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saw in their old guides; a charac- ||evidences of impiety or insanity." ter which it is impossible to know, |These men were not all accomand not to admire and imitate. plished scholars; but they all gave The old papal popular sermons proof enough that they were hohad gone off like a charge of gun- nest, hearty, and disinterested in powder, producing only a fright, the cause of religion. a bustle, and a black face; but All Europe produced great and those of the newe learninge, as the excellent preachers, and some of monks called them, were small the more studious and sedate rehearty seeds, which, being sown duced their art of public preachin the honest hearts of the multi-ling to a system, and taught rules tude, and watered with the dew of a good sermon. Bishop Wilkins of heaven, softly vegetated, and enumerated, in 1646, upwards of imperceptibly unfolded blossoms sixty who had written on the suband fruits of inestimable value. ject. Several of these are valu.
These eminent servants of Christ able treatises, full of edifying inexcelled in various talents, both structions; but all are on a scale in the pulpit and in private. Knox too large, and, by affecting to came down like a thunder-storm; treat of the whole office of a miCalvin resembled a whole day's set nister, leave that capital branch, rain; Beza was a shower of the public preaching, unfinished and softest dew. Old Latimer, in a vague. coarse frieze gown, trudged afoot, One of the most important ar. his Testament hanging at one end ticies of pulpit science, that which of his leathern girdle and his spec- l gives life and energy to all the rest, tacles at the other, and without and without which all the rest are ceremony instructed the people in nothing but a vain parade, is either rustic style from a hollow tree; neglected or exploded in all these while the courtly Ridley in satin treatises. It is essential to the miand fur taught the same principles nistration of the Divine Word by in the cathedral of the metropo- public preaching, that preachers lis. Cranmer, though a timorous be allowed to form principles of man, ventured to give king Henry | their own, and that their sermons the Eighth a New Testament, with contain their real sentiments, the the label, whoremongers and adul-fruits of their own intense thought terers God will judge; while Knox and meditation. Preaching canwho said there was nothing in the not be in a good state in those pleasant face of a lady to affray him, communities, where the shameful assured the queen of Scots, that, traffic of buying and selling ma“if there were any spark of the nuscript sermons is carried on. spirit of God, yea, of honesty and Moreover, all the animating enwisdom in her, she would not be couragements that arise from a offended with his affirming in his free unbiassed choice of the peosermons, that the diversions of her ple, and from their uncontaminatcourt were diabolical crimes,— ed disinterested applause, should
be left open to stimulate a generous of proselytes to the opinion ; but youth to excel. Command a man the answer of Demarets, professor to utter what he has no inclination of theology at Groningen, publishto propagate, and what he does ed the year following, put a stop not even believe; threaten him, at to its progress, though Pereyra the same time, with all the mise-made a reply. ries of life, if he dare to follow his His system was this. The Jews own ideas, and to promulge his he calls Adamites, and supposes own sentiments, and you pass a them to have issued from Adam ; sentence of death on all he says. ||and gives the title Preadamites to He does declaim; but all is lao- the Gentiles, whom he supposes guid and cold, and he lays his to have been a long time before system out as an undertaker does Adam. But this being expressly the dead.
contrary to the first words of GeSince the reformers, we have nesis, Pereyra had recourse to the had multitudes who have entered fabulous antiquities of the Egypinto their views with disinterested- tians and Chaldeans, and to some ness and success; and, in the pre- idle rabbins, who imagined there sent times, both in the church and had been another world before among Dissenters, names could be that described by Moses. He was mentioned which would do honour apprehended by the inquisition in to any nation; for though there Flanders, and very roughly used, are too many who do not fill up though in the service of the dauthat important station with pro- phin. But he appealed from their portionate piety and talents, yet sentence to Rome, whither he we have men who are conspicuous went in the time of Alexander for their extent of knowledge, VII, and where he printed a redepth of experience, originality of traction of his book of Preadamites. thought, fervency of zeal, consist The arguments against the Preency of deportment, and great adamites are these. The sacred usefulness in the Christian church. history of Moses assures us that May their numbers still be increas- Adam and Eve were the first pered, and their exertions in the cause sons that were created on the of truth be eminently crowned earth, Gen. i, 26. Gen. ii, 7. Our with the divine blessing! See Ro-Saviour confirmed this when he binson's Claude, vol. ii, preface; said, “ From the beginning of the and books recommended under ar-creation God made them male ticle MINISTER.
and female," Mark x, 6. It is PREADAMITE, a denomina-undeniable that he speaks this of tion given to the inhabitants of the Adam and Eve, because in the Earth conceived by some people next verse he uses the same words to have lived before Adain. as those in Gen. ii, 24. “ There
Isaac de la Pereyra, in 1655, fore shall a man leave his father published a book to evince the and mother, and cleave unto his reality of Preadamites, by which wife.” It is also clear froin Gen. he gained a considerable number ii, 20. where it is said, that VOL. II.
