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on the Active and Intellectual powe-, whence he made his escape ; but ers of Man ; Wollaston's Religion he was apprehended soon after, of Nature; Harris's Philosophi- and flayed alive. cal Arrangements.
However, the oriental writers MANICHEES, or MANI- cited by D'Herbelot and Hyde, CHEANS (Manichæi,) a sect of an- tell us that Manes, after having cient heretics, who asserted two been protected in a singular manprinciples; so called from their ner by Hormizdas, who succeedauthor Manes, or Manichæus, aed Sapor in the Parsian throne, Persian by nation, and educated but who was not able to defend among the Magi, being himself | him, at length, against the united one of that number before he em-hatred of the Christians, the Magi, braced Christianity.
the Jews, and the Pagans, was This heresy had its first rise shut up in a strong castle, to serve about the year 277, and spread | him as a refuge against those who itself principally in Arabia, Egypt, persecuted him on account of his and Africa. St. Epiphanius, who doctrine. They add, that, after treats of it at large, observes that the death of Hormizdas, Varanes the true name of this heresiarch I, his successor, first protected was Cubricus; and that he chang- Manes, but afterwards gave him ed it for Manes, which in the up to the fury of the Magi Persian or Babylonish language whose resentment against him was signifies vessel. A rich widow, due to his having adopted the whose servant he had been, dying Sadducean principles, as without issue, left him stores of say ; while others attribute it to wealth ; after which he assumed his having mingled the tenets of the title of the apostle or envoy the Magi, with the doctrines of of Jesus Christ.
Christianity. However, it is cerManes was not contented with tain that the Manicheans celethe quality of apostle of Jesus brated the day of their master's Christ, but he also assumed that death. It has been a subject of of the paraclete, whom Christmuch controversy whether Manes had promised to send : which Au- was an impostor. The learned Dr. gustine explains, by saving, that Lardner has examined the arguManes endeavoured to persuade ments on both sides; and though men that the Holy Ghost did he does not choose to deny that personally dwell in him with full he was an impostor, he does not authority. He left several disci-discern evident proofs of it. He ples; and among others, Addas, acknowledges that he was an arThomas, and Hermas. These he rogant philosopher, and a great sent in his life-time into several schemist; but whether he was an provinces to preach his doctrine. impostor he cannot certainly sav. Manes having undertaken to cure He was much too fond of philethe king of Persia's son, and not sophical notions, which he ensucceeding, was put in prison cleavoured to bring into religion, upon the young prince's death, " for which he is to be blend
nevertheless, he observes, that and distributed them through their every bold dogmatizer is not an respective provinces. After a conimpostor.
test between the ruler of light and T'he doctrine of Manes was all the prince of darkness, in which motley mixture of the tenets of the latter was defeated, this prince Christianity with the ancient phi- of darkness produced the first palosophy of the Persians, in which rents of the human race. The he had been instructed during his beings engendered from this origiyouth. He combined these two nal stock consists of a body formed systems, and applied and accome out of the corrupt matter of the modated to Jesus Christ the cha- kingdom of darkness, and of two racters and actions which the Per- | souls; one of which is sensitive sians attributed to the god Mithras. and lustful, and owes its existence
He established two principles, to the evil principle; the other viz. a good and an evil one : the rational and immortal, a particle first a most pure and subtile mat- of that divine light which had been ter, which he called light, did no-carried away in the contest by the thing but good ; and the second a army of darkness, and immersgross and corrupt substance,which ed into the mass of malignant he called darkness, nothing but matter. The earth was created evil. This philosophy is very an- | by God out of this corrupt mass cient; and Plutarch treats of it at of matter, in order to be a large in his Isis and Osiris. dwelling for the human race, that
