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and he is reckoned an infidel who Psalms, and Gospel, they say, have denies there are such beings, or undergone so many alterations and hates any of them, or asserts any corruptions that, though there may distinction of sexes among them. I possibly be some part of the true They believe them to have pure word of God therein, yet no creand subtle bodies, created of fire ; | dit is to be given to the present cothat they neither eat nor drink, llpies in the hands of the Jews and nor propagate their species; that Christians. they have various forms and offi 4. The number of the prophets ces, some adoring God in differ- which have been from time to ent postures, others singing praises time sent by God into the world, 10 him, or interceding for man- amounts to no less than 224,000, kind. They hold, that some of according to one Mahometan trathem are employed in writing dition; or to 124,000, according down the actions of men ; others to another; among whom 313 were in carrying the throne of God, and apostles, sent with special commisother services.
sions to reclaim mankind from in3. As to the scriptures, the Ma- fidelity and superstition ; and six hometans are taught by the Koran, of them brought new laws or disthat God, in divers ages of the pensations, which successively abworld, gave revelations of his will rogated the preceding : these were in writing to several prophets, the Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, whole and every one of which it Jesus, and Mahomet. All the prois absolutely necessary for a good phets in general the Mahometans Moslem to believe. The number believe to have been free from great of these sacred books were, accord- sins and errors of consequence, and ing to them, one hundred and four; professors of one and the same reof which ten were given to Adam,ligion, that is, Islam, notwithstandfifty to Seth, thirty to Edris or ing the different laws and instituEnoch, ten to Abraham ; and the tions which they observed. They other four, being the Pentateuch, allow of degress among them, and the Psalms, the Gospel, and the hold some of them to be more exKoran, were successively deliver-|cellent and honourable than others. ed to Moses, David, Jesus, and The first place they give to the reMahomet : which last being the vealers and establishers of new disseal of the prophets, those revela- pensations, and the next to the tions are now closed, and no more apostles. are to be expected. All these di In this great number of prophets vine books, except the four last, they not only reckon divers patrithey agree to be now entirely lost, archs and persons named in scripand their contents unknown; ture, but not recorded to have been though the Sabians have several prophets (wherein the Jewish and books which they attribute to some Christian writers have sometimes of the antediluvian prophets. And led the way), as Adam, Seth, Loto of those foun the Pentateuch, Ishmael, Nun, Joshua, &c., and in.
troduce some of them under dif-1 unto him, that he may be admitted ferent names, as Enoch, Heber, into paradise ; but if, on the contraand fethro, who are called, in the ry, his good works be exhausted, Koran, Edris, Hud, and Shoaib; and there remain evil works only, but several others whose very and there be any who have not yet names do not appear in scripture received satisfaction from him, (though they endeavour to find God will order that an equal weight some persons there to fix them on), of their sins be added unto his, that as Saleh, Khedr, Dhu'lkefl, &c.
