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numerous. It is highly disho- | dox, that the Son was ouoroig, of nourable and abasing; transform the same substance, but only onsing a man into any thing or every 8700, of a like substance with the thing for his own interest. It is Father; and thus, though in exsinful, and the source of innume- pression they differed from the orrable sins; as perjury, hypocrisy, thodox in a single letter only, falsehood, idolatry, persecution, yet in effect they denied the diviand murder itself. It is danger- nity of Jesus Christ. The Semi
It excites contempt, is the Arianism of the moderns consists source of tyranny, discord, war, in their maintaining that the Son and makes a man a slave, and was, from all eternity, begotten exposes him to the just indigna- by the will of the Father; contrary tion of God. The remedies to to the doctrine of those who teach prevent or suppress this evil are that the eternal generation is necesthese. Consider that it is abso-sary. Such, at least, are the relutely prohibited, Jerem. xlv. 5. spective opinions of Dr. Clarke Luke ix, 23. Heb. xiii, 5, Col. and Bishop Bull. iii, 5. A mark of a wicked de- || SEMI-PELAGIANS,a name generate mind; that the most aw-anciently, and even at this day, ful curses are pronounced against given to such as retain some tincit, Isa. v, 3. Hab. vi, 9-12. ture of Pelagianism. Is. xv, 1, 2. Amos vi, 1. Mic. ii, Cassian, who had been a deacon 1, 2; that it is contrary to the of Constantinople, and was afterexample of all wise and good men ; wards a priest at Marseilles, was that the most awful examples of the chief of these Semi-Pelagians, the punishment of this sin are whose leading principles were, 1. recorded in scripture; as Pharaoh, That God did not dispense his Achan, Haman, Gehazi, Absa grace to one more than another, lom, Ananias and Saphira, Judas, in consequence of predestination, and many others.
i. e. an eternal and absolute deSEMBIANI, so called from cree, but was willing to save all Sembianus, their leader, who con- men, if they complied with the demned all use of wine as evil terms of his Gospel.–2. That of itself. He persuaded his fol-Christ died for all men.-3. That lowers that wine was a produc- the grace purchased by Christ, tion of Satan and the earth, denied and necessary to salvation, was ofthe resurrection of the body, and fered to all men.-4. That man, rejected most of the books of the before he received grace, was caOld Testament.
pable of faith and holy desires.SEMI-ARIANS were thus de- || 5. That man was born free, and nominated, because, in profession, was, consequently, capable of rethey condemned the errors of the sisting the influences of grace, or Arians, but in reality maintaincci of complying with its suggestion. their principles, only palliating - The Semi-Pelagians were very and concealing them under softer numerous; and the doctrine of and more moderate terms. They Cassian, though variously explainwould not allow, with the ortho-ed, was received in the greatest
part of the monastic schools in -5. The benevolent affections are Gaul, from whence it spread itself all accompanied with an agreeafar and wide through the Europe- ble feeling; the malevolent on the an provinces. As to the Greeks, contrary:—and, 6. The highest, and other Eastern Christians, they the noblest, and the most durable had embraced the Semi-Pelagian pleasure, is that of doing well; doctrines before Cassian. In the and the most bitterand painfulsensixth century the controversy be-timent, the anguish and remorse of tween the Semi-Pelagians and a guilty conscience. See Theoriethe disciples of Augustin prevailed des Sentimens Agreeables; Reid on much, and continued to divide the Intellectual Powers, p. 232; the Western churches.