Our souls, according to Manes, their captive souls might by dewere made by the good principle, grees be delivered from their corand our bodies by the evil one ;| poreal prisons, and the celestial those two principles being accord- elements extricated from the gross ing to him, co-eternal and inde- substance in which they were inpendent of each other. Each of volved. With this view God prothese is subject to the dominion duced two beings from his own of a surperintendent Being, whose substance, viz. Christ and the Hoexistence is from all eternity. The ly Ghost : for the Manicheans held Being who presides over the light a consubstantial Trinity. Christ, is called God; he that rules the or the glorious intelligence, called land of darkness bears the title of by the Persians Mithras, subsisthyle or demon. The ruler of the ing in and by himself, and residing light is supremely happy, and in in the sun, appeared in due time consequence thereof benevolent among the Jews, clothed with the and good ; the prince of darkness shadowy form of a human body, is unhappy in himself, and desir- to disengage the rational soul from ous of rendering others partakers the corrupt body, and to conquer of his misery, and is evil and ma- the violence of malignant matter. lignant. These two beings have The Jews, incited by the prince produced an immense multitude of of darkness, put him to an ignotreatures resembling themselves, minious death, which he suffered
not in reality, but only in appear-vent their ever renewing a war in
Mánes borrowed many things of Christ were accomplished, he from the ancient Gnostics; on returned to his throne in the sun, which account many authors conappointing apostles to propagate sider the Manicheans as a branch his religion, and leaving his fol- of the Gnostics. lowers the promise of the para In truth, the Manichean docclete or comforter, who is Manes trine was a system of philosophy the Persian. Those souls who be- rather than of religion. They lieve Jesus Christ to be the Son of made use of amulets, in imitation God renounce the worship of the of the Basilidians; and are said god of the Jews, who is the prince to have made profession of astroof darkness, and obey the laws de- nomy and astrology. They denied livered by Christ, and illustrated that Jesus Christ, who was only by Manes the comforter, are gra- God, assumed a true human body, dually purified from the contagion and maintained it was only imagiof matter : and their purification nary ; and therefore they denied being completed, after having his incarnation, death, &c. They passed through two states of trial, pretended that the law of Moses by water and fire, first in the moon did not come from God, or the and then in the sun, their bodies good principle, but from the evil return to the original mass (for the one; and that for this reason it was Manicheans derided the resurrec- abrogated. They rejected almost tion of bodies,) and their souls as- all the sacred books in which cend to the regions of light. But Christians look for the sublime the souls of those who have neg- truth of their holy religion. They lected the salutary work of puri- affirined that the Old Testament
after death into the was not the work of God, but of bodies of other animals and na- the prince of darkness, who was tures, where they remain till they substituted by the Jews in the place have accomplished their probation of the true God. They abstainSome, however, more perverse and ed entirely from eating the flesh obstinate, are consigned to a se- of any animal ; following herein verer course of trial, being deli- the doctrine of the ancient Pithavered over for a time to the power goreans : they also condemned of malignant aerial spirits, who tor- marriage. The rest of their errment them in various ways. Afterors may be seen in St. Epiphathis, a fire shall break forth and nius and St. Augustine ; which consume the frame of the world ; || last, having been of their sect, and the prince and powers of may be presumed to have been darkness shall return to their pri- thoroughly acquainted with them. mitive seats ofanguish and misery, Though the Manichees professin which they shall dwell for ever. ed to receive the books of the These monsions shall be surround- New Testament, yet in effect they ed by an invincible guard, to pre-only took so much of them as
suited with their own opinions. wealth ; to feed on flesh, to enter They first formed to themselves a into the bonds of conjugal tencertain idea or scheme of Chris- derness; but this liberty was tianity; and to this adjusted the granted them with many limitawritings of the apostles, pretend- iions, and under the strictest coning that whatever was inconsistent ditions of moderation and tempewith this had been foisted into the rance. The general assembly of New Testament by the later wri- Manicheans was headed by preters, who were half Jews. On sident, who represented Jesus the other hand, they made fa- Christ. There were joined to him bles and apocryphal books pass twelve rulers or masters, who were for apostolical writings ; and even designed to represent the twelve are suspected to have forged seve- apostles; and these were followed ral others, the better to maintain by seventy-two bishops,the images their errors. St. Epiphanius gives of the seventy-two disciples of our a catalogue of several pieces pub- Lord. These bishops had presbylished by Manes, and adds ex- ters or deacons under them, and tracts out of some of them. all the members of these religious These are the Mysteries, Chap- orders were chosen out of the ters, Gospel, and Treasury, class of the elect. Their worship
