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Sometimes the great and blessed with the Father: I and the Father God appeared in the form of a are one, John x, 30. xiv, 10, 11. man or angel. It is evident that There is, we may hence infer, such the true God resided in this man a peculiar union between God and or angel ; because, on account of the man Christ Jesus, both in his this union to proper Deity, the pre-existent and incarnate state, angel calls himself God, the Lord that he may be properly called God. He assumes the most exalt-|| God-man in one complex person. ed names and characters of God- Among those expressions of head. And the spectators, and sa-scripture which discover the precred historians, it is evident con-| existence of Christ, there are sesidered him as true and proper veral from which we may derive a God: they paid him the highest certain proof of his divinity. Such worship and obedience. He is are those places in the Old Testaproperly styled the angel of God's ment, where the angel who appresence.--The (messenger or) an-peared to the ancients is called gel of the covenant, Isa. Ixxii. Mal. God, the Almighty God, fehovah, ili, 1.

the Lord of Hosts, I am that I am, The same angel of the Lord was &c. the particular God and King of Dr. Watts supposes, that the the Israelites. It was he who doctrine of the pre-existence of the made a covenant with the patri- soul of Christ explains dark and archs, who appeared to Moses in difficult scriptures, and discovers the burning bush, who redeemed many beauties and proprieties of the Israelites from Egypt, who expression in the word of God, conducted them through the wil which on any other plan lie unobderness, who gave the law at Si-served. For instance, in Col. i, nai, and transacted the affairs of||15, &c. Christ is described as the ancient church.

the image of the invisible God, the The angels who have appeared first-born of every creature. His since our blessed Saviour became being the image of the invisible God incarnate, have never assumed the cannot refer merely to his divine names, titles, characters, or wor-| nature; for that is as invisible in ship, belonging to God. Hence the Son as in the Father: therewe may infer that the angel who, fore it seems to refer to his preunder the Old Testament, assum- existent soul in union with the ed divine titles, and accepted re-Godhead. Again when man is ligious worship, was that peculiar said to be created in the image of angel of God's presence, in whom God, Gen. i, 2. it may refer to God resided, or who was united to the God-man, to Christ in his prethe Godhead in a peculiar man-| existent state. God says, Let us ner; even the pre-existent soul of make man in our image, after Christ, who afterwards took fleshlour likeness. The word is redouand blood upon him, and was call-bled, perhaps to intimate that ed Jesus Christ on earth.

Adam was made in the likeness of Christ represents himself as one the human soul of Christ, as well

as that he bore something of the sus Christ, and INDWELLING image and resemblance of the di- SCHEME; Robinson's Claude, p. vine nature.

214, 311, vol. i; Waits's Works, On the other side it is affirmed, vol. V., p. 274, 385; Gill's Body that this doctrine of the pre-exist-ll of Div. ; vol. ii, p. 51; Robinson's ence of the human soul of Christ plea, p. 140; Fleming's Christoloweakens and subverts that oi ky; Simpson's anciary for the his personality. 1. A pure intelli- Trin., p. 190; Hiriker's Ser. on gent spirit, say they, the first, the the Divinity of Christ, p. 44, 45. most ancient, and the most excel- PREMONSTRANTES, or lent of creatures, created before PRÆMONSTR ITENSES, a religious the foundation of the world, so order of regular canons, instituied exactly resembles the second per- in 1120 by S. Norbert, and thence son of the Arian trinity, that it is called Norbertines. The rule they impossible to shew the least differ followed was that of St. Augustine, ence, except in name.-2. The with some slight alterations, and pre-existent intelligence supposed an addition of certain severe laws, in this doctrine is so confounded whose authority did not long surwith those other intelligences call-vive their tounder. ed angels, that there is great dan- They came first into England ger of mistaking this human soul A. D. 1146. Their first monastery, for an angel, and so of making the called New-house was erected in person of Christ to consist of three Lincolnshire, by Peter de Saulia, natures.--3. It Jesus Christ had and dedicated to St. Martial. In nothing in common like the rest of the reign of Edward I this order mankind except a body, how could had twenty-seven monasteries in this semi-conformity make him a England. reai man ?--4. The passages quot- PRESBYTER. See next artied in proof of the pre-existence of cle; and articles DEACON, ELPER. the human soul of Jesus Christ are PRESBYTERIANS. The title of the same sort with those which Presbyterian comes from the Greek others allege in proof of the pre-word Nipes butapos, which signifies existence of all human souls.-5. senior or elder, intimating that This opinion, by ascribing the dig- the government of the church in nity of the work of redemption to the New Testament was by pres. this sublime human soul, detracts byteries, that is, by association of from the deity of Christ, and ren- ministers and ruling elders, posders the last as passive as the first sessed all of equal powers, without active.-6. This notion is contra- any superiority among them, eiry to scripture. St. Paul says, in ther in office or order. The presall things it behoved him to be byterians believe, that the authomade like his brethren: he par-rity of their ministers to preach took of all our infirmities, except the Gospel, to admitister the sasin. St. Luke says, he increased craments of baptism and the Lord's in stature and in wisdom, Heb. ii, supper, and to feed the flock of 17. Luke ii, 52. See articles JE- Christ, is derived from the Holy

