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291b, to the assembly of the states | be more pernicious to Christenof Bohemia ; in which he assured dom; and that, therefore, he exthem that he was labouring to es- horts them to use their utmost entablish their doctrine in Germany, deavours to make Luther, and the and exhorted them not to return | authors of these tumults return to to the communion of the church their duty; or, if they refuse, and of Rome ; and he published also continue obstinate, to proceed this year a translation of the New against them according to the laws Testament in the German tongue, of the empire, and the severity of which was afterwards corrected by the last edict. himself and Melancthon. This The resolution of this diet was translation having been printed published in the form of an edict, several times, and being in every upon the 6th of March, 1523; buc body's hands, Ferdinand, arch- it had no effect in checking the Luduke of Austria, the emperor's therans, who still went on in the brother, made a very severe edict, same triumphant manner. This to hinder the farther publication year Luther wrote a great many of it, and forbad all the subjects pieces; among the rest, one upon of his imperial majesty to have the dignity and office of the suany copies of it, or of Luther's preme magistrate; which Fredeother books. Some other princes ric, elector of Saxony, is said to followed his example ; and Lu- have been highly pleased with. He ther was so angry at it, that he sent, about the same time, a wriwrote a treatise of the Secular ting in the German language to Power, in which he accuses them the Waldenses, or Pickards, in Boof tyranny and impiety. The diet hemia and Moravia, who had apof the empire was held at Nurem- plied to him “ about worshipping berg, at the end of the year, to the body of Christ in the euchawhich Hadrian VI sent his brief, rist.” He wrote, also, another dated November the 25th; for book, which he dedicated to the Leo X died upon the 2d of De- senate and people of Prague, cember, 1521, and Hadrian had about the institution of minisbeen elected pope upon the 9th of ters of the church." January following. In his brief, a form of saying mass. He wrote among other things, he observes a piece, entitled, An example of to the diet how he had heard, with popish doctrine and divinity; which grief, that Martin Luther, after Dupin calls a satire against nuns, the sentence of Leo X, which was and those who profess a monastic ordered to be executed by the ed- life. He wrote also against the ict of Worms, continued to teach vows of virginity, in his preface to the same errors, and daily to pub- his commentary on Cor. i, 8, and lish books full of heresies; that it his exhortations here were, it appeared strange to him that so seems, followed with effect; for, large and so religious a nation could soon after, nine nuns, among whom be seduced by a wretched apostate was Catherine de Bore, eloped Iriar; thatnothing, however, could from the nunnery at Nimptsthen,
He drew up
‘and were brought, by the assist- n berg the necessity of enforcing the ance of Leonard Coppen, a bur-execution of the edict of Worms, gess of Torgau, to Wittemberg. which had been strangely neglectWhatever offence this proceedinged by the princes of the empire ; might give to the Papists, it was but, notwithstanding the legate's highly extolled by Luther; who, solicitations, which were very in a book written in the German pressing, the decrees of that diet language,compares the deliverance were thought so ineffectual, that of these nuns from the slavery of they were condemned at Rome, a monastic life to that of the souls and rejected by the emperor. which Jesus Christ has delivered In October, 1524, Luther flung by his death. This year Luther | off the monastic habit ; which, had occasion to canonize two of though not premeditated and dehis followers, who, as Melchior signed, was yet a very proper preAdam relates, were burnt at Brus- parative to a step he took the year sels in the beginning of July, and after : we mean his marriage with were the first who suffered martyr- Catherine de Boře. dom for his doctrine. He wrote
His marriage, however, did not also a consolatory epistle to three retard his activity and diligence in noble ladies at Misnia, who were the work of reformation. He rebanished from the duke of Saxo-vised the Augsburg confession of ny's court at Friburg, för reading faith, and apology for the proteshis books.
