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in streams, without bridges, and covered with jungle, penetrated merely by pathways: under such circumstances, even oily applications are soon rubbed and washed off, and the limbs left defenceless. The treatment of leechbites, that is most successful in preventing bad consequences, is simple and easily practised. The limbs, immediately on arriving at the end of a journey, should be bathed in hot water; and the bathing should be repeated twice a-day till the wounds are healed.—Davy's Account of Ceylon.
The history of the rein-deer is particularly identified with the history of Lapland and the Laplanders; and we should be almost disposed to query, whether in such a history the quadrupeds would not be the most promi. nent and interesting objects. This species of the deer tribe is found in most mountainous countries of high northern latitudes ; abounding, in great numbers, in the arctic regions, where it is found in a wild state ; but in Lapland, where the animal' is so completely identified with all the wants and wishes of the people, as to the present life, there are few of this class remaining. The rein-deer attains to as large a size as the stag, in those countries where it is found in a wild state ; but in Lapland it is scarcely so large as the fallow deer. The horns of the males are four feet and upwards in length; but upon the females, the only species in which the females have horns, they are not so large. This is a kind provi. sion of the God of nature and of providence, to clothe the whole herd of rein-deer with horns, which, in these cold and snow-clad regions, are so useful, in procuring their food, by clearing away the snow, and for many other valuable purposes.
The rein-deer, like the elk, wants that ease and elegance of form so distinctive of the tribe; the neck is short; the head carried in a line with the back; the legs are short and strong, and the hoofs are very broad and expansive ; presenting thus a broader surface, to prevent the animal from sinking in the snows. The hair is extremely close and woolly; forming an effectual covering
from the cold. Indeed, it is said, that so warm is the skin of the rein-deer, that any one who is clothed in it, and has a blanket of the same material, might sleep upon the snow with perfect safety, under all the rigour of an arctic winter's night.
Rein-deer, as most of the deer kind do, swim with a great deal of ease; being so buoyant, that half their bodies appear above the water; their broad feet enabling them to strike with so great a force, that they swim against the strongest currents, and across the broadest rivers, so fast, that a well-manned boat can scarcely keep pace with them. When attacked, they strike downwards with their horns ; but do not gore. Their kick is violent, and they successfully repel the savage wolf; but it is said, that their greatest enemy is the glutton, that drops upon them from a tree, under which they are grazing or reposing, unconscious of danger. During the summer months, the rein-deer suffer most from the attacks of insects; to avoid which, they migrate regularly to the sea-shore, or to the mountains. These seasons are attended to by the Laplanders, who go and return with them in their periodical removals from place to place. Those who are considered rich persons, in Lapland, have as many as two thousand head of rein-deer; and the poor seldom have less than a hundred each. They are gregarious, and very attached and subservient to each other and to him who has the management of them. There is, generally, an old male deer in every herd, which all the rest follow with remarkable docility.
For almost all purposes of draught, the rein-deer are invaluable to the Laplander. They possess great strength for their size, and are remarkably sure-footed, even where the feet of other animals would be most exposed to slide; whilst their quickness of scent serves to direct their course, with remarkable precision, along the most dangerous and difficult roads, and in the darkest seasons. The strength, fleetness, and sagacity of these deer are remarkably exhibited in drawing the sledges of the Laplanders over the extended, snow-clad, trackless regions they inhabit. The lives of the Laplanders are committed, with wonderful confidence and carelessness, to these faithful animals, during a journey of hundreds of miles; and that trust is never violated, and it is very seldom
that any accident occurs. They travel with such speed and perseverance, that it is not uncommon for a pair of rein-deer, with the sledge and Laplander, to perform a journey of 300 miles in twenty-four hours. Their usual trot, however, is at the rate of ten miles an hour; and they will draw from 200 to 300 pounds weight each, while going at that degree of speed. After the deer have been well broken in and trained to the sledge, the art of driving is merely holding the rein. In long journeys, and when parties are travelling together, it is not unusual to lash the deer to the sledge before; so that one follows the other in the same track and at the same pace. At starting, and when the snow is good, the deer set off at a gallop, relaxing, at length, into a long and steady trot. Each deer follows the foremost sledge so closely, that the head of the deer is generally in contact with the shoulders of the driver before. And should the leader of the whole train make a bend in his course, each deer, in succession, follows close in the track, instead of attempting to save ground, by cutting off the angle made by the first sledge. No power can remove the deer from the track its predecessors have taken ; and it is this remarkable instinct that, no doubt, greatly contributes to the preservation of life ; for, should any of the company, by acci. dental circumstances, be detached from the rest, the keen scent of the deer enables it to pursue the track, and eventually to overtake the train of carriages that have passed on before. Tiler's Natural History.