Kames's Criticisms, vol. ii, p. 501. SENSATION properly signi SENSE, a faculty of the soul, fies that internal act by which we whereby it perceives external obare made conscious of pleasure or ljects by means of impressions pain felt at the organ of sense. As made on the organs of the body. to sensations and feelings, says Dr. Moral sense is said to be an apReid, some belong to the animal prehension of that beautyor deforpartof our nature, and are common | mity which arises in the mind by to us with the brutes; others belong a kind of natural instinct, previto the rational and moral part. ously to any rersoning upon the The first are more properly called remoter consequences of actions. sensations; the last, feelings. The Whether this really exists or not, French word sentiment is common is disputed. On the affirmative to both. The design of the Al- side it is said, that, 1. We approve mighty in giving us both the pain- or disapprove certain actions withful and agreeable feelings is, for out deliberation.—2. This approthe most part, obvious, and well bation or disapprobation is unideserving our notice. 1. The pain- form and universal. But against ful sensations are admonitions to this opinion it is answered, that, avoid what would hurt us; and 1. This uniformity of sentiment the agreeable sensations to invite does not pervade all nations.—2. us to those actions that are neces-Approbation of particular conduct sary to the preservation of the in-arises from a sense of its advandividual or the kind.-3. By the tages. The idea continues when same means, nature invites us to the motive no longer exists; remoderate bodily exercise, and ad-ceives strength from authority, monishes us to avoid idleness and imitation, &c. The efficacy of inactivity on the one hand, and imitation is most observable in excessive labour on the other.- children.-3. There are no max3. The moderate exercise of all jims universally true, but bend to ourrational powers gives pleasure. circumstances.-4. There can be
4. Every species of beauty is no idea without an object, and inbeheld with pleasure, and every stinct is inseparable from the idea species of deformity with disgust. of the object. See Paley's Moral
Phries., vol. i, chap. v; Hutcheson into the Greek language, which on the Passions, p. 245, &c.; Ma- was a language commonly underson's Sermons, vol. i, p. 253. stood by the nations of the world.
SEPTUAGINT, the name It has also been with great progiven to a Greek version of the priety observed," that there are books of the Old Testament, from inany words and forms of speech its being supposed to be the work of in the New Testament, the true seventy-two Jews, who are usually import of which cannot be known called the seventy interpreters, be- but by their use in the Septuagint. cause seventy is a round number. This version also preserves many
Aristobulus, who was tutor to important words, some sentences, Ptolemy Physion; Philo, who liv- and several whole verses which ed in our Saviour's time, and was originally made a part of the Hecontemporary with the apostles; brew text, but have long ago enand Josephus, speak of this trans- tirely disappeared. This is the lation as made by seventy-two in- version, and this only, which is terpreters, by the care of Deme-constantly used and quoted in the trius Phalerus, in the reign of|Gospels and by the apostles, and Ptolemy Philadelphus. All the which has thereby received the Christian writers during the first highest sanction which any writfifteen centuries of the Christianings can possibly receive." æra have admitted this account of There have been various edithe Septuagint as an undoubted tions of the Septuagint; such as fact; but, since the reformation, Breitenger's edition, 1730; Boss's critics have boldly called it in edition, 1709; Daniel's edition, question. But whateverdifferences 1653; Mills's edition, 12mo., of opinions there have been as to 1725; bishop Pearson's, printed by the mode of translation, it is uni- Field, 12mo., 1665: but Grabes's versally acknowledged that such a edition, published in 1707, is in version, whole or in part, existed; great repute. and it is pretty evident that most Dr. Holmes, canon of Christ of the books must have been trans- Church, was employed for some lated before our Saviour's time, years on a correct edition of the as they are quoted by him. It must Septuagint. He had been colalso be considered as a wonderful | lating from more than three hunprovidence in favour of the reli- i dred Greek manuscripts; from gion of Jesus. It prepared the way twenty or more Coptic, Syriac, for his coming, and afterwards Arabic, Sclavonian, and Armegreatly promoted the setting up of nian manuscripts; from eleven his kingdom in the world; for hi-editions of the Greek text and therto the scriptures had remained versions; and from near thirty locked up from all other nations Greek fathers, when death prebut the Jews in the Hebrew tongue, vented him from finishing this vawhich was understood by no other luable work. He printed the whole nation; but now it was translated L of the Pentateuch in five parts
folio ; and lately edited the pro-fage of the world from about 5500 phecy of Daniel according to Theo-to 3760; and thence to prove that dosian and the LXX, departing Jesus could not be the Messiah. from his proposed order, as if by Dr. Kennicott adds, that some a presentiment of his end. Hebrew copies, having the larger
Those who desire a larger ac- chronology, were extant till the count of this translation may con-time of Eusebius, and some till sult Hody de Bib. Textibus; Pri- the year 700. deaux's Connexions; Owen's Inqui SERMON, a discourse deliverry into the Septuagint Version ; ed in public for the purpose of reBlair's Lectures on the Canon; andligious instruction and improveMichælis's Introduction to the ment. New Testament.