tants, when the Protestant religion In the beginning of the year was first established on a firm ba1524, Clement VII sent a legate sis. See PROTESTANTS and Re. into Germany to the diet which | FORMATION. was to be held at Nuremberg. After this, Luther had little Hadrian VI died in October,1523, else to do than to sit down and and was succeeded by Clement contemplate the mighty work he · upon the 19th of November. A had finished; for that a single little before his death, he canoni- monk should be able to give the zed Benno, who was bishop of church so rude a shock, that there Meissen, in the time of Gregory needed but such another entirely VII, and one of the most zealous to overthrow it, may very well defenders of the holy see. Lu- seem a mighty work. He did, ther, imagining that this was done indeed, little else ; for the redirectly to oppose him, drew up amainder of his life was spent in piece with this title, Against the exhorting princes, states, and uninew idol and old devil set up atversities, to confirm the reformaMeissen, in which he treats the tion which had been brought memory of Gregory with great || about through him; and publishfreedom, and does not spare evening from time to time such writHadrian. Clement Vil's legatelings as might encourage, direct, represented to the diet of Nurem- and aid them in doing it. The
emperor threatened temporal pu In the year 1534, the Bible nishment with armies, and the translated by him into German pope eternal with bulls and ana- was first printed, as the old privichemas ; but Luther cared for lege, dated at Bibliopolis, under none of their threats.
the elector's hand, shews; and it In the year 1533, Luther wrote was published the year after. He a consolatory epistle to the citi- also published this year a book zens of Oschatz, who had suffer against masses, and the consecraed some hardships for adhering to tion of priests, in which he relates the Augsburg confession of faith; a conference he had with the dein which, among other things, he vil upon those points ; for it is resays, “ The devil is the host, and || markable in Luther's whole histhe world is his inn; so that where tory that he never had any conever you come, you shall be sure flicts of any kind within, but the to find this ugly host.” He had devil was always his antagonist. also about this time a terrible In February 1537, an assembly controversy with George duke of was held at Smalkald about matSaxony, who had such an aver-ters of religion, to which Luther sion to Luther's doctrine, that he and Melancthon were called. At obliged his subjects to take an this meeting Luther was seized Oath that they would never em- | with so grievous an illness, that brace it. However, sixty or seven- there were no hopes of his recoty citizens of Leipsic were found very. He was afflicted with the to have deviated a little from the stone, and had a stoppage of urine Catholic way in some point or for eleven days. In this terrible other, and they were known pre-condition he would needs underviously to have consulted Luther take to travel, notwithstanding all about it; upon which George com- that his friends could say or do to plained to the elector John that prevent him : his resolution, howLuther had not only abused his ever, was attended with a good person, but also preached up re-effect; for the night after his debellion among his subjects. The parture he began to be better. As elector ordered Luther to be ac- he was carried along he made his quainted with this; and to be told, will, in which he bequeathed his at the same time, that if he did detestation of popery to his friends not acquit himself of the charge, and brethren ; agreeably to what he could not possibly escape pun- he often used to say: Pestis eram ishment. But Luther easily re-vivus, moriens ero mors tua, papa; futed the accusation, by proving, that is, “I was the plague of pothat he had been so far from stir- pery in my life, and shall continue ring up his subjects against him to be so in my death." on the score of religion, that, on This year the pope and the the contrary, he had exhorted court of Rome, finding it imposthem rather to undergo the great- sible to deal with the Protestants est hardships, and even suffer by force, began to have recourse themselves to be banished.
to stratagem. They affected, thereVOL. IL.
