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described it in such warm and in- of our actions, 1st Cor. xi, 31.delicate terms as are much better 3. In delighting in communion suited to the grossness of earthly with him, 1st John i, 3.-4. In passion than the purity of spiritual grief under the hidings of his face, affection.

Job xxiii, 2.-5. In relinquishing “ But the accidental excesses of all that stands in opposition to his this holy sentiment can be no just will, Phil. iii, 8.-6. In

In regard argument against its general ex- to his house, worship, and ordicellence and utility.

nances, Ps. Ixxxiv.-7. In love for “We know that even friendship his truth and people, Ps. cxix. itself has sometimes been abused John xiii, 35.–8. By confidence to the most unworthy purposes, in his promises, Ps. Ixxi, 1.-And, and led men to the commission of lastly, by obedience to his word, the most atrocious crimes. Shall John xiv, 15. Ist John ii, 3. See we, therefore, utterly discard that Gill's Body of Div., p. 94, vol. iii, generous passion, and consider it oct. ; Watts's Discourses on Love as nothing more than the unnatu- to God; Scott's Serm., ser. 14 ; ral fervour of a romantic imagina- Bellamy on Relig., p. 2, and Signs tion? Every heart revolts against of Counterfeit Love, p. 82; Biso wild a thought! and why, then, shop Porteus's Serm., vol. i, sermust we suffer the love of God to mon 1. be banished out of the world, be - LOVE, BROTHERLY, is afcause it has been sometimes im- | fection to our neighbours, and esproperly represented or indiscreet-pecially to the saints, prompting us ly exercised! It is not either from to every act of kindness toward the visionary mystic, the sensual them. It does not, indeed, consist fanatic, or the frantic zealot, but merely in pity to and relief of othfrom the plain word of God, thaters, ist Cor. xiii. in love to our we are to take our ideas of this di- | benefactors only, and those who are vine sentiment. There we find it related to us, Matt. v, 46, 47. described in all its native purity It must flow from love to God, and simplicity. The marks by and extend to all mankind; yea, which it is there distinguished con- we are required by the highest tain nothing enthusiastic or ex- authority to love even our enetravagant.” It may be considered, mies, Matt. v, 44. not so as to 1. As sincere, Matt. xxii, 36, 38. countenance them in their evil 2. Constant, Rom. viii.-3. actions, but to forgive the injuries Universal of all his attributes, they have done to us. Love to commandments, ordinances, &c. good men, also, must be particu4. Progressive, 1st Thess. v, larly cultivated, for it is the com12. 2d Thess. i, 3. Eph. iii, 19.- mand of Christ, John xiii, 34. 5. Superlative, Lam. iii, 24.–6. they belong to the same Father Eternal, Romans viii. This love and family, Gal. vi, 10; we heremanifests itself, 1. In a desire by give proof of our discipleship, to be like God.-2. In mak- John xiii, 35. The example of ing his glory the supreme end Christ should allure us to it, 1st

Jolin iii, 16. It is creative of a Ex. xix, 4.-6. In his actual convariety of pleasing sensations, and duct towards them; in supporting prevents a thousand evils: it is the them in life, blessing them in death, greatest of all graces, 1st Cor. xiii, and bringing them to glory, Rom. 13. Answers the end of the law, viii, 30, &c. Rom. vi, 23. The 1st Tim. i, 6; resembles the inha- properties of this love may be bitants of a better world, and considered as, 1. Everlasting, Jer. without it every other attainment xxxi, 3. Eph. i, 4.-2. Immuis of no avail, 1st Cor. xiii. This table, Mal. iii, 6. Zeph. iii, 17. love should shew itself by praying -3. Free; neither the sufferings for our brethren, Eph. vi, 18; of Christ nor the merits of men bearing one another's burdens, by are the cause, but his own good assisting and relieving each other, pleasure, John iii, 16.-4. Great Gal. vi, 2. By forbearing with and unspeakable, Eph. ii, 4, 6. another, Col. iii, 13. By reprov- Eph. iii, 19. Psal. xxxvi, 7. ing and admonishing in the spirit LOVE, Family of. A sect that of meekness, Prov. xxvii, 5, 6. arose in Holland, in the sixteenth By establishing each other in the century, founded by Henry Ni. truth; by .conversation, exhorta-cholas, a Westphalian. He maintion, and stirring up one another tained that he had a commission to the several duties of religion, from heaven to teach men that both public and private, Jude 20, the essence of religion consisted in 21. Heb. x, 24, 25. See Cha- the feelings of Divine love ; that