“ Adam called his wife's naine ders all our efforts useless. PredesEve, bei ause she was the mother tinarians deny these consequences, of all livine;" that is, she was the and endeavour to prove this docsource and root of all men and trine from the consideration of the women in the world; which plain-perfections of the divine nature, lv intimates that there was no other and from scripture testimony. If woman that was such a mother. his knowledge, say they, be infinite Finally, Adam is expressly called and unchangeable, he must have twice, by the apostle Paul, the first known every thing from tternity. man, 1st Cor. xv, 45, 47. If we allow the attribute of pre
PRECEPT, a rule given by a science, the idea of a decree must superior: a direction or command. certainly be believed also; for how
PREDESTINARIANS, those can an action that is really to come who believe in predestination. See to pass be foreseen if it be not PREDESTINATION.
determined? God knew every PREDESTINATION is the thing from the beginning; but this decree of God, whereby he hath he could not have known if he had for his own glory fore-ordained not so determined it. If, also, God whatever comes to pass. The be infinitely wise, it cannot be converb predestinate is of Latin origi-ceived that he would leave things nal (prædestino), and signifies in at random, and have no plan. He that tongue to deliberate before- is a God of order, and this order hand with one's self how one shall he observes as strictly in the moact; and, in consequence of such ral as in the natural world, hofdeliberation, to constitute, fore-ever confused things may appear ordain, and predetermine, where, to us. To conceive otherwise of when, how, and by whom any thing God is to degrade him, and is an shall be done, and to what end it insult to his perfections. If he, shall be done. So the Greek word then, be wise and unchangeable, A poepler, which exactly answers to the no new idea or purpose can arise English word predestinate, and is in his mind; no alteration of his rendered by it, signifies to resolve plan can take place upon condibefore-hand with one's self what tion of his creatures acting in this shall be done, and before the thing or that way. To say that this resolved on is actually effected ; doctrine makes him the author of to appoint it some certain use, and sin is not justifiable. We all aldirect it to some determinate end. low omnipotence to be an attriThis doctrine has been the occa- || bute of Deity, and that by this sion of considerable disputes and attribute he could have prevented controversies among divines. On sin from entering into the world, the one side it has been observed, had he chosen it; yet we see he that it is impossible to reconcile it did not. Now he is no more with our ideas of the justice and the author of sin in one case than goodness of God, that it makes the other. May we not ask, Why God to be the author of sin; de-does he suffer those inequalities of stroys moral distinction, and ren- Providence? Why permit whole
nations to lie in idolatry for ages ? | fore is plain from John iii, 13. John Why leave men to the most cruel vi, 50, &c. John xvii. John viii, barbarities? Why punish the sins 58. 1st John i, 4; but there are vaof the fathers in the children? In rious opinions respecting this exista word, Why permit the world at ence. Some acknowledge, that in large to be subject to pains, crosses, Jesus Christ there is a divine nalosses, evils of every kind, and ture, a rational soul, and a huthat for so many thousands of man body. His body, they think, years? And, yet, will any dare was formed in the Virgin's womb; call the Deity unjust? The fact his human soul, they suppose, was is, our finite minds know but lit- the first and most excellent of all tle of the nature of Divine justice, the works of God; was brought or any other of his attributes. But, into existence before the creation supposing there are difficulties in of the world, and subsisted in hapthis subject (and what subject ispy union in heaven with the second without?), the scripture abounds person in the Godhead, till his inwith passages which at once prove || carpation. These divines differ the doctrine, Matt. xxv, 34. Rom. from those called Arians, for the viii, 29, 30. Eph. i, 3, 6, 11.latter ascribe to Christ only a cre2d Tim. i, 9. 2d Thess. ii, 13. |ated deity, whereas the former 1st Pet. i, 1, 2. John vi, 37. John hold his true and proper divinity: xvii, 2 to 24. Rev. xiii, 8. Rev. they differ from the Socinians, who xvii, 8. Dan. iv, 35. 1st Thess. V, believe no existence of Christ be19. Matt. xi, 26. Exod. iv, 21. | fore his incarnation : they differ Prov. xvi, 4. Acts xiii, 48. The from the Sabellians, who only own moral uses of this doctrine area trinity of names : they disser, althese. 1. It hides pride from man. | so, from the generally received -2. Excludes the idea of chance. opinion, which is, that the hu
