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thousands, in this and in other lands, that all liquors, containing Alcohol, are never useful, but always injurious to persons in health.”

" It is our belief, that, at least, ONE MILLION of our adult population in America, have already abandoned the common use of such drinks, from the entire conviction, of their always injurious, and never useful effect.”Letter to the Queen of England, by E. C. Delavan, Esq.

The following document has already been signed, by the highly distinguished individuals, whose names are attached to it, and it is still in the course of signature. ...An opinion, handed down from rude and ignorant times, and imbibed by Englishmen from their youth, has become very general, that the habitual use of some portion of Alcoholic drink, as of wine, beer, or spirit, is beneficial to health, and even necessary for those subjected to habitual labour.

“ Anatomy, physiology, and the experience of all ages, and countries, when properly examined, must satisfy every mind well informed in Medical science, that the above opinion is altogether erroneous. Man, in ordinary health, like other animals, requires not any such stimulants, and cannot be benefitted by the habitual employment of any quantity of them, large or small ; nor will their use during his lifetime increase the aggregate amount of his labour. In whatever quantity they are employed, they will rather tend to diminish it.

“When he is in a state of temporary debility from illness, or other causes, a temporary use of them as of other tonic medicines may be desirable ; but as soon as he is raised to his natural standard of health a continuance of their use can do no good to him, even in the most moderate quantities, while larger quantities, (yet such as by many persons are thought moderate,) do sooner or later prove injurious to the human constitution, without any exceptions.

“ It is my opinion, that the above statement is substantially correct."

B. C. Brodie, M.D. Saville Row.
James Blundell.
James Clarke, M.D.
George L. Cooper, M.R.S.L.I.
Bransby B. Cooper, Fitzroy Square.
W. F. Chambers, M.D. Brook Street, Grosvenor

Square.
J. T. Conquest, M.D. Finsbury Square.
J. B. Clutterbuck, 5, Charter House Square.
David D. Davis, M.D. Professor of Obstetric Medicine,

University College. Thomas Davis, M.D. 30, New Broad Street. James Eyre, M.D. 11, Lower Brook Stret, Grosvenor

Square. Robert Ferguson, M.D. 9, Queen Street, May Fair. Klein Grant, M.D. 50, Bernard Street, Russel Square. John Hope, M.D. 13, Lower Seymour Street. C. Aston Key, St. Helen's Place. Samuel Merriman, M.D. 34, Brook Street, Grosvenor

Square. Herbert Mayo, 19, George's Street, Hanover Square. James Reed, M.D. 10, Bloomsbury Square. H. S. Roots, M.D. Physician to St. Thomas's Hospital. Benjamin Travers. Alexander Ure, M.D. Andrew Ure, M.D., F.R.S.

Seventeen Physicians and Surgeons of Manchester have signed the following document:

“ Being of opinion that the use of intoxicating liquors is not only unnecessary but pernicious, we have great pleasure in stating our conviction, that nothing would more tend to diminish disease, and improve the health of the community, than abstinence from inebriating liquors, to the use of which so large a portion of the existing misery and immorality, among the working classes, is attributable."

A similar document has also been signed, by FIFTY-FIVE Medical Practitioners, in the town of Birmingham.

Let the reader remember, that the intoxicating principle, in all distilled and fermented liquors is Alcohol, and that this is one of the most powerful of poisons, and if not invincibly fortified against the power of truth, he must believe, that even the moderate use of such liquors is necessarily pernicious.-See appendix G.

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DRINKING “ USAGES” POWERFUL CAUSES OF IN

TEMPERANCE. In these we do not include the practice of drinking intoxicating liquor, as a means of quenching thirst; or when taken under the erroneous impression of its being conducive to health and strength. For the “usages" alluded to, no other reason can be given, than that they are among the time hallowed customs of those particular classes of society in which they prevail.

In speaking of the fines and footings,established among mechanics, Professor Edgar has made the following remarks, which will go far towards illustrating this subject :

“ The drinking customs of the mechanical classes, have been but too much overlooked, though they are subjects of much importance to the well-being of society. I believe them to be one of the sorest tyrannies ever practised over any class of men in the world. It is a deep concern of every one who loves his species, to protest against the proceeds of such footings and fines being applied to the purchase of strong drink, for it is a system demoralizing in its character ; a system calculated to ruin the proper influence of the master over the man, and a system which is calculated to keep mechanics in a state of eternal degradation. There are very few individuals who are aware of the amount of these fines. Masters themselves are not aware of it, and it is only by an examination of the men, and their families, that I have found it out ; for example, in founderies, a journeyman must pay 10s. 6d. on entering, whether the job is long or short ; among carpenters, the fine varies from 10s. to 30s. ; a young apprentice to a tailor is obliged to treat the whole shop, and 20s. are expected from him when his time is out; an apprentice to a sawyer is obliged to pay a guinea, to which each of the journeymen puts a shilling; a linen-lapper, after paying 20s. to 30s. on entering, is obliged to pay 2s. 6d. at the measuring of the first web ; the coachmaker is obliged to pay 2s. 6d. for every new piece of work he gets ; the cabinet-maker's apprentice pays ls. when he puts on his apron, and, when his time is out, he pays 10s. 6d., which is called washing him out, and if pe continues in the shop, as a journeyman, he pays 10s. 6d. more, and that is called washing him in ; he has to pay, besides, for every new

piece of work he gets. If a child is born, the father must pay a footing, and the unfortunate wight who gets married is down for 10s. We must not forget the sums subscribed for tramps, and for the way-goose, and drunken bouts at the lighting of candles, amounting from 10s. to £8., and, in some cases, to £20. When you take this into the account, you need not be surprised to hear that a poor woman paid four guineas for her son in a rope-walk, and that another individual paid £9. for his son in a cabinetmaker's establishment, every individual farthing of which was spent in drink. If the mechanic refuses to pay his footings or fines, his fellows will use various plans to force him; if a founder refuse to pay his fine, his moulds will be spread ; if a carpenter refuse, his pockets will be glued ; if a sawyer, a nail will be driven into his plank, and it will cost him perhaps 10s. to repair his saw ; if a tailor refuse to pay his fine, his shoes will be bid, or a hole will be cut in his bat, or the arms of his coat sewed up; it is no trifle for a man to have his coat stolen and sent up the spout, or to my uncle's, as pawning is called, and after the amount of the fine is drank, the pawnbroker's ticket is handed to him ; it is no easy matter for an apprentice to bear con. tinued refusals, to bear the shafts of ridicule ; to be banished from the house as soon as the master turns his back, or to be put in Coventry and driven from the society of his fellow-workmen. I know a man who refused to pay footings and fines for his son, and seeing at the end of the year that he received no instruction from the journeymen, who are the sole instructors in such cases, he was obliged to give way to the tyranny of custom."

J. Dunlop, Esq., has, already, very materially served the cause of temperance, by exposing the drinking usages of

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