all other theological tenets, wheLOVE OF GOD, is either his ther they related to objects of faith natural delight in that which is or modes of worship, were of no good, Isa. Ixi, 8. or that especial sort of moment; and, consequenta affection he bears to his people, ly, that it was a matter of the 1st John iv, 19. Not that he pos- most perfect indifference what sesses the passion of love as we do; opinions Christians entertained but it implies his absolute purpose concerning the Divine nature, proand will to deliver, bless, and save vided their hearts burned with the his people. The love of God to pure and sacred flame of piety and his people appears in his all-wise love. designs and plans for their happi LOVE OF THE WORLD. ness, Eph. iii, 10.--2. In the See WORLD. ,

LOVE FEASTS. See AGAPE. tion to sanctify and glorify them, LOW CHURCHMEN, those 2d Thes. ii, 13.-3. In the gift of who disapproved of the schism his Son to die for them, and re-made in the church by the non-judeem them from sin, death, and rors, and who distinguished themhell, Rom. v, 9. John iii, 16.-4. selves by their moderation toIn the revelation of his will, and wards Dissenters, and were less the declaration of his promises to ardent in extending the limits of them, 2 Peter i, 4.-5. In the ecclesiastical authority. See HIGR awful punishment of their enemies, CHURCHMEN.

RITY.

LUCIANISTS, or LUCAN LUKEWARMNESS, appliists, a sect so called from Lucia- ed to the affections, indifference, nus, or Lucanus, a heretic of the or want of ardor. In respect to second century, being a disciple of religion, hardly any thing can be Marcion, whose errors he follow. more culpable than this spirit.ed, adding some new ones to them. If there be a God possessed of unEpiphanes says he abandoned speakable rectitude in his own naMarcion, teaching that people ture, and unbounded goodness toought not to marry, for fear of en-wards his creatures, what can be riching the Creator ; and yet oth- more inconsistent and unbecoming er authors mention, that he held than to be frigid and indifferent this error in common with Marci in our devotions to him? Atheism, on and other Gnostics. He deni- in some respects, cannot be worse ed the immortality of the soul, as- than lukewarmness. The Atheserting it to be material.

ist disbelieves the existence of a There was another sect of Luci- God, and therefore cannot wor. anists, who appeared some time ship him at all; the lukewarm after the Arians. They taught, owns the existence, sovereignty, that the Father had been a father and goodness of the Supreme Bealways, and that he had the name ing, but denies him that fervour even before he begot the Son, as of affection, that devotedness of having in him the power and fa- heart, and activity of service, culty of generation; and in this which the excellency of his nature manner they accounted for the demands, and the authority of his eternity of the Son.

word requires. Such a character, LUCIFERIANS, a sect who therefore, is represented as absoadhered to the schism of Lucifer, lutely loathsome to God, and obbishop of Cagliari, in the fourth noxious to his wrath, Rev.iji,15,16. Century, who was banished by the The general signs of a lukeemperor Constantius, for having warm spirit are such as these: Nedefended the Nicene doctrine con- glect of private prayer; a prefercerning the three persons in the ence of worldly to religious comGodhead. It is said, also, that pany; a lax attendance on public they believed the soul to be cor- ordinances; omission or careless poreal, and to be transmitted from perusal of God's word; a zeal the father to the children. The for some appendages of religion, Luciferians were numerous in wbile languid about religion itGaul, Spain, Egypt, &c. The self; a backwardness to promote occasion of this schism was, that the cause of God in the world, Lucifer would not allow any acts and a rashness of spirit in censurhe had done to be abolished. ing those who are desirous to be There were but two Luciferian useful. bishops but a great number of If we enquire the causes of such priests and deacons. The Luci- a spirit we shall find them to be-ferians bore a great aversion to worldly prosperity ; the influence the Arians.

of carnal relatives and acquaint

ance ; indulgence of secret sins ; serious impressions, and tinctured the fear of man, and sitting under with somewhat of that religious an unfaithful ministry.

melancholy which delights in the The inconsistency of it appears solitude and devotion of a monasif we consider, that it is highly un- tic life, he retired into a convent reasonable; dishonourable to God; of Augustinian friars ; where he incompatible with the genius of acquired great reputation not on. the gospel ; a barrier to improve- ly for piety, but for love of ment; a death blow to usefulness; knowledge, and unwearied applia direct opposition to the com- cation to study. The cause of mands of scripture ; and tends to this retirement is said to have the greatest misery.

