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tually prevent them from oppress- || days and times, we esteem to be ing, much more from enslaving, incompatible with the simplicity their brethren (of whatever colour and sincerity of a Christian life; or complexion), for whom, as for and public diversions, gaming, and themselves, Christ died; and would other vain amusements of the even influence their conduct in world, we cannot but condemn. their treatment of the brute crea- They are a waste of that time tion, which would no longer which is given us for nobler purgroan, the victims of their ava-poses; and divert the attention of rice, or of their false ideas of the mind from the sober duties of pleasure.

life, and from the reproofs of in“ Some of our tenets have instruction, by which we are guided former times, as hath been shew, to an everlasting inheritance. subjected our friends to much suf * To conclude: although we fering from government, though have exhibited the several tenets to the salutary purposes of go- which distinguish our religious sovernment our principles are a se- ciety as objects of our belief, curity. They inculcate submission yet we are sensible that a true and to the laws in all cases wherein living faith is not produced in the conscience is not violated. But we mind of man by his own effort, hold, that, as Christ's kingdom is but is the free gift of God in Christ not of this world, it is not the bu-Jesus, Eph. ii, 8. nourished and siness of the civil magistrate to in- increased by the progressive opeterfere in matters of religion, but ration of his spirit in our hearts, to maintain the external peace and and our proportionate obedience, good order of the community. We John vii, 17. Therefore, although therefore think persecution, even for the preservation of the testiin the smallest degree, unwarrant-monies given us to bear, and able. We are careful in requiring for the peace and good order of the our members not to be concerned society, we deem it necessary that in illicit trade, nor in any manner those who are admitted into memto defraud the revenue.

bership with us should be previ“ It is well known that the soci-|lously convinced of those doctrines ety, from its first appearance, has which we esteem essential, yet we disused those names of the months require no formal subscription to and days, which, having been given any articles, either as a condition in honour of the heroes or false of membership, or a qualification gods of the heathen, originated in for the service of the church. We their flattery or superstition ; and prefer the judging of men by their the custom of speaking to a single fruits, and depending on the aid of person in the plural number, as Him, who, by his prophet, hath having arisen also from motives of promised to be a spirit of judgadulation. Compliments, super-ment to him that sitteth in judgAuity of apparel and furniture, ment,' Isa. xxviii, 6. Without this, outward shews of rejoicing and there is a danger of receiving nummourning, and the observation of bers into outward communion,

without any addition to that spi-|| move into other monthly meetings ritual sheep-fold, whereof our certificates of their membership blessed Lord declared himself to and conduct; without which they be both the door and the shepherd, cannot gain membership in such John. x, 7, 11; that is, such as meetings. Each monthly meetknow his voice, and follow him in ing is required to appoint certain the paths of obedience.

persons, under the name of over“ In the practice of discipline, seers, who are to take care that we think it indispensable that the the rules of our discipline be put order recommended by Christ him in practice; and when any case self be invariably observed, Matt. of complaint, or disorderly conxvii, 15 to 17.

duct, comes to their knowledge, " To effect the salutary pur- to see that private admonition, poses of discipline, meetings were agreeably to the Gospel rule before appointed at an early period of mentioned, be given, previously to the society, which, from the times its being laid before the monthly of their being held, were called meeting. quarterly meetings. It was after " When a case is introduced, it wards found expedient to divide is usual for a small committee to the districts of those meetings, and be appointed to visit the offender, to meet more frequently : from to endeavour to convince him of whence arose monthly meetings, his error, and to induce him to subordinate to those held quarter-forsake and condemn it. If they ly. At length, in 1669, a year-succeed, the person is by minute ly meeting was established, to su- declared to have made satisfaction perintend, assist, and provide rules for the offence ; if not, he is disfor the whole, previously to whichowned as a member of the society. general meetings have been occa “ In disputes between indivi. sionally held.

