The Locke Reader: Selections from the Works of John Locke with a General Introduction and Commentary

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CUP Archive, 25 февр. 1977 г. - Всего страниц: 335
John Yolton seeks to allow readers of Locke to have accessible in one volume sections from a wide range of Locke's books, structured so that some of the interconnections of his thought can be seen and traced. Although Locke did not write from a system of philosophy, he did have in mind an overall division of human knowledge. The readings begin with Locke's essay on Hermeneutics and the portions of his Essay Concerning Human Understanding on how to read a text. The reset of the selections are organized around Locke's division of human knowledge into natural science, ethics, and the theory of signs. Yolton's introduction and commentary explicate Locke's doctrines and provide the reader with the general background knowledge of other seventeenth-century writers and their works necessary to an understanding of Locke and his time.
 

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Introduction
1
Essay 3 9 3
3
Essay 4 21 15 28
4
Deductive Knowledge and Real Essence
54
Essay 4 6 916
78
Observational Knowledge of Nature
85
Essay 3 11 1921
86
Essay 3 11 25
87
Essay 3 11 56
152
Essay 4 8 713
153
c Defects of Language and Their Remedies
154
Essay 3 10 16912235
156
Essay 3 11 161112
160
Conduct section 29
163
Moral Words
164
Essay 3 10 33
165

Essay 4 12 9
89
Essay 4 12 12
90
Hypotheses in Science
92
Conduct section 13
93
Conduct section 25
94
Conduct sections 434
95
Conduct sections 345
96
Essay 4 16 12
98
Letter to Molyneux Works IX pp 4635
100
Essay 2 8 12723
102
The Doctrine of Signs
109
Examination sections 35171842
111
Examination section 20
116
Essay 1 3 141011
120
Essay 4 122 91
122
Essay 1 4 17
123
b Genetic Account of Ideas in Children
126
Essay 2 1 6212
127
Essay 2 9 57
128
c Experience as the Source
129
Essay 2 1 1524
130
d Physiology
132
Essay 2 8 4
136
Essay 2 33 6
137
e Specific Ideas
138
Essay 2 7 7
140
Essay 2 16 12
142
Essay 2 21 1
143
Letter to the Bishop of Worcester Works IV p 11
144
Word Signs
145
Essay 3 3 611
148
Essay 4 5A
149
Essay 4 6 1
150
Essay 3 10 26
151
Conduct section 9
167
The Science of Action
169
Character Traits and Natural Tendencies
170
Education sections 661012
171
Conduct sections 24
173
Action and the Person
176
Essay 3 5 1011
177
Essay 3 9 7
178
Essay 2 27 36
180
Essay 2 27 9161726
182
Essay 2 27 15
185
Virtue and Law
190
Essay 2 28 416
195
Essay 2 21 60
201
Reasonableness Works VII pp 1015
202
Reasonableness Works VII pp 11123
206
Reasonableness Works VII pp 13844
216
Education as Training for Virtue
220
Education sections 45 70 94 99100 135159
221
Two Treatises II sections 5861639
231
Social Groups and the Origin of Civil Society
237
Two Treatises II sections 7789
240
Toleration Works VI pp 945
245
Two Treatises II sections 115
276
9 Two Treatises II sections 1004
283
Two Treatises II sections 12431
285
Two Treatises II sections 2539
288
Political Obligation and Consent
296
Two Treatises II sections 15964
304
Two Treatises II sections 2413
317
Conclusion
319
Bibliography
330
Index
332
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John Locke's works of political and social philosophy, written in the 17th century, have strongly influenced intellectuals ever since - including the founders of the United States of America. Born in 1632 in Wrington, England, Locke studied at Christ Church, Oxford, where he earned his B.A. and M.A. degrees in the late 1650's. He also studied medicine and earned a medical license. His studies led to an interest in contemporary philosophers influenced by science, such as Rene Descartes. Locke read widely among them while teaching at Christ Church over the next few years. In 1667, Locke became personal physician and adviser to Anthony Ashley Cooper, who later was appointed Earl of Shaftesbury. Through Shaftesbury's patronage, Locke earned some government posts and entered London's intellectual circles, all the while writing philosophy. He was one of the best-known European thinkers of his time when he died in 1704. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), Locke established the philosophy of empiricism, which holds that the mind at birth is a blank tablet. Experience, Locke believed, would engrave itself upon the tablet as one grew. He felt humans should create theories according to experience and test them with experiments. This philosophy helped establish the scientific method. Locke codified the principals of liberalism in "Two Treatises of Government" (1690). He emphasized that the state must preserve its citizens' natural rights to life, liberty and property. When the state does not, Locke argued, citizens are justified in rebelling. His view of liberalism comprised limited government, featuring elected representation and legislative checks and balances. While a Christian, Locke believed in absolute separation of church and state, and he urged toleration of those whose religious views differed from the majorities.

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