, but it is more particularly adapted for buildings intended to commemorate any signal event, because the ornaments may be composed of illusive representations, which is agreeable to the custom of the ancients."

Most authors give the last place to the composite order, as being the last invented, and a compound which ought to be preceded by all the simples.-LEONATUS.

45. MUSICALE. -THE "OLD HUNDREDTH" PSALM.-The composition of the Old Hundredth psalm tune has lately been ascribed to some unînown French writer, a “French psalter printed in 1546,"containing it, having recently been found in Lincoln Cathedral library. If the date of the publication could be depended upon, this discovery is of great importance as affecting the disputed history of this well-known tune; but there is every reason to believe that, by a mistake of the printer, the last two figures of the date were transposed, and that the actual date of the publication was 1564-- not 1546. The earliest known copy of the tune bears the date 1561, and at the top, being the most magnificent specimens was printed at Geneva; the second in point of of the vegetable kingdom, of which the date is date bears in the imprint 1562, and this latter is one.

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WEARIED with my long walk over the plain of Baalbec, the conference with the Emir Hangiar, and my rambles through the ruins of the “ City of the Sun," I retraced my steps to the convent where we lodged, and after taking some refreshment, courted sleep upon the floor of my room.

Whether my slumbers were sweet, or

troubled, they were soon aroused by a EASTERN RAMBLES AND

violent barking of dogs, which, causing REMINISCENCES.

my companions to start to their feet

simultaneously, and to rush violently BAMBLE THE SIXTH.

against each other in the dark, had the effect of bringing two of them upon my

chest by the concussion they sustained, BAALBEC – ITS RUINS BY MOONLIGHT and raising a most disagreeable and con

AND SUNRISE-METAWELI WOMEN- fused noise of Greek oaths from the mu-
ROUT - RUINS OF THE TEMPLE OF leteers ; Arabic blessings possibly—but
HERMES NIEHA – ARRIVAL AT BEY. more probably maledictions from the

porter ; sleepy incoherent queries from
Here, where the moonlight, quiv'ring beams, my reclining companions: a howl from
And through the fringing ivy streams,
And softens every shade sublime,

our Newfoundland dog, who shared in And mellows every tint of time."

the confusion, by having his foot or tail Mas. Hemans. trodden upon; and a desire, on my part

to settle somebody with a bullet, for feelings that time can never efface, and causing all this row. Indeed, I had whichgrasped my pistols, and having looked to “To me were dearer than the dazzling sheen, the rest of the defensive weapons, was Of noon's effulgent hour, or morning's spark. all ready for a something or somebody,

ling mien." when my absent companion entered the Long, long did I sit and think o'er court-yard, with our guide, both singing the departed fame of this neglected pile, merrily, though tired and hungry. which was slowly and silently moulder

By dint of thumps, promises, and some ing; where Art is not appreciated, and little abuse, I managed to get the mule- Science unknown. teers thoroughly awake, a good fire blaz- Where is the architect who planned ing, and an excellent “Irish stew” smo- and superintended the erection of these king in the centre of the room, for the beautiful structures, which remind us wearied pair; but it must be chronicled, that even the greatest of man's concepto the shame of the aroused sleepers, tions is only transitory? Where are the that they gradually joined the party, and warriors that once went forth to battle, partook of the supper so largely, that so full of hope, and returned, crowned we were obliged to have another supply, with fame? Where are the minstrels and a bowl of punch, just to keep the that sounded their praise and prowess in stew in subjection.

their own and distant lands? Where The merry songs and anecdotes finished, are the lines of captives, and spoils that the ashes knocked from the oft-kindled graced their triumphal entry; the beauty pipes, and many sighing for the celestial that welcomed them; the priests that dreaminess which characterizes Eastern blessed them? Do they still live in the slumbers, we once more courted Somnus; annals of fame and history, although but it was fated that my portion should dead to the world ?not be sleep; for the barking dogs, the « No-sunk in cold oblivion's gloom noisy muezzeen chanting the call to They lie-their very names unknown. prayer from a neighbouring minaret, and The mouldering marble tells their doom:

They lived-Time fled-and they are gone." anxiety about my horse, prevented me; therefore I resolved to pay a visit to the The fair smile of morning disturbed ruins.

me in my reverie, and as the fast scatter“All round was still and calm; the noon of ing mists revealed the snow-capped tops night,

of Lebanon and the surrounding beauWas fast approaching; up the unclouded sky The glorious Moon pursued her path of night,

ties, the glorious orb-the monarch of And shed her silvery splendour far and nigh; the pile- came forth in all his magnifiNo sound save of the night-wind's gentlest cence to greet his ruined city. sigh