It is worth remarking, that these birds are seen first about lakes and mill-ponds; and it is also very particular, that, if these early visitors happen to find frost and snow, as was the case in the two dreadful springs of 1770 and 1771, they immediately withdraw for a time; a circumstance. this, much more in favour of hiding than migration; since it is much more probable that a bird should retire to its winter quarters at hand, than return for a week or two only to warmer latitudes.
The swallow, though called the chimney-swallow, by no means builds altogether in chimneys, but often within
barns and out-houses, against the rafters; and so she did in Virgil's time,
- Ante Garrula quam tignis nidos suspendat hirundo. In Sweden, she builds in barns, and is called ladu swala (the barn-swallow). Besides, in the warmer parts of Europe, there are no chimneys to houses, except they are English built; in these countries, she constructs her nest in porches, and gateways, and galleries, and open halls.
Here and there a bird may affect some odd, peculiar place; as we have known a swallow build down the shaft of an old well, through which chalk had been formerly drawn up, for the purpose of manure; but in general, with us this hirundo breeds in chimneys, and loves to haunt those stacks where there is a constant fire-no doubt for the sake of warmth. Not that it can subsist in the immediate shaft where there is a fire; but prefers one adjoining to that of the kitchen, and disregards the perpetual smoke of that funnel, as I have often observed with some degree of wonder.
Five or six, or more feet down the chimney,' does this little bird begin to form her nest, about the middle of May, which consists, like that of the house-marten, of a crust, or shell, composed of dirt, or mud, mixed with short pieces of straw, to render it tough and permanent; with this difference, that whereas the shell of the marten is nearly hemispheric, that of the swallow is open at the top, and like half a deep dish: this nest is lined with fine grasses, and feathers, which are often collected as they float in the air.
Wonderful is the address which this adroit bird shows all day long, in ascending and descending with security through so narrow a pass. When hovering over the mouth of the funnel, the vibrations of her wings, acting on the confined air, occasion a rumbling like thunder. It is not improbable that the dam submits to this inconvenient situation so low in the shaft, in order to secure her broods from rapacious birds, and particularly from owls, which frequently fall down chimneys, perhaps in attempting to get at these nestlings.
The swallow lays from four to six white eggs, dotted with red specks; and brings out her first brood about the last week in June, or the first week in July. The progressive method by which the young are introduced into life is very amusing: first they merge from the shaft with difficulty enough, and often fall down into the rooms below; for a day or so, they are fed on the chimney top, and then are conducted to the dead leafless bough of some tree, where, sitting in a row, they are attended with great assiduity, and may then be called perchers. In a day or two more, they become fliers, but are still unable to take their own food; therefore, they play about near the place where the dams are hawking for flies; and when a mouthful is collected, at a certain signal given, the dam and the nestling advance, rising towards each other, and meeting at an angle; the young one all the while uttering such a little quick note of gratitude and complacency, that a person must have paid very little regard to the wonders of Nature, that has not often remarked this feat.
The dam betakes herself immediately to the business of a second brood, as soon as she is disengaged from her first; which at once associates with the first broods of house-martens, and with them congregates, clustering on sunny roofs, towers, and trees. This hirundo brings out her second brood towards the middle and end of August.
All the summer long is the swallow a most instructive pattern of unwearied industry and affection; for, from morning to night, while there is a family to be supported, she spends the whole day in skimming close to the ground, and exerting the most sudden turns and quick evolutions. Avenues, and long walks, under hedges, and pasture fields, and mown meadows where cattle graze, are her delight, especially if there are trees interspersed; because in such spots insects most abound. When a fly is taken, a smart snap from her bill is heard, resembling the noise at the shutting of a watch case; but the motion of the mandibles is too quick for the eye.
The swallow, probably the male bird, is the excubitor to house-martens, and other little birds, announcing the approach of birds of prey. For as soon as a hawk appears, with a shrill alarming note, he calls all the swallows and martens about him, who pursue in a body, and buffet and strike their enemy, till they have driven him