he may be punished for them in 5. The belief of a general resur- their stead, and he will be sent to rection and a future judgment. hell laden with both. This will be
The time of the resurrection the the method of God's dealing with Mahometans allow to be a perfect mankind. As to brutes, after they secret to all but God alone; the shall have likewise taken venangel Gabriel himself acknowledg- geance of one another, he will ing his ignorance in this point, command them to be changed into when Mahomet asked him about it. dust; wicked men being reserved However, they say, the approach to more grievous punishment, so of that day may be known from cer- that they shall cry out, on hearing tain signs which are to precede it. this sentence passed on the brutes,
After examination is past (the || Would to God that we were dust alaccount of which is too long and 150! As to the genii, many Mahotedious for this place), and every metans are of opinion that such of one's works weighed in a just ba- | them as are true believers will unlance, they say, that mutual reta- dergo the same fate as the irrationliation will follow, according to al animals, and have no other rewhich every creature will take ven-ward than the favour of being congeance one of another, or have sa-verted into dust : and for this they tisfaction made them for the in- quote the authority of their projuries which they have suffered. phet. And, since there will then be no The trials being over, and the other way of returning like for like, assembly dissolved, the Mahomethe manner of giving this satisfac- tans hold, that those who are to be tion will be by taking away a pro- | admitted into paradise will take portional part of the good works of the right hand way, and those who him who offered the injury,and ad- || are destined to hell fire will take the ding it to those of him who suffer-left: but both of them must first ed it. Which being done, if the pass the bridge called in Arabic Al angels (by whose ministry this is Sirat, which, they say, is laid over to be performned) say, Lord, we the midst of hell, and describe to have given to every one his due, and be finer than a hair, and sharper there remaineth of this person's than the edge of a sword; so that good works so much as equalleth it seems very difficult to conceive the weight of an ant, God will, of how any one shall be able to his mercy, cause it to be doubled stand upon it; for which reason
most of the sect of the Motaza- the sixth, named al Jahim, to the lites reject it as a fable ; though idolaters; and the seventh, which the orthodox think it a sufficient is the lowest and worst of all, and proof of the truth of this article, is called al Haryat, to the hypothat it was seriously affirmed by crites, or those who outwardly him who never asserted a false- professed some religion, but in hood, meaning their prophet ;|| their hearts were of none. Over who, to add to the difficulty of each of these apartments they bethe passage,
has likewise declar-lieve there will be set a guard of ed, that this bridge is beset on angels, nineteen in number; to each side with briars and hooked whom the damned will confess thorns, which will, however, be the just judgment of God, and no impediment to the good ; for beg them to intercede with him they shall pass with wonderful for some alleviation of their pain, ease and swiftness, like lightning, or that they may be delivered by or the wind, Mahomet and his being annihilated. Moslems leading the way, where Mahomet has, in his Koran as the wicked, what with the and traditions, been very exact slipperiness and extreme narrow-in describing the various torness of the path, the entangling ments of hell, which, according of the thorns, and the extinction to him, the wicked will suffer of the light which directed the both from intense heat and exformer to paradise, will soon misscessive cold. We shall, howtheir footing, and fall down head-lever, enter into no detail of them long into hell, which is gaping here; but only observe, that the beneath them.
degrees of these pains will also As to the punishment of the vary in proportion to the crimes wicked, the Mahometans are of the sufferer, and the aparttaught, that hell is divided into ment he is condemned to; and seven stories or apartments, one that he who is punished the most below another, designed for the lightly of all will be shod with reception of as many distinct shoes of fire, the fervour of which classes of the damned.
will cause his skull to boil like a The first, which they call Je-chaldron. The condition of these hennan, they say, will be the re- || unhappy wretches, as the same ceptacle of those who acknow- prophet teaches, cannot be proledged one God, that is, the wick- perly called either life or death; ed Mahometans; who, after hav- and their misery will be greatly ing been punished according to increased by their despair of betheir demerits, will at length being ever delivered from that released; the second, named Lad-place, since, according to that ha, they assign to the Jews ; the frequent expression in the Koran, third, named al Hotama, to the they must remain therein for ever. Christians; the fourth, named all It must be remarked, however, Sair, to the Sabians; the fifth, that the infidels alone will be named Sakar, to the Magians ; | liable to eternity of damnation ;
