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predestination both of good and which directs and determines evil. The orthodox doctrine is, both the portion which is to be that whatever hath or shall come given, and of what things it to pass in this world, whether it ought to be given ; but the vobe good or whether it be bad, luntary alms are left to every proceedeth entirely from the di- one's liberty, to give more or vine will, and is irrevocably fix-less, as he shall see fit. The fored and recorded from all eterni- mer kind of alms some think to ty in the preserved table; God be properly called zacat, and the having secretly predetermined latter sadakat, though this name not only the adverse and prosper- be also frequently given to the ous fortune of every person in legal alms. They are called zathis world, in the most minute cat, either because they increase particulars, but also his faith or a man's store by drawing down a infidelity, his obedience or diso- blessing thereon, and produce in bedience, and consequently his his soul the virtue of liberality; everlasting happiness or misery or because they purify the reafter death ; which fate or pre- maining part of one's substance destination it is not possible by from pollution, and the soul from any foresight or wisdom to avoid the filth of avarice; and sadakat,

II. Religious practice. 1. The because they are a proof of a first point is prayer, under which man's sincerity in the worship of are also comprehended those God. Some writers have called legal washings or purifications the legal alms, tithes : but improwhich are necessary preparations perly, since in some cases they thereto.

fall short, and in others exceed For the regular performance that proportion. of the duty of prayer among the 3. Fasting is a duty of so great Mahometans, it is requisite, while moment, that Mahomet used to they pray, to turn their faces to say it was the gate of religion; and wards the temple of Mecca ; the that the odour of the mouth of him quarter where the same is situa- who fasteth is more grateful to ted being, for that reason, point-God than that of musk; and Al ed out within their mosques by Ghazali reckons fasting onefourth a niche, which they call al Meh- part of the faith. According to the rab; and without, by the situa- Mahometan divines, there are tion of the doors opening into three degrees of fasting : 1. The the galleries of she steeples: there restraining the belly and other are also tables calculated for the parts of the body from satisfying ready finding out their Keblah, their lusts.--2. The restraining or part towards which they the ears, eyes, tongue, hands, ought to pray, in places where feet, and other members, from they have no other direction. sin.-3. The fasting of the heart

2. Alms are of two sorts, legal from worldly cares, and restrainand voluntary. The legal almsing the thought from every thing are of indispensable obligation, besides God. being commanded by the law, 4. The pilgrimage to Mecca is

so necessary a point of practice,| reigned among the Christian sects, that, according to a tradition of particularly the Greeks, NestoriMahomet, he who dies without ans, Eutychians, and Monophyperforming it may as well die a sites; dissentions that filled a great Jew or a Christian ; and the same part of the East with carnage, asis expressly commanded in the sassinations, and such detestable Koran. See PILGRIMAGE. enormities, as rendered the very

III. Mahometanism, causes of name of Christianity odious to the success of. The rapid success many. We might add here, that' which attended the propagation of the Monophysites and Nestorians, this new religion was owing to full of resentment against the causes that are plain and evident,|| Greeks, from whom they had sufand must remove, or rather pre-fered the bitterest and most injuvent, our surprise, when they arerious treatment, assisted the Araattentively considered. The terror bians in the conquest of several of Mahomet’s arms, and the re- provinces, into which, of consepeated victories which were gain- quence, the religion of Mahomet ed by him and his successors, were was afterwards introduced. Other no doubt, the irresistible argu-causes of the sudden progress of ments that persuaded such multi- || that religion will naturally occur tudes to embrace his religion, and to such as consider attentively submit to his dominion. Besides, its spirit and genius, and the state his law was artfully and marvel- of the world at this time. lously adapted to the corrupt na IV. Mahometanism, subversion ture of man; and, in a more par-of. Of things yet to come it is ticular manner, to the manners and difficult to say any thing with preopinions of the Eastern nations, cision. We have, however, some and the vices to which they were reason to believe, from the aspect naturally addicted: for the articles of scripture prophecy, that, triumof faith which it proposed were phant as this sect has been, it shall few in number and extremely sim- at last come to nought. As it ple; and the duties it required arose as a scourge to Christendom were neither many nor difficult, about the time that Antichrist obnor such as were incompatible with tained a temporal dominion, so it the empire of appetites and pas- is not improbable but they will sions. It is to be observed farther, have their downfall nearly at the that the gross ignorance under same period. The ninth chapter which the Arabians, Syrians, Per- of Revelations seems to refer sians, and the greatest part of the wholly to this imposture : “ The Eastern nations, laboured at this four angels, were loosed," says time, rendered many an easy prey the prediction, 15th rerse, “which to the artifice and eloquence of were prepared for an hour, and a this bold adventurer. To these day, and a month, and a year, for causes of the progress of Maho-to slay the third part of men.” metism we may add the bitter dis- This period, in the language of sensions and cruel animosities that prophecy, makes three hundred VOL. II.