duals, it has long been the decided “ A monthly meeting is usual- judgment of the society, that its ly composed of several particular members should not sue each other congregations, situated within a at law. It therefore enjoins all convenient distance from each to end their differences by speedy other. Its business is to provide and impartial arbitration, agree. for the subsistence of the poor, and ably to rules laid down. If any for the education of their offspring; refuse to adopt this mode, or, havto judge of the sincerity and fitness ing adopted it, to submit to the of persons appearing to be con-award, it is the direction of the vinced of the religious principles yearly meeting that such be disof the society, and desiring to be owned. admitted into membership; to “ To monthly meetings also beexcite due attention to the dis-longs the allowing of marriages; charge of religious and moral duty; for our society hath always scruand to deal with disorderly mem- pled to acknowledge the exclusive bers. Monthly meetings also grant authority of the priests in the soto such of their members as re- lemnization of marriage. Those

who intend to marry appear to have somewhat to express for the gether, and propose their intention edification of those who attend ; to the monthly meeting; and if|but no religious rite is considered not attended by their parents and as an essential part of burial. guardians, produce a written cer “Several monthly meetings comtificate of their consent, signed in pose a quarterly meeting. At the the presence of witnesses. The quarterly meeting are produced meeting then appoints a committee written answers from the monthly to enquire whether they be clear meetings to certain queries reof other engagements respecting specting the conduct of their memmarriage; and if at a subsequent bers, and the meeting's care over meeting, to which the parties also them. The accounts thus received come and declare the continuance are digested into one, which is of their intention, no objections sent, also in the form of answers be reported, they have the meet- to queries, by representatives to ing's consent to solemnize their in- | the yearly meeting. Appeals from tended marriage. This is done in the judgment of monthly meetings a public meeting for worship, to- | are brought to the quarterly meetwards the close whereof the par-ings, whose business also it is to ties stand up, and solemnly take assist in any difficult case, or where each other for husband and wife. | remissness appears in the care of A certificate of the proceedings is the monthly meetings over the inthen publicly read, and signed by dividuals who compose them.the parties, and afterwards by the There are seven yearly meetings, relations and others as witnesses. viz. 1. London, to which come Of such marriage the monthly representatives from Ireland ;-2. meeting keeps a record ; as al- New England ;-3. New York ;so of the births and burials of its 4. Pennsylvania and New Jersey; members. A certificate of the 1-5. Maryland ;-6. Virginia ; date, of the name of the infant, ||7. The Carolinas and Georgia. and of its parents, signed by those “ The yearly meeting has the present at the birth, is the subject general superintendance of the soof one of these last mentioned ciety in the country in which it is records ; and an order for the in- established ; and, therefore, as the terment, countersigned by the accounts which it receives discograve-maker of the other. The ver the state of inferior meetings, naming of children is without ce- as particular exigencies require, or remony. Burials are also con- as the meeting is impressed with a ducted in a simple manner. The sense of duty, it gives forth its adbody, followed by the relations vice, makes such regulations as and friends, is sometimes, pre- appear to be requisite, or excites viously to interment, carried to a to the observance of those already meeting; and at the grave a pause made; and sometimes appoints is generally made: on both which committees to visit those quarterly occasions it frequently falls outmeetings which appear to be in that one or more friends present need of immediate advice. Ap

peals from the judgment of quar- any needless exposure. Such meetterly meetings are here finally de-ings are generally held in the comtermined; and a brotherly correspass of each monthly, quarterly, pondence, by epistles, is maintain and yearly meeting. They are ed with other yearly meetings. conducted by rules prescribed by

“ In this place it is proper to the yearly meetings, and have no add, that, as we believe women authority to make any alteration may be rightly called to the work or addition to them. The memof the ministry, we also think that bers of them unite with their breto them belongs a share in the thren in the meetings for discisupport of our Christian discipline; pline, and are equally accountable and that some parts of it, wherein to the latter for their conduct. their own sex is concerned, de “ It is to a meeting of this kind volve on them with peculiar pro- in London, called the second-day's priety; accordingly they have morning meeting, that the revisal monthly, quarterly, and yearly of manuscripts concerning our meetings of their own sex, held at principles, previously to publicathe same time and in the same tion, is entrusted by the yearly place with those of the men; but meeting held in London; and alseparately, and without the power so the granting, in the intervals of of making rules: and it may be the yearly meeting, of certificates remarked, that, during the perse of approbation to such ministers cutions which in the last century as are concerned to travel in the occasioned the imprisonment of so work of the ministry in foreign many of the men, the care of the parts, in addition to those grantpoor often fell on the women, anded by their monthly and quarterwas by them satisfactorily admi- ly meetings. When a visit of this nistered.