In order to make a good serSEPTUAGINT CHRONO- men, the following things may LOGY, the chronology which is be attended to. The exordium formed from the dates and periods should correspond with the subof time mentioned in the Septua-ject on which we are about to gint translation of the Old Testa- | treat. For this
the conment. It reckons 1500 years moretext often forms a source of apfrom the creation to Abraham than propriate remark; and this, though the Hebrew Bible. Dr. Kennicott, | called a hackneyed way, is one in the dissertation prefixed to his of the best for opening gradually Hebrew Bible, has shewn it to be to the subject; though, I confess, very probable that the chronology ways to use it is not so well, of the Hebrew scriptures, since the as it looks formal. There are period just mentioned, was cor- some subjects in which the conrupted by the Jews between the text cannot be consulted; then, years 175 and 200; and that the perhaps, it is best to begin with chronology of the Septuagint is some passage of scripture appomore agreeable to truth. It is a site to the subject, or some strikfact, that, during the second anding observation. It has been dethird centuries, the Hebrew scrip- bated, indeed, whether we should tures were almost entirely in the begin with any thing particularly hands of the Jews, while the calculated to gain the attention, or Septuagint was confined to the whether we should rise gradually Christians. The Jews had, there in the strength of remark and aptfore, a very favourable opportunityness of sentiment. As to this, we for this corruption. The following may observe, that, although it is the reason which is given by be acknowledged that a minister Oriental writers: It being a very should flame most towards the ancient tradition that Messiah was end, perhaps it would be well to to come in the sixth chiliad, be- guard against a two low and feecause he was to come in the last ble manner in the exordium. It days (founded on a mystical appli- has been frequently the practice cation of the six days creation), of making apologies, by way of the contrivance was to shorten the introduction: though this may be
admitted in some singular cases,, be distinct and few, yet have a just as on the sudden death of a mi- dependance on and connexion one nister, or disappointment of the with the other. It was common preacher through unforeseen cir- in the two last centuries to have cumstances, yet I think it is often such a multitude of heads, subdimade use of where it is entirely visions, observations, and inferunnecessary, and carries with it ences, that hardly any one could an air of affectation and pride. remember them: it is the custom An apology for a man's self is of- of the present day, among many, ten more a reflection than any to run into the other extreme, and thing else. If he be not qualified, to have no division at all. This is why have the effrontery to engage? equally as injurious. “I have no and, if qualified, why tell the peo- notion,” says one,“ of the great ple an untruth?
usefulness of a sermon without Exordiums should be short : heads and divisions. They should some give us an abridgment of be few, and distinct, and not cointheir sermon in their introduc-cide. But a general harangue, or tion, which takes off the people's a sermon with a concealed diviattention afterwards; others pro- sion, is very improper for the gemise so much, that the expecta- nerality of hearers, especially the tion thereby raised is often disap- | common people, as they can nei. pointed. Both these should be ther remember it, nor so well unavoided; and a simple, correct, ||derstand it.” Another observes : modest, deliberate, easy gradation“ We should ever remember we to the text attended to.
are speaking to the plainest capaAs to the plan. Sometimes a cities; and as the arranging our text may be discussed by expo-ideas properly is necessary to our sition and inference; sometimes being understood, so the giving by raising a proposition, as the each division of our discourse its general sentiment of the text, from denomination of number has a which several truths may be de- happy effect to assist the attention duced and insisted on; sometimes and memory of our hearers.” by general observations; and As to the amplification. After sometimes by division. If we dis- having laid a good foundation on cuss by exposition, then we should which to build, the superstructure examine the authenticity of the should be raised with care. “Let reading, the accuracy of the trans- every text have its true meaning, lation, and the scope of the writer. every truth its due weight, every If a proposition be raised, care hearer his proper portion.” The should be taken that it is founded reasoning should be clear, delion the meaning of the text. If ob- berate, and strong. No flights of servations be made, they should wit should be indulged; but a close not be too numerous, foreign, nor attention to the subject, with every upon every particle in the text. exertion to inform the judgment If by division, the heads should and impress the heart. It is in