The rule of life and manners was simple and plain, and consistwhich Manes prescribed to his fol- ed of prayers, reading the scriplowers was most extravagantly ri-tures, and hearing public disgorous and severe. However, he courses, at which both the audidivided his disciples into two tors and elect were allowed to be classes; one of which comprehend- present. They also observed the ed the perfect Christian, under the Christian appointment of bapname of the elect; and the other tism, and the eucharist. They the imperfect and feeble, under kept the Lord's day, observing it the title of auditors or hearers. | as a fast; and they likewise kept The elect were obliged to rigorous Easter and the Pentecost. and entire abstinence from flesh, Towards the fourth century the eggs, milk, fish, wine, all intoxi- Manicheans concealed themselves cating drink, wedlock, and all under various names, which they amorous gratifications; and to successively adopted, and changed live in a state of the severest pe-l in proportion as they were disconury, nourishing their emaciated vered by them. Thus they asbodies with bread, herbs, pulse, sumed the names of Encratites, and melons, and depriving them- | Apotactics, Saccophori, Hydroselves of all the comforts that arise parastates, Solitaries, and several from the moderate indulgence of others, under which they lay connatural passions, and also from a cealed for a certain time, but variety of innocent and agreeable could not, however, longescape the pursuits. The auditors were al- vigilance of their enemies. About lowed to possess houses, lands, and the close of the sixth century, this
sect gained a very considerable civility. Good manners, according influence, particularly among the to Swift, is the art of making those Persians.
people easy with whom we conToward the middle of the verse. Pride, ill-nature, and want twelfth century, the sect of Ma- of sense, are the three great sources nichees took a new face, on ac- of ill manners. Without some one count of one Constantine, an Ame- of these defects no man will berican, and an adherer to it; who have himself ill for want of expetook upon him to suppress the rience ; or of what, in the lanreading of all other books besides guage of some, is called knowing the evangelists and the epistles of the world. For the effect that St. Paul, which he explained in Christianity has on the manners of such a manner as to make them men, see article CHRISTIANITY. contain a new system of Mani MARCELLIANS, a sect of cheism. He entirely discarded all | ancient heretics, towards the close the writings of his predecessors ; l of the second century; so called rejecting the chimeras of the Va- from Marcellus of Ancyra, their lentinians, and their thirty æons ; leader, who was accused of revivthe fable of Manes, with regard ing the errors of Sabellius. Some, to the origin of rain, and other however, are of opinion, that Mardreams; but still retained the im- cellus was orthodox, and that they purities of Basilides. In this man- were his enemies the Arians who ner he reformed Manicheism, in- fathered their errors upon him. somuch that his followers made St. Epiphanius observes, that there no scruple of anathemizing Scy- was a great deal of dispute with thian, Buddas, called also Addas regard to the real tenets of Marand Terrebinth, the contempora- cellus ; but as to his followers it ries and disciples, as some say, is evident that they did not own and, according to others, the pre- the three hypostases ; for Marceldecessors and masters of Manes, lus considered the Son and Holy and even Manes himself; Constan- Ghost as two emanations from the tine being now their great apostle. Divine nature, which, after perAfter he had seduced an infinite forming their respective offices, number of people, he was at last were to return again into the suhstoned by order of the emperor. stance of the Father; and this
This sect prevailed in Bosnia opinion is altogether incompatible and the adjacent provinces about with the belief of three distinct the close of the fifteenth century; persons in the Godhead. propagated their doctrine with MARCIONITES, or MARconfidence, and held their reli- CIONISTS, Marcionistæ, a very angious assemblies with impunity. cient and popular sect of heretics,
MANNERS: the plural noun who, in the time of Epiphanius, has various significations ; as the were spread over Italy, Egypt, general way of life, the morals or Palestine, Syria, Arabia, Persia, the habits of any persons; also and other countries : they were ceremonial behaviour or studied thus denominated from their auVOL. II.