Ghost by the imposition of the staking the oversight thereof (*Titushands of the presbytery; and theviver acting as bishops thereof), oppose the independent scheme of not by constraint, but willingly ; the common rights of Christians not for filthy lucre, but of a ready by the same arguments which are nind;

nind; neither as being LORDS used for that purpose by the Epis-over God's heritage, but being encopalians. They affirm, however, samples to the flock,' 1st Pet. v, that there is no order in the church 2, 9. From this passage it is evias established by Christ and his dent that the presbyters not only apostles superior to that of presby-fed the flock of God, but also goters; that all ministers being am- verned that flock with episcopal bassadors of Christ, are equal by powers; and that the apostle himtheir commission: that presbyter self, as a church officer, was noand bishop, though different words, thing more than a presbyter or elare of the same import; and that|| (er. The identity of the office of prelacy was gradually established bishop and presbyter is still more upon the primitive practice of apparent from Heb. xiii, 7, 17. making the moderator or speaker and 1st Thess. V, 12; for the biof the presbytery a permanent of- shops are there represented as go. ficer.

verning the flock, speaking to them These positions they maintain the word of God, watching for against the Episcopalians by the their souls, and discharging varifollowing scriptural arguments.- pus offices, which it is impossible They observe, “That the apostle for any man to perform to more planted churches by ordaining bi-chan one congregation. shops and deacons in every city; " From the last cited text it is that the ministers which in one evident that the bishops (T93374145verse are called bishops, are in the-vs) of the Thessalonian churches next perhaps denominated presby- had the pastoral care of no more ters; that we no where read in the souls than they could hold personal New Testament of bishops, pres- communion with in God's worbyters, and deacons, in any one ship; for they were such as all church; and that, therefore, we the people were to know, esteem, are under the necessity of conclud- and love, as those that not only ing bishop and presbyter to be two were over them, but also closely names for the same church officer.laboured among them, and admoThis is apparent from Peter's ex-nished them.' But diocesan bihortation to the elders or presby- shops, whom ordinarily the hunters who were among the Jewish dredth part of their fock never Christians. “The elders (presby-hear nor see, cannot be those biters) which are among you I ex- shops by whom that fuck is admohort, who am also an elder, and nished ; nor can they be what Pea witness of the sufferings of Christ, ter requires the bishops of the and also a partaker of the glor: --wish converts to be, ensamples to that shall be revealed: feed the the frock. It is the opinion of Dr. flock of God which is among you, Hammond, who was a very learned divine, and a zealot for episco- l you overseers (TUT XOCUS bishops), pair, that the elders whom the to feed the church of God, which apostle James desires (Jas. v, 14) he hath purchased with his own the sick to call for were of the high-blood. For I know this, that afest permanent order of ecclesias- ter my departure shall grievous tical officers; but it is self-evidentwolves enter in among you, not that those elders cannot have been || sparing the flock. Also of

your diocesan bishops, otherwise the own selves shall men arise, speaksick must have been often withouting perverse things, to draw away the reach of the remedy proposed disciples after them. Therefore to them.