been, that he was once struck by To overcome such a state of mind, lightning, and his companion killwe should consider how offensive ed by his side by the same flash. it is to God; how incongruous He had been taught the scholastic with the very idea and nature of philosophy which was in vogue in true religion ;. how injurious to those days, and made considerapeace and felicity of mind ; how ble progress in it: but happening ungrateful to Jesus Christ, whose to find a copy of the Bible which whole life was labour for us and lay neglected in the library of his our salvation ; how grievous to the monastery, he applied himself to Holy Spirit; how dreadful an ex- the study of it with such eagerness ample to those who have no reli- and assiduity, as quite astonished gion ; how unlike the saints of the monks ; and increased his reold, and even to our enemies in putation for sanctity so much, that the worst of causes; how danger- he was chosen professor first of ous to our immortal souls, since philosophy, and afterwards of it is indicative of our want of love theology, in Wittemberg, on the to God, and exposes us to just Elbe, where Frederick, elector of condemnation, Amos vi, 1. Saxony, had founded an univer

LUTHERANS, those Chris- sity. tians who follow the opinion of While Luther continued to enMartin Luther, the celebrated re- joy the highest reputation for sancformer of the church, in the six- tity and learning, Tetzel, a Domiteenth century. In order that we nican friar, came to Wittemberg may trace the rise and progress of in order to publish indulgences, Lutheranism, we must here refer Luther beheld his success with to the life of Luther himself. Lu- great concern; and having first inther was a native of Eisleben, in veighed against indulgences from Saxony, and born in 1483. Though the pulpit he afterwards publishhis parents were poor, he received ninety-five theses, containing ed a learned education, during the his sentiments on that subject. progress of which he gave many. These he proposed not as points indications of uncommon vigour fully established, but as subjects and acuteness of genius. As his of enquiry and disputation. He mind was naturally susceptible of appointed a day on which the

learned were invited to impugn of the Augustinians to check, by them either in person or by writ- his authority, the rashness of an ing; and to the whole he sub- arrogant monk, which brought disjoined solemn protestations of his grace upon their order, and gave high respect for the apostolic see, Offence and disturbance to the and of his implicit submission to whole church. its authority. No opponent ap

From these letters, and the appeared at the time prefixed : pointment of his open enemy Priethe theses spread over Germany rias to be his judge, Luther easily with astonishing rapidity, and saw what sentence he might exwere read with the greatest ea- pect at Rome ; and therefore disgerness.

covered the utmost solicitude to Though Luther met with no have his cause tried in Germany, opposition for some little time af- and before a less suspected tributer he began to publish his new nal. He wrote a submissive letdoctrines, it was not long before ter to the pope, in which he promany zealous champions arose tomised an unreserved obedience to defend those opinions with which his will, for as yet he entertained the wealth and power of the no doubt of the divine original of clergy were so strictly connected. the pope's authority; and by the Their cause, however, was by no intercession of the other profesmeans promoted by these endea-sors, Cajetan, the pope's legate in vours : the people began to call Germany, was appointed to hear in question even the authority of and determine the cause. Luther the canon law, and of the pope appeared before him without hesihimself. The court of Rome at tation ; but Cajetan thought it befirst despised these new doctrines low his dignity to dispute the point and disputes ; but at last the at- with a person so much his inferior tention of the pope being raised in rank ; and therefore required by the great success of the re- him, by virtue of the apostolic former, and the complaints of his powers with which he was clothadversaries, Luther was summon-ed, to retract the errors which he ed, in the month of July, 1518, had uttered with regard to indul. to appear at Rome, within sixty gences and the nature of faith, and days, before the auditor of the to abstain for the future from the chamber. One of Luther's ad- publication of new and dangerous versaries, named Prierias, who opinions ; and at the last forbad had written against him, was ap- him to appear in his presence, unpointed to examine his doctrines, less he proposed to comply with and to decide concerning them. what had been required of him. The pope wrote at the same time This haughty and violent man; to the elector of Saxony, beseech- ner of proceeding, together with ing him not to protect a

some other circumstances, gave whose heretical and profane te- Luther's frierids such strong reanets were so shocking to pious sons to suspect that even the imears; and enjoined the provincial perial safe-conduct would not be

VOL. II.

man

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