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and ninety-one years, which, be- lignancy and malignity are words ing added to the year when the nearly synonymous. In some confour angels were loosed, will bring nexions, mulignity seems rather us down to 1844, or thereabouts, more pertinently applied to a rafor the final destruction of the dical depravity of nature; and Mahometan empire. It must be malignancy to indications of this confessed, however, that, though depravity in temper and conduct the event is certain, the exact in particular instances. time cannot be easily ascertained. MAN, a being consisting of a Prideaux's Life of Mahomet; Mo- rational soul and organical body. sheim's Eccl. Hist., cent. vii, ch. By some he is defined thus : “ He 2; Sale's Preliminary Discourse, is the head of the animal creation; prefixed to his English Transla- a being who feels, reflects, thinks, tion of the Koran; Simpson's Key contrives, and acts; who has the to Proph., sec. 19; Bishop New-l power of changing his place upon ton, Mede, and Gill, on Rev. ix; the earth at pleasure ; who posMiller's Propag. of Christianity, sesses the faculty of communicavol. i, ch. 1; White's Sermons at ting his thoughts by means of Bampton Lec.; Enc. Brit. speech and who has dominion over

MALEVOLENCE is that dis-all other creatures on the face of position of mind which inclines the earth.” We shall here present us to wish ill to any' person. It the reader with a brief account of discovers itself in frowns and low- his formation, species, and differering countenance ; in uncharita- ent state. 1. His formation. Man bleness, in evil sentiments; hard was made last of all the creatures, speeches to or of its object; in being the chief and master-piece cursing and reviling, and doing of the whole creation on earth. He misehief either with open violence is a compendium of the creation, or secret spite, as far as there is and therefore is sometimes called power.

a microcosm, a little world, the MALICE is a settled or deli- world in miniature ; something of berate determination to revenge or the vegetable, animal, and rational do hurt to another. It more fre-world meet in him; spirit and matquently denotes the dispositions ter; yea, heaven and earth centre of inferior minds to execute eve- | in him; he is the bond that conry purpose of mischief within the nects them both together. The conmore limited circle of their abili-stituent and essential parts of man ties. It is a most hateful temper created by God are two; body and in the sight of God, strictly for-soul. The one was made out of bidden in his holy word, Col. iii, the dust; the other was breathed 8 to 12. disgraceful to rational into him. The body is formed with creatures, and every way inimical the greatest precision and exactto the spirit of Christianity, Matt.ness, every muscle, vein, artery, V, 44. See CHARITY, Love. yea, the least fibre, in its proper

MALIGNITY, a disposition place; all in just proportion and obstinately bad or malicious. Ma- symmetry, in subserviency to the

use of each other, and for the good Japanese. Their countenances are of the whole, Psal. cxxxix, 14. It broad and wrinkled, even in youth; is also made erect to distinguish their noses short and flat; their it from the four-footed animals, eyes little, cheek-bones high, teeth who look downward to the earth. large, complexions are olive, and Man was made to look upward to the hair black.-3. The third are the heavens, to contemplate them, the southern Asiatics, or Inhabiand the glory of God displayed in tants of India. These are of a them; to look up to God, to wor- slender shape, long straight black ship and adore him. In the Greek hair, and generally Roman noses. language, man has his name, They are slothful, submissive, enggoros, from turning and looking cowardly, and effeminate.--. upwards. The soul is the other The negroes of Africa constitute part of man, which is a substance the fourth striking variety in the or subsistence: it is not an acci- human species. They are of a dent, or quality, inherent in a black colour, having downy soft subject; but capable of subsisting hair short and black ; their beards without the body. It is a spiritu- often turn grey, and sometimes al substance, immaterial, immor- white; their noses are flat and tal. See Soul.