for the Moslems, or those who radise, being whiter than milk or have embraced the true religion, silver, and more odoriferous than and have been guilty of hei- musk, with as many cups set nous sins, will be delivered around it as there are stars in the thence after they shall have expi- firmament; of which water whoated their crimes by their suffer- ever drinks will thirst no more ings. The time which these for ever. This is the first taste believers shall be detained there, which the blessed will have of according to a tradition hand their future and now near aped down from their prophet, proaching felicity. will not be less than nine hundred Though paradise be so very years, nor more than seven thou- frequently mentioned in the Kosand. And, as to the manner of ran, yet it is a dispute among the their delivery, they say that they Mahometans, whether it be alshall be distinguished by the ready created, or to be created marks of prostration on those hereafter; the Motazalites and parts of their bodies with which some other sectaries asserting, they used to touch the ground in that there is not at present any prayer, and over which the fire such place in nature, and that the will therefore have no power; paradise which the righteous and that, being known by this will inhabit in the next life will be characteristic, they will be re- different from that from which Aleased by the mercy of God, at dam was expelled. However, the the intercession of Mahomet and orthodox profess the contrary, the blessed: whereupon those maintaining that it was created who shall have been dead will be even before the world, and derestored to life, as has been said; scribe it, from their prophet's and those whose bodies shall traditions, in the following manhave contracted any sootiness or ner : filth from the flames and smoke
They say it is situated above of hell, will be immersed in the seven heavens (or in the seone of the rivers of paradise, venth heaven), and next under called the river of life, which the throne of God; and, to exwill wash them whiter than pearls. press the amenity of the place,
The righteous, as the Maho- tell us, that the earth of it is of metans are taught to believe, hay- the finest wheat flour, or of the ing surmounted the difficulties, purest musk, or, as others will and passed the sharp bridge have it, of saffron ; that its stones above-mentioned, before they en- are pearls and jacinths, the walls ter poradise, will be refreshed by of its buildings enriched with drinking at the pond of their pro- gold and silver, and that the phet, who describes it to be an trunks of all its trees are of gold; exact square, of a month's jour- among which the most remarkney in compass; its water, which able is the tree called tuba, or the is supplied by two pipes from altree of happiness. Concerning Cawthar, one of the rivers of pa- this tree, they fable, that it stands
in the palace of Mahomet, though || mortal women are, but of pure a branch of it will reach to the musk; being, as their prophet ofhouse of every true believer; that ten affirms in his Koran, free it will be laden with pomegra- from all natural impurities, denates, grapes, dates, and other fects and inconveniences incident fruits, of surprising bigness, and to the sex ; of the strictest moof tastes unknown to mortals. Sodesty, and secluded from public that, if a man desire to eat of any view in pavillions of hollow particular kind of fruit, it will pearls so large, that, as some traimmediately be presented him; ditions have it, one of them will or, if he choose flesh, birds ready be no less than four parasangs dressed will be set before him, || (or, as others say, sixty miles) according to his wish. They long and as many broad. add, that the boughs of this tree The name which the Mahomewill spontaneously bend down to tans usually give to this happy the hand of the person who would mansion is al Jannat, or, “ the gather of its fruits, and that it will garden;" and sometimes they call supply the blessed not only with it, with an addition, Jannat al food, but also with silken gar- Ferdaws, “ the garden of paraments and beasts to ride on ready dise;" fannat Aden," the garden saddled and bridled, and adorned of Eden,"(though they generally with rich trappings, which will interpret the word Eden not acburst forth from its fruits; and cording to its acceptation in Hethat this tree is so large, that a brew, but according to its meanperson, mounted on the fleetesting in their own tongue, wherein horse, would not be able to gal-it signifies "a settled or perpelop from one end of its shade to tual habitation ;') Fannat al the other in one hundred years. Mawa, “the garden of abode ;"
As plenty of water is one of| Jannat al Naim," the garden the greatest additions to the plea- of pleasure ;” and the like: by santness of any place, the Koran which several appellations some often speaks of the rivers of pa- understand so many different radise as a principal ornament gardens, or at least places of difthereof: some of these rivers, ferent degrees of felicity (for they say, flow with water, some they reckon no less than one hunwith milk, some with wine, and dred such in all), the very meanothers with honey; alltaking their est whereof will afford its inharise from the root of the tree tuba. bitants so many pleasures and
But all these glories will be delights, that one would conclude eclipsed by the resplendent and they must even sink under them, ravishing girls of paradise, called, had not Mahomet declared that, from their large black eyes, Hur in order to qualify the blessed al oyun, the enjoyment of whose for a full enjoyment of them, company will be a principal feli- God will give to every one the city of the faithful.' These, they abilities of one hundred men. say, are created not of clay, as 6. God's absolute decree and