-3. Exalts the grace of God.-4. man soul began to exist in his moRenders salvation certain.-5. Af- ther's womb, in exact conformity fords believers great consolation. to that likeness unto his brethren, See Decrees OF GOD; NECES- of which St. Paul speaks, Heb. ii, SITY; King, Toplady, Cooper, and 17. The writers in favour of the Tucker, on Predestination; Burner pre-existence of Jesus Christ's huon 17 Art.; Whitby and Gill on man soul recoinuend their thesis the Five Points; Wesley's Pred. by these arguments. considered; Hill's Logica Weslein 1. Christ is represented as his sis ; Edwards on the Will; Polhill Father's messenger, or angel, beon the Decrees , Edwards's Veritas ing distinct from his Father, sent Redux; Saurin's Sermons, vol. v, by his Father long before his incarser. 13; Dr. Williams's Sermon on nation, to perform actions which Predestination.
be too low for the PRE-EXISTENCE OF JE-dignity of pure Godhead. The SUS CHRIST, is his existence appearances of Christ to the pabefore he was born of the Virgin triarchs are described like the apMary. That he really did exist be- pearances of an angel, or man
really distinct from God; yet such' demption between the Father and a oné, in whom God, or Jehovah, the Son is therefore represented had a peculiar indwelling, or with, as being made before the foundawhom the Divine nature had ation of the world. To suppose that personal union.
simple Deity or the divine essence, 2. Christ, when he came into the which is the same in all the three world, is said, in several passages personalities, should make a coveof scripture, to have divested him-nant with itself is inconsistent. self of some glory which he had be Christ is the angel to whom God fore his incarnation. Now, if there was in a peculiar manner united, had existed before this time no- and who in this union made all the thing but his divine nature, this divine appearances related in the divine nature could not properly Old Testament. divest itself of any glory. I have God is often represented in glorified thee on earth; I have scripture as appearing in a visible finished the work thou gavest me manner, and assuming a human to do. And now, O Father, glo- form. See Gen. iii, 8. xvii
, 1. rify thou me with thine own self,xxviii, 12. xxxii, 24. Exod. ii, 2. with the glory which I had with thee and a variety of other passages. before the world was.Ye know the The Lord Jehovah, when he grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, came down to visit men, carried that though he was rich, yet for some ensign of divine majesty: he your sakes he became poor, that ye was surrounded with some splendid through his poverty might be rich, appearance. Such a light often John xvii, 4, 5. 2d Cor. viii, appeared at the door of the ta9. It cannot be said of God thai bernacle, and fixed its abode on he became poor : he is infinitely the ark, between the cherubims. self-sufficient; he is necessarily It was by the Jews called the Sheand eternally rich in perfections kinah, i. e. the habitation of God. and glories. Nor can it be said of Hence he is described as dwellChrist as man, that he was rich, iting in light, and clothed with light he were never in a richer state be-l as with a garment. In the midst fore, than while he was on earth. of this brightness there seems to
It seems needful that the soul oil have been sometimes a human Christ should pre-exist, that it shape and figure. It was probably might have an opportunity to give of ihis heavenly light that Christ its previous actual consent to the divested himself when he was made great and painful undertaking of Aesh. With this he was covered at atonement for our sins. It was nis transfi uration in the Mount, the human soul of Christ that en when his garments were white di dured the weakness and pain of his the light, and at his ascension in infant state, all the labours and fa- co heaven, when a bright cloud tigues of life, the reproaches o received, or invested him: and men, and the sufferings of death. when he appeared to John, Rev. The divine nature is incapable o., 13, and it was with this he pray suffering. The covenant of reled his Father would glorify him.