The dark mantle of night gave place Could reach the ear; and that so softly blew It scarcely stirred, in sweeping lightly by to the bright one of day. The effulgent The acacia's airy foliage."

splendours and reviving radiance of the The sober-tinted plain, the massive sun spread everywhere. The purple shadows thrown by huge blocks that lay clouds were fringed with fluid gold; and strewn about, contrasting forcibly with some, with ruby-coloured edges, were the beams of the moon, which, like bars wafted gently away, or seemed to melt of molten silver, gleamed on the dewy into limpid air. The rocks, the hills, the slopes, and richly carved masses that bubbling brook, the moss-clad banks, the Nature had thrown from their original ruined temple, and all Nature drank in position during one of her convulsions ; his purest rays, and were tinged with the imposing grandeur of the remnant roseate lustre by his returning beams. colonnade, with its six columns and epys- Long dark clouds of every form were tylia, elaborately ornamented with richly impelled by the gentle breezes, disclosing carved work; the circling birds, and the golden vistas, and fleecy masses, that fit whole ruin softened by the moonlight's through the air, while Nature's gentle tender gloom, awakened thoughts and music is poured forth from every nook

seene, and

and secret corner of the surrounding searches of the antiquary respecting its

surrounding buildings. It is 145 feet The bee his concert keeps from flower to flower, each way, extreme width, and is strewn As forth he sallies on his honied way.”

with broken cornices, columns, capitals, The sun's bright rays and genial warmth and entablatures. From hence the ascent enliven Nature ; innumerable lizards pour

was easy, and brought me into a second forth from the chinks of giant stones, and court of a quadrangular form and conbeneath prostrate columns, or broken siderable size. (1) All around the court architrave, covering the ground and the formerly ran arcades, so as to form chamwalls; swarms of restless insects stray bers or recesses, five in each of the prinfrom herb to herb, or flower to flower'; cipal wings, in the form of an oblong the lazy Syrian dog betakes himself to quadrangle, and measuring forty-three sleep, having barked throughout the feet in diameter; and two of a semicirnight at the approach of every footstep; cular form, thirty feet in diameter. the Metaweli prepare for their day's la

These chambers were open in front, bour, and harness the oxen to the plough, and the roofs, which were supported by or prepare to spin the cotton for manu- columns, have fallen in, leaving only the facturing the cloths they sell; herds of exterior walls to astonish us with their goats, with large horns, long ears, and beauty of conception and finish: for the long, but not silky hair, like the goats decorations are most elaborate; the corof Anatolia, are driven by peasants to nices bold in the extreme, forming altertheir pasture-ground. Man lifts up his nately a pointed and semicircular pedivoice to pour forth his orisons to his ment over each recess; the niches highly Creator, and the morning awakens fresh sculptured; the pediments and friezes feelings of wonder, delight, and purer most elaborate. Fragments of granite thoughts ; thankfulness for His protect. columns and mutilated capitals remind ing care, and silent adoration of His sur- us of the transitory fame of man. The rounding works; for each

very statues that occupied the sculptured “ Breathes of pervading love, and shows the niches have not a vestige to enable us to

trace their history, or award a laurel That spoke him into life hath bless'd man's from the wreath of Fame to those that earthly dower.

designed them. Tarning from the contemplation of Our space will not permit us to furNature's grandeur to the wreck of de- ther advance the multitudinous conjecparted splendour and widowed greatness, tures that have been put forth respecting I scrambled o'er masses of prostrate co- the probable intent of these recesses. lumns, cornices, capitals, and architraves, We know they are recesses, but care until the chief entrance to the grand little whether priests, lecturers, philosotemple was gained. This consisted ori- pliers, orators, merchants, magistrates, ginally of a grand colonnade (1*) of the or democrats, occupied them as lodgings, Corinthian order, and a fine staircase, rostra, or seats, for the dispensation of which is now walled across, and flanked justice—they were occupied once. Time at its extremities by two square battle has changed the tide of affairs; the mer mented towers, (2) which were no doubt are not, and we cannot recal them; but erected to fortify the place, as they are we can admire the decorations that sur. built of fragments of columns, cornices, rounded each of them while living. From pillars, and other relics of the architec- the interstices of the stones that form ture of former ages, which are the summit of these walls a profusion of thrown incongruously together.

wild herbs sprang, and mantled the Passing through a breach in this screen mouldering pile; and the creeping plants, of architectural remains, I entered into entwining the rich sculptures of the the hexagonal court, (3) which from its capitals, gave a peculiar and picturesque ruined condition almost defies the re-effect to the whole.

The quadrangle itself is 350 feet wide,



See Plan p. 252.

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