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What was the state of Adam before the fall ?

He was created in the image of God. God created man in his own image. Gen. i. 27. In the likeness of God made he him. Gen. v. 1. For in the image of God made he man. Gen. ix. 6. Forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God. I Cor. xi. 7. Men, which are made after the similitude of God. James iii. 9. Wherein did this likeness consist ?

1. In his having a living soul. Gen. ii. 7.

This is the reason of the law against murder, in Gen. ix. 6.

2. In his being holy. God hath made man upright. Eccles. vii. 29.

3. In his being happy, which is the consequence of holiness.

His will, understanding, and affections were pure; and his faculties were exercised on proper objects.

4. In his power over the rest of the creation.
Subdue it (the earth) and have dominion over it. Gen i. 28, 29.
God brought them, to see what he would call them. Gen. ii. 19.
Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands,

and hast put all things under his feet. Ps. viii. 6-8. What change passed on Adam by the fall ?

He lost his likeness to God, his holiness, his happiness, and, in a great measure, his dominion over the creatures. How did our first parents bring this misery on themselves ?

By disobeying the command of God.
But of the tree of knowledge, &c. thou shalt not eat. Gen. ii. 17.
When the woman saw the tree, that it was pleasant to the eyes,

and to be desired to make one wise, she took, and did eat, and gave to her husband, and he did 'eat. Gen. iii. 6. Adam's will was left free to choose either good or evil. What did this sin include ?

1. Unbelief. Gen. iii. 1–6. They believed the devil.

2. Pride. Not content to be taught the knowledge of good and evil by their Maker; they wished to be as gods, and to know good and evil for themselves. Gen. iii. 5.

3. Ingratitude. Gen. ii. 16. All the garden was allowed but one tree.

4. Cruelty to himself and his posterity; since the happiness of the whole human race depended upon him. What were the consequences to Adam ? Cursed is the ground for thy sake. Gen. Mi. 17, 18.

In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. Gen. iii. 19.
Death-To dust thou shalt return. Gen. iii. 19.
The Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden. Gen.

iii. 23.
Are we involved in the fall ?

Yes. Adam was the covenant head of the human race. llad he retained his original state, we should have been partakers of his holiness and happiness; and as he corrupted our nature, we are born in sin, and exposed to the misery which sin has occasioned.

Every plant and animal possesses the properties of that from which it is derived. Sift wheat ever so clean, still there will be chaff in the new grain. God called their name Adam. Gen, v, 2. Adam begat a son in his own likeness. Gen, v. 3, Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Job xiv. 4. What is man, that he should be clean ? &c. Job xv. 14. How can be be clean that is born of a woman ? Job xxv. 4. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. John iii. 6. By one man sin entered into the world. Rom. v. 12. Death reigned from Adam to Moses. Rom. v. 14. By the offence of one, judgment came upon all. Rom. v. 18. By one man's disobedience many were made sinners. Rom.

v. 19. By one man came death. 1 Cor. xv. 21. In Adam all die. 1 Cor. xv. 22.

The Scriptures always describe man as a sinner; and all the types and ceremonies under the law of Moses refer to him as such. God saw that the wickedness of man was great. Gen. vi. 5. The earth was corrupt, and filled with violence. Gen. vi. 11. All flesh had oorrupted his way. Gen. vi. 12. The Lord looked down from heaven, to see if there was any

that did seek God There is none that doeth good. Ps. xiv.

2, 3; liii. 2, 3. Behold I was sbapen in inquity. Ps. li. 5. The wicked are estranged from the womb; they go astray as

soon as they be born; speaking lies. Ps. lviii. 3. All we like sheep have gone astray. Isa. liii. 6. The heart is deceitful above all things, &c. Jer. xvii. 9. Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of

God. John iii. 3. There is none righteous, no not one. Rom. iii. 10. 18. : All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. Rom.

iii. 23. In me, that is in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing. Rom. vii. 18. The carnal mind is enmity against God. Rom. viii. 7. The Scripture hath concluded all under sin. Gal. iii. 22. Who were dead in trespasses and sins. Eph. ii. 1. Having the understanding darkened. Eph. iv. 18,

What was the state of Adam before the fall ?

He was created in the image of God. God created man in his own image. Gen. i. 27. In the likeness of God made he him. Gen. v. 1. For in the image of God made he man. Gen. ix. 6. Forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God. 1 Cor. xi. 7. Men, which are made after the similitude of God. James iii. 9. Wherein did this likeness consist ?

1. In his having a living soul. Gen. ii. 7.

This is the reason of the law against murder, in Gen. ix. 6.

2. In his being holy. God hath made man upright. Eccles. vii. 29. 3. In his being happy, which is the consequence of holi

ness.

His will, understanding, and affections were pure; and his faculties were exercised on proper objects.

4. In his power over the rest of the creation.
Subdue it (the earth) and have dominion over it. Gen i. 28, 29.
God brought them, to see what he would call them. Gen. ii. 19.
Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands,

and hast put all things under his feet. Ps. viii. 6-8. What change passed on Adam by the fall ?

He lost his likeness to God, his holiness, his happiness, and, in a great measure, his dominion over the creatures. How did our first parents bring this misery on themselves ?