fore, to think, that though Luther himself; others, that the devil had, indeed, carried things on with strangled him ; others, that his a high hand and to a violent ex- corpse stunk so abominably, that treme, yet what he had pleaded in they were forced to leave it in the defence of these measures was not, way, as it was carried to be interentirely without foundation. They lired. Nay, lies were invented talked with a seeming shew of mo- about his death, even while he was deration; and Pius III, who suc- yet alive. Luther, however, to ceeded Clement VII, proposed give the most effectual refutation a reformation first among them- of this account of his death, put selves, and even went so far as to forth an advertisement of his befix a place for a council to meet ing alive ; and, to be even with at for that purpose. But Luther the Papists for the malice they had treated this farce as it deserved shewn in this lie, wrote a book at to be treated; unmasked and de- the same time to prove, that "the tected it immediately; and, to ri- papacy was founded by the devil.” dicule it the more strongly, caused Lutheranism has undergone a picture to be drawn, in which some alterations since the time of was represented the pope seated its founder. Luther rejected the on high upon a throne, some car- epistle of St. James as inconsistdinals about him with foxes' tails ent with the doctrine of St. Paul on, and seeining to evacuate up- in relation to justification ; he also wards and downwards (sursum set aside the Apocalypse ; both deorsum repurgare, as Melchior which are now received as canoniAdam expresses it). This was cal in the Lutheran church. fixed over against the title-page, Luther reduced the number of to let the reader see at once the sacraments to two, viz. baptism scope and design of the book ; and the eucharist; but he believwhich was to expose that cunning ed the impanation or consubstanand artifice with which those sub- tiation ; that is, that the matter of tle politicians affected to cleanse the bread and wine remain with and purify themselves from their the body and blood of Christ; errors and superstitions. Luther and it is in this article that the published, about the same time, a main difference between the Luconfutation of the pretended grant theran and English churches conof Constantine to Sylvester bishop sists. of Rome ; and also some letters Luther maintained the mass 10 of John Huss, written from his be no sacritice; exploded the adoprison at Constance to the Bohe-ration of the host, auricular conmians. In this manner was Lu-fession, meritorious works, indul. ther employed till his death, which gences, purgatory, the worship of happened in the year 1546. images, &c., which had been in
A thousand lies were invented troduced in the corrupt times of by the Papisis about Luther's the Romish church. ile also death. Some said that he died posed the doctrine of free will, suddenly ; others, that he killed maintained predestination, and as
serted our justification to be sole. tice, and of declaring their disa ly by the imputation of the merits sent in the manner they judge the and satisfaction of Christ. He almost expedient. Mosheim attriso opposed the fastings in the Ro- butes this change in their sentimish church, monastical vows, the ments to the maxim which they celibate of the clergy, &c. generally adopted, that Christians
The Lutherans, however, of all were accountable to God alone for Protestants, are said to differ least their religious opinions; and that from the Romish church; as they no individual could be justly puaffirm that the body and blood of nished by the magistrate for his Christ are materially present in erroneous opinions while he conthe sacrament of the Lord's sup- ducted himself like a virtuous and per, though in an incomprehensi-obedient subject, and made no ble manner ; and likewise repre- attempts to disturb the peace and sent some religious rites and in order of civil Society. In Sweden stitutions, as the use of images the Lutheran church is episcopal : in churches, the distinguishing in Norway the same. In Denvestments of the clergy, the pri-mark, under the name of superinvate confession of sins, the use oftendunt, all episcopal authority is wafers in the administration of the retained; whilst through GermaLord's supper, the form of exor. ny the superior power is vested cism in the celebration of bap in a consistory, over which there tism, and other ceremonies of the is a president, with a distinction like nature, as tolerable, and some of rank and privileges, and a subof them as useful. The Luther-ordination of inferior clergy to ans maintain, with regard to the their superiors, different from the divine decrees, that they respect parity of Presbyterianism. Nicthe salvation or misery of men, in sheim's Ecclesi. History; Life of consequence of a previous know- Luther; Haweis's Ch. Hist., vol. ledge of their sentiments and cha- ii, p. 454 ; Enc. Brit.; Robertracters, and not as free and un-son's Hist. of Charles V, vol. ii, conditional, and as founded on the p. 42; Luther on the Galatians. mere will of God. Towards the LUXURY, a disposition of close of the seventeenth century, mind addicted to pleasure, riot, the Lutherans began to entertain and superfluities. Luxury implies a greater liberality of sentiment a giving one's self up to pleasure; than they had before adopted ; | voluptuousness, an indulgence in though in many places they per- che same to excess. Luxury may severed longer in severe and des- | be farther considered as consisting potic principles than other Pro in, 1. Vain and useless expences. testant churches. Their public -2. In a parade beyond what peoteachers now enjoy an unbounded ple can afford.-3. In affecting to liberty of dissenting from the de- be above our own rank.-4. In licisions of those syinbols or creeds ving in a splendour that does not which were once deemed almost agree with the public good. In infallible rules of faith and prac-order to avoid it, we should con