watch, and remember that, by the “ There is nothing in scripture space of three years, I ceased not upon which the Episcopalian is to warn every one night and day more ready to rest his cause than with tears. And now, brethren, I the alleged episcopacy of Timothy commend you to God, and to the and Titus, of whom the former is word of his grace,' &c. said to have been bishop of Ephe- “From this passage it is evident sus, and the latter bishop of Crete; that there was in the city of Epheyet the Presbyterian thinks it as sus a plurality of pastors of equal clear as the noon-day sun, that authority, without any superior the presbyters of Ephesus were pastor or bishop over them; for supreme governors, under Christ, the apostle directs his discourse to of the Ephesian churches, at the them all in common, and gives very time that Timothy is pre-them equal power over the whole tended to have been their proper flock. Dr. Hammond, indeed, diocesan.

imagines, that the elders whom “ In Acts xx, 17, &c., we read, Paul called to Miletus were the that ' from Miletus Paul sent to bishops of Asia, and that he sent Ephesus, and called the elders for them to Ephesus, because that (presbyters) of the church. And city was the metropolis of the when ihey were come to him, he province. But, were this opinion said unto them, Ye know, from well founded, it is not conceiva. the first day that I came into Asia, ble that the sacred writer would after what manner I have been have called them the elders of the with you at all seasons. And church of Ephesus, but the elders now, I know that ye all, among of the church in general, whom I have gone preaching the elders of the churches in Asia. Bekingdom of God, shall see my sides, it is to be remembered, that face no more. Wherefore I take the apostle was in such haste to be you to record this day, that I am at Jerusalem, that the sacred hispure from the blood of all mentorian measures his time by days i For I have not shunned to declare whereas it must have required seunto you all the counsel of God. veral months to call together the Take heed, therefore, unto your bishops or elders of all the cities selves, and to all the flock over of Asia; and he might certainly which the Holy Ghost hath made have gone to meet them at Ephesus

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in less time than would be re-||and it is surely not to be supposed quisite for their meeting in that that, had he been their bishop, city, and proceeding thence to him the apostle would have devolved at Miletus. They must therefore the whole episcopal power upon have been either the joint pastors the presbyters before his face. If of one congregation, or the pas-ever there were a season fitter than tors of different congregations in other for pointing out the duty one city; and as it was thus in of this supposed bishop to his diEphesus, so it was in Philippi ; cese, and his presbyters duty to for we find the apostle addressing nim, it was surely when Paul was bis epistle to all the saints in taking his fival leave of them, and Christ Jesus which are at Philippi, | discoursing so pathetically conwith the bishops and deacons.' cerning the duty of overscers, the From the passage

before us it is coming of ravenous wolves, and likewise plain that the presbyters the consequent hazard of the of Ephesus had not only the name flock. In this farewel discourse but the whole power of bishops he tells them that · He had not given to them by the Holy Ghost; shunned to declare unto them all for they are enjoined to do the the counsel of God. But with whole work of bishops--Flueamen what truth could this have been

Tou Besum-which signi- said, if obedience to a diocesan fies, to rule as well as feed the bishop had been any part of their church of God. Whence we see duty either at the time of the that the apostle makes the power apostle's speaking, or at any future of governing inseparable from that period? He foresaw that ravenous of preaching and watching; and wolves would enter in among them, that, according to him, all who and that even some of themselves are preacher's of God's word, and should arise speaking perverse watchmen of souls, are necessarily things ; and if, as the Episcoparulers or governor's of the church, lians allege, diocesan episcopacy without being accountable for was the remedy provided for those their management to any prelate, evils, is it not strange, passing but only to their Lord Christ, strange, that the inspired preacher from whom their power is de- did not foresee that Timothy, who rived.

was standing beside him, was des“ It appears, therefore, that the tined to fill that important office; apostle Paul left in the church of or, if he did foresee it, that he Ephesus, which he had planted, omitted to recommend him to no other successors to himself than his future charge, and to give him presbyter-bishops, or Presbyterian proper instructions for the disministers, and that he did not de- charge of his duty ? volve his power upon any prelate. “ But if Timothy was not bishop Timothy, whom the Episcopalians of Ephesus, what, it may be askallege to have been the first bishop ed, was his office in that city ? of Ephesus, was present when this for that he resided there for some settlement was made, Acts xx, 5; time, and was by the apostle in


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