Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals

Передняя обложка
OUP Oxford, 17 мая 2002 г. - Всего страниц: 428
Polymorphism - the multiplicity of structures or forms - is a term that is used in many disciplines. In chemistry it refers to the existence of more than one crystal structure for a particular chemical substance. The properties of a substance are determined by its composition and by its structure. In the last two decades, there has been a sharp rise in the interest in polymorphic systems, as an intrinsically interesting phenomenon and as an increasingly important component in the development and marketing of a variety of materials based on organic molecules (e.g. pharmaceuticals, dyes and pigments, explosives, etc.). This book summarizes and brings up to date the current knowledge and understanding of polymorphism of molecular crystals, and concentrates it in one comprehensive source. The book will be an invaluable reference for students, researchers, and professionals in the field.
 

Отзывы - Написать отзыв

Не удалось найти ни одного отзыва.

Содержание

57 What are conformational polymorphs good for?
163
58 Computational studies of the energetics of polymorphic systems
164
59 Some exemplary studies of conformational polymorphism
168
510 The computational prediction of polymorphs
181
Polymorphism and structureproperty relations
187
62 Bulk properties
188
622 Organic magnetic materials
196
623 Photovoltaicity and photoconductivity
203

137 Polymorphism in macromolecular crystals
17
14 Historical perspective
18
15 Commercialindustrial importance of polymorphismsome additional comments
26
Fundamentals
28
222 Thermodynamic relations in polymorphs
30
223 Energy vs temperature diagramsthe Gibbs free energy
31
224 Enantiotropism and monotropism
33
225 Phase diagrams in terms of pressure and temperature
34
226 Heatoftransition rule
37
228 Entropyoffusion rule
39
2211 Infrared rule
40
23 Kinetic factors determining the formation of polymorphic modifications
41
24 Structural fundamentals
44
241 Form vs habit
45
242 Structural characterization and comparison of polymorphic systems
48
Controlling the polymorphic form obtained
65
32 Aggregation and nucleation
66
33 Thermodynamicvskinetic crystallization conditions
71
34 Monotropism enantiotropism and crystallization strategy
73
35 Concomitant polymorphs
74
351 Crystallization methods and conditions
75
352 Examples of different classes of compounds
79
353 The structural approach
85
36 Disappearing polymorphs
88
37 Control of polymorphic crystallization by design
91
Analytical techniques for studying and characterizing polymorphs
93
43 Thermal methods
103
44 Xray crystallography
110
45 Infrared spectroscopy
124
46 Raman spectroscopy
130
47 Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
132
48 Scanning electron microscopy
143
49 Atomic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy
145
410 Density measurements
146
412 Are two samples polymorphs of the same compound?
147
413 Concluding remarks
148
52 Molecular shape and energetics
151
54 The search for examples of conformational polymorphism
155
55 Presenting and comparing conformational polymorphs
156
624 Nonlinear optical activity and second harmonic generation
206
625 Chromisomerism photochromism thermochromism mechanochromism etc
212
626 Thermal phase changes and the thermosalient effecthopping or jumping crystals
222
631 Infrared and Raman spectroscopy
223
632 UVVis absorption spectroscopy
224
633 Excimer emission
230
634 Excited state diffraction studies
233
65 Thermal reactions and gassolid reactions
236
66 Pressure studies
237
67 Concluding remarks
238
Polymorphism of pharmaceuticals
239
72 Occurrence of polymorphism in pharmaceuticals
240
722 Excipients
241
73 Importance of polymorphism in pharmaceuticals
242
732 Bioavailability
243
74 Microscopy and thermomicroscopy of pharmaceuticals
248
75 Thermal analysis of pharmaceuticals
249
76 The importance of metastable forms
250
77 The importance of amorphous forms
252
78 Concluding remarks
254
Polymorphism of dyes and pigments
256
82 Occurrence of polymorphism among pigments
258
832 Perylenes
262
833 Phthalocyanines
263
834 Some other pigmentsold and new
269
84 Isomorphism of pigments
270
Polymorphism of high energy materials
274
92 The alphabet of high energy molecular materials
275
93 Individual systems
277
932 Aromatic materials
286
Polymorphism and patents
296
102 Ranitidine hydrochloride
297
103 Cefadroxil
300
104 Terazosin hydrochloride
303
105 Aspartame
304
106 Concluding remarks
306
References
307
Index
400
Авторские права

Другие издания - Просмотреть все

Часто встречающиеся слова и выражения

Об авторе (2002)

Prof. Joel Bernstein Department of Chemistry Ben-Gurion University of the Negev P.O. Box 653 Beer Sheva, Israel 84105 After obtaining a B.A. at Cornell University, he earned a Ph.D. in physical chemistry at Yale University for research on the solid-state spectroscopy of organic compounds. Following two-year postdoctoral stints in X-ray crystallography with the late Ken Trueblood at UCLA and in organic solid-state chemistry with the late Gerhardt Schmidt at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovoth, Israel, he joined the faculty of the newly established Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, where he is now Professor of Chemistry. His research interests center on the organic solid state, with particular emphasis on understanding and utilizing polymorphism, structure-property relations, hydrogen-bonding patterns and graph sets, and organic conducting materials. His career has been punctuated by visiting professorships at the University of Illinois, Cornell University, the University of Minnesota and as a visiting scientist at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. He is a member of a number of professional organizations (American Chemical Society, American Crystallographic Association, Royal Society of Chemistry, Israel Chemical Society, Israel Crystallographic Society (served twice as president), European Crystallographic Association (served as vice president 1997-2000), American Association for the Advancement of Science (elected Fellow, 1999). He serves on the editorial board of six international journals.

Библиографические данные