kind doth not extend beyond " In order that those who are Great Britain, a certificate from in the situation of ministers may the monthly meeting of which the have the tender sympathy and minister is a member is sufficient: counsel of those of either sex, who, if to Ireland, the concurrence of by their experience in the work of the quarterly meeting is also rereligion, are qualified for that ser-quired. Regulations of similar vice, the monthly meetings are tendency obtain in other yearly advised to select such, under the meetings. denomination of elders. These, “ The yearly meeting of Lonand ministers approved by their don, in the year 1675, appointed monthly meetings, have meetings a meeting to be held in that city, peculiar to themselves, called for the purpose of advising and meetings of ministers and elders; assisting in cases of suffering for in which they have an opportunity conscience-sake, which hath conof exciting each other to a dis-tinued with great use to the so. charge of their several duties, and ciety to this day. It is composed of extending advice to those who of friends, under the name of cormay appear to be weak, without respondents, chosen by the several

quarterly meetings, and who residei tain are kept), a clerk is hired to in or near the city. The same have the care of them ; but exmeetings also appoint members of cept a few clerks of this kind, and their own in the country as cor- persons who have the care of meetrespondents, who are to join their ing-houses, none receive any stibrethren in London on emer-pend or gratuity for their services gency. The names of all these cor- ' in our religious society.”

See a respondents, previously to their pamphlet entitled A Summary of being recorded as such, are sub-|| the History, Doctrine, and Discimitted to the approbation of the pline of the Quakers ; Sewell's and yearly meeting. Those of the Rutty's Hist. of the Quakers; Besmen who are approved ministers se's Sufferings of the Quakers : are also members of this meeting, Penn's Works ; Barclay's Apology which is called the meeting for for the Quakers ; Neal's Hist. of sufferings; a name arising from its the Puritans; Claridge's Life and original purpose, which is not yet Posthumous Works ; Bevan's Debecome entirely obsolete. fence of the Doctrines of the Qua

“The yearly meeting has entrust- kers; Adams's View of Religions ; ed the meeting for suíferings with Tuke's Principles of Religion as the care of printing and distribut- professed by the Quakers. ing books, and with the manage QUIETISTS, a sect famous toment of its stock; and, consider-wards the close of the seventeenth ed as a standing committee of the century. They were

so called yearly meeting, it hath a general from a kind of absolute rest and care of whatever may arise, dur-inaction, which they supposed ing the intervals of that meeting, the soul to be in when arrived at affecting the society, and requiring that state of perfection which they immediate attention, particularly called the unitive life; in which of those circumstances which may state they imagined the soul wholoccasion an application to govern. | ly employed in contemplating its ment.

God, to whose influence it was " There is not, in any of the entirely submissive, so that he meetings which have been men- could turn and drive it where and tioned, any president, as we be-how he would. lieve that Divine Wisdom alone Molinos, a Spanish priest, is ought to preside ; nor hath any the reputed author of Quietism ; member a right :o claim pre-emi-though the Illuminati, in Spain, nence over the rest. The office of had certainly taught something clerk, with a few exceptions, is like it before. Molinos had nuundertaken voluntarily by some merous disciples in Italy, Spain, member; as is also the keeping of|| France, and the Netherlands. One the records. Where these are of the principal patrons and provery voluminous, and require al pagators of Quietism in France house for their deposit (as is the was Marie Bouvieres de la Motte case in London, where the general Guyon, a woman of fashion, and records of the society in Great Bri- remarkable for her piety. Her

VOL. II.

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