By disobeying the command of God.
But of the tree of knowledge, &c. thou shalt not eat. Gen. ii. 17.
When the woman saw the tree, that it was pleasant to the eyes,

and to be desired to make one wise, she took, and did eat, and gave to her husband, and he did 'eat. Gen. iii. 6. Adam's will was left free to choose either good or evil. What did this sin include ?

1. Unbelief. Gen. iii. 1–6. They believed the devil.

2. Pride. Not content to be taught the knowledge of good and evil by their Maker ; they wished to be as gods, and to know good and evil for themselves. Gen. iii. 5.

3. Ingratitude. Gen. ii. 16. All the garden was allowed but one tree.

4. Cruelty to himself and his posterity; since the bappiness of the whole human race depended upon him. What were the consequences to Adam ? Cursed is the ground for thy sake. Gen. Mi. 17, 18.

In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. Gen. iii. 19.
Death-To dust thou shalt return. Gen. iii. 19.
The Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden. Gen.

jii. 23.
Are we involved in the fall ?

Yes. Adam was the covenant head of the human race. llad he retained his original state, we should have been partakers of his holiness and happiness; and as he corrupted our nature, we are born in sin, and exposed to the misery which sin has occasioned.

Every plant and animal possesses the properties of that from which it is derived. Sift wheat ever so clean, still there will be chaff in the new grain. God called their name Adam. Gen, v. 2. Adam begat a son in his own likeness.

Gen, v. 3. Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Job xiv. 4. What is man, that he should be clean ? &c. Job xv. 14. How can he be clean that is born of a woman? Job xxv. 4. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. John iii. 6. By one man sin entered into the world. Rom. v. 12. Death reigned from Adam to Moses. Rom. v. 14. By the offence of one, judgment came upon all. Rom. v. 18. By one man's disobedience many were made sinners. Rom.

v. 19, By one man came death. 1 Cor. xv. 21. In Adam all die. 1 Cor. xv. 22.

The Scriptures always describe man as a sinner; and all the types and ceremonies under the law of Moses refer to him as such. God saw that the wickedness of man was great. Gen, vi, 5. The earth was corrupt, and filled with violence. Gen. vi. 11. All flesh had corrupted his way. Gen. vi. 12. The Lord looked down from heaven, to see if there was any

that did seek God-There is none that doeth good. Ps. xiv.

2, 3; liii. 2, 3. Behold'I was shapen in inquity. Ps. li. 5. The wicked are estranged from the womb; they go astray as

soon as they be born; speaking lies. Ps. lviii. 3. All we like sheep have gone astray. Isa. liii. 6. The heart is deceitful above all things, &c. Jer. xvii. 9. Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of

God. John iii. 3. There is none righteous, no not one. Rom. iii. 10. 18. : All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God. Rom.

iii. 23. In me, that is in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing. Rom. vii. 18. The carnal mind is enmity against God. Rom. viii. 7. The Scripture hath concluded all under sin. Gal. iii. 22. Who were dead in trespasses and sins. _ Eph. ii. 1. Having the understanding darkened. Eph. iv. 18,

You, being dead in your sins, hath he quickened. Col. ii. 13.
To them that are defiled and unbelieving_even their mind and

conscience is defiled. Titus i. 15.
The infection of sin is not only universal but deep.
The hearts of all men are fashioned alike, and contain
within them the seeds of the most revolting wickedness.
However much we may be shocked with the crimes
which we see others commit, we should assuredly be
guilty of equal enormities, if we were not prevented by the
restraint which God puts on us. When Hazael, the
prime minister of Benhadad, king of Syria, was told by
the prophet Elisha of the dreadful cruelties which he was
on the point of perpetrating, he exclaimed with horror,
“But what, is thy servant a dog that he should do this
great thing ?" 2 Kings viii. 13. He nevertheless did all
the evil which was thus foretold. We are not our own
keepers. We should beware of resolving in our own
strength, “I will not do this or that;" lest God punish
our pride by suffering us to fall into the sins we dread.
Our prayer on such occasions should be, “Lord ! deliver
us from evil.”
What are the consequences of being born in sin ?

We are the children of wrath, and are therefore by nature exposed to misery here and hereafter.

In this life, we have to endure sorrow, sickness, and labour, and have the wrath of God abiding on us. John iii. 36. In sorrow shalt thou eat of it. Gen. iii. 17. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. Gen. iii. 19. I will appoint over you consumption, &c. Lev. xxvi. 16. Then the Lord will make thy plagues wonderful, great plagues,

and sore sickness :-also every sickness, and every plague.

Deut. xxviii. 59. 61.
Hereafter, we are in danger of eternal torments.
The wicked shall be turned into hell. Ps. ix. 17.
The soul that sinneth it shall die. Ezek. xviii. 4. 20.
There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Matt. viii. 12;

xxii. 13; xxiv. 51; xxv. 30. Luke xiii. 28.
Their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched. Mark ix.

44. 48. Isa. Ixvi. 24, He that believeth not, the wrath of God abideth on him. John

iii. 18. 36. The wrath of God is revealed—against all ungodliness and un

righteousness of men. Rom. i. 18. Treasurest up unto thyself wrath, against the day of wrath, &c.

Rom. ii. 5.

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