short; their lips thick, and their 2. Man, different species of. Ac- teeth of an ivory whiteness. These cording to Linnæus and Buffon, | are the unhappy wretches who are there are six different species torn from their families, friends, among mankind. The first are and native lands, and consigned those under the Polar regions, and for life to misery, toil, and bondcomprehend the Laplanders, the age; and that by the wise, polishEsquimaux Indians, the Samoieded, and the Christian inhabitants Tartars, the inhabitants of Nova of Europe, and, above ail, by the Zembla, Borandians, the Green-monsters of England ! !5. The landers, and the people of Kamt-natives of America are the fifth schatka.' The visage of men in race of men : they are of a copper these countries is large and broad; colour, with black thick straight the nose flat and short; the eyes hair, flat noses, high cheek bones, of a yollowish brown, inclining to and small eyes.-6. The Europeblackness; the cheek-bones ex ans may be considered as the tremely high ; the mouth large ; sixth and last variety of the huthe lips thick, and turning out man kind, whose features we need wards; the voice thin, and squeak- not describe. The English are ing ; and the skin a dark grey co-considered as the fairest. lour. They are short in stature, 3. Mlan, different states of. The the generality being about four state of man has been divided into feet high, and the tallest not more fourfold; his primitive state ; than five. They are ignorant, stu- fallen state ; gracious state ; and pid, and superstitious.-2. The future state. 1. His state of insecond are the Tartar race, com- inocence. God, it is said, made prehending the Chinese and the man upright, Eccl. vii, 29. with

out any imperfection, corruption, to restore themselves to the favour or principle of corruption in his of God, to obey his commands body or soul; with light in his un- perfectly, and to satisfy his justice, derstanding, holiness in his will, Gal. iii. Rom. v. Gen. iii. Eph. ii. and purity in his affections. This Rom. iii, passim. See Fall.3. constituted his original righteous- His recovery. Although man has ness, which was universal both fallen by his iniquity, yet he is not with respect to the subject of it, the left finally to perish. The divine whole man, and the object of it, Being,foreseeing the fall in infinite the whole law. Being thus in a love and mercy made provision state of holiness, he was necessari- for his relief. Jesus Christ, accordly in a state of happiness. He was ing to the Divine purpose, came a very glorious creature, the fa- in the fulness of time to be his Savourite of heaven, the lord of the viour, and, by virtue of his sufferworld, possessing perfect tranquil- ings, all who believe are justified Jity in his own breast, and im- from the curse of the law. By the mortal. Yet he was not without influences of the Holy Spirit he is law; for to the law of nature, regenerated, united to Christ by which was impressed on his heart, faith, and sanctified. True believCiod superadded a positive law, ers, therefore, live a life of denot to eat of the forbidden fruit, ipendence on the promise; of reGen. ii, 17. under the penalty of gularity and obedience to God's death natural, spiritual, and eter- word ; of holy joy and peace ; nal. Had he obeyed this law, he and have a hope full of immortamight have had reason to expect lity.-4. His future state. As it that he would not only have had respects the impenitent, it is a the continuance of his natural and state of separation from God, and spiritual life, but have been tran- eternal punishment, Matt. xxv, sported to the upper paradise. 46. But the righteous shall rise 2. His fall. Man's righteousness, to glory, honour, and everlasting however, though universal, was joy. To the former, death will be not immutable, as the event has the introduction to misery ; to the proved. How long he lived in a latter, it will be the admission to state of innocence cannot easily be felicity. All will be tried in the ascertained, yet most suppose it judgment-day, and sentence prowas but a short time. The positive nounced accordingly. The wicked law which God gave him he broke, will be driven away in his wickedby eating the forbidden fruit. ness, and the righteous be sarThe consequence of this evil acted with an everlasting salvation. was, that man lost the chief good ; But as these subjects are treated his nature was corrupted ; his on elsewhere, we refer the reader powers depraved, his body sub-to the articles GRACE, HEAVEN, ject to corruption, his soulexposed Hell, Sin. Hartley's Observato misery, his posterity all involv-tions on Man; Boston's Fourfold ed in ruin, subject to eternal con- State; Kame's Sketches of the Hisdemnation, and for ever incapable tory of Man ; Locke on ('nda; Reid

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