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encouragement to carnal security | the Latin concluding that the and presumptious sin. To which word hypostasis signified subit is answered, that this doctrine, stance or essence, thought that like many others, may be abused to assert that there were three by hypocrites, but cannot be so divine hypostases was to say that by those who are truly serious, there were three Gods. On the it being the very nature of grace other hand, the Greek church to lead to righteousness, Tit. ii, || thought that the word person did 10, 12. Their knowledge leads | not sufficiently guard against the to veneration; their love animates Sabellian notion of the same into duty; their faith purifies the dividual Being sustaining three heart; their gratitude excites to relations; whereupon each part ohedience; yea, all their princi- of the church was ready to brand ples have a tendency to set be- the other with heresy, till by a fore them the evil of sin, and free and mutual conference in a the beauty of holiness. See Whit- synod at Alexandria, A. D. 362, by and Gill on the Five Points ; | they made it appear that it was Cole on the Sou. of God; Dod- but a mere contention about the dridge's Lectures, lec. 179; Tur- grammatical sense of a word; retini Comp. Theologiæ, loc. 14. and then it was allowed by men p. 156; Oeconomia Witsii, lib. iii, of temper on both sides, that eiC. 13; Toplady's Works, p. 476, ther of the two words might be vol.v; Ridgley's Body of Div., qu.indifferently used. See Marci Me79.

dulla, l. 5, § 3; Ridgley's Div., PERSON, an individual sub- qu. 11; Hurrion on the Spirit, stance of a rational intelligent p. 140; Doddridge's Lec., lec. nature. Some have been offended 159 ; Gill on the Trinity, p. 93 ; at the term persons as applied to Watts's Works, vol. v, p. 48, 208;

unwarrantable. Gill's Body of Div. vol. I, p. 205, The term person, when applied 8vo.: Edwards's Hist. of Red., to Deity, is certainly used in all p. 51, note; Horæ Sol., vol. ii, p. sense somewhat different from 20. that in which we apply it to one

PERSUASION, the act of another; but when it is consider-influencing the judgment and pased that the Greek words 'Y70572015|sions by arguments or motives. and Ngorceroy, to which it an- It is different from conviction. swers, are in the New Testament Conviction affects the understandapplied to the Father and Son,ing only; persuasion the will and Heb. i, 3. 2d Cor. iv, 6. and that the practice. It may be considerno single terme at least, can be ed as an assent to a proposition found more suitable, it can hard- not sufficiently proved. It is more ly be condemned as unscriptural extensively used than conviction, and improper. There have been which last is founded on demonwarm debates between the Greek stration natural or supernatural. and Latin churches about the But all things of which we may words hy postasis and persona; be persuaded are not capable of


the Trinity as

Vol. IÍ.

p. 174.

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demonstration. See Blair's Rhe- || churches for the service of God, toric, vol. ii,

who will accept of a sincere worPETER-PENCE was an an ship wherever it is offered; and nual tribute of one penny paid at that, therefore, such churches as Rome out of every family at the had already been erected were to feast of St. Peter. This, Ina, the be pulled down and destroyed.Saxon king, when he went in pil-3. That the crucifixes, as instrugrimage to Rome, about the year ments of superstition, deserved the 740, gave to the pope partly as same fate.-4. That the real body alms, and partly in recompence and blood of Christ were not exhiof a house erected in Rome for bited in the eucharist, but were English pilgrims. It continued to merely represented in that ordibe paid generally until the time nance.-5. That the oblations, of king Henry VIII, when it was prayers, and good works of the enacted, that henceforth no per-| living, could be in no respect adsons shall pay any pensions, Pe- vantageous to the dead. The ter-pence, or other impositions to founder of this sect, after a labothe use of the bishop and see ofrious ministry of twenty years, Rome.

was burnt in the year 1130 by PETITION, according to Dr. an enraged populace set on by the Watts, is the fourth part of prayer, clergy, whose traffic was in danger and includes a desire of deliver- from the enterprising spirit of ance from evil, and a request of this new reformer. good things to be bestowed. On PETROJOANNITES, were both these accounts petitions are followers of Peter John, or Peter to be offered up to God not only Joannis, i. e. Peter the son of for ourselves, but for our fellow- | John, who flourished in the twelfth creatures also. This part of pray-century. His doctrine was not er is frequently called interces- known till after his death, when sion. See PRAYER.

his body was taken out of his PETKOBRUSSIANS, a sect | grave, and burnt. His opinions founded about the year 1110 in | were, that he alone had the knowLanguedoc and Provence, by Pe- || ledge of the true sense wherein ter de Bruys, who made the most the apostles preached the Gospel; laudable attempts to reform the that the reasonable soul is not the abuses and to remove the super- || form of man; that there is no stitions that disfigured the beau- grace infused by baptism; and that tiful simplicity of the Gospel; Jesus Christ was pierced with a though not without a mixture of lance on the cross before he exfanaticism. The following tenets pired. were held by him and his disci PHARISEES, a famous sect ples: 1. That no persons whate-of the Jews who distinguished ver were to be baptized before themselves by their zeal for the they were come to the full use tradition of the elders, which they of their reason.--2. That it was derived from the same fountain an idle superstition to build with the written word itself; pre

tending that both were delivered to Josephus, this resurrection of to Moses from Mount Sinai, and theirs was no more than a Pythawere therefore both of equal au-gorean resurrection, that is, of the thority. From their rigorous ob- soul only, by its transmigration servance of these traditions, they into another body, and being born looked upon themselves as more anew with it. From this resurholy than other men, and there-rection they excluded all who fore separated themselves from were notoriously wicked, being of those whom they thought sinners opinion that the souls of such peror profane, so as not to eat or drinksons were transmitted into a state with them; and hence from the of everlasting woe. As to lesser Hebrew word pharis, which signi-crimes, they held they were prifies “to separate,” they had the nished in the bodies which the name of Pharisees, or Separatists. souls of those who committed

This sect was one of the 'most them were next sent into. ancient and most considerable Josephus, however, either misamong the Jews, but its original took the faith of his countrymen, is not very well known; however, or, which is more probable, wilit was in great repute in the time fully misrepresented it, to render of our Saviour, and most pro- their opinions more respected by bably had its original at the same the Roman philosophers, whom he time with the traditions.

appears to have, on every occaThe extraordinary pretences of sion, been desirous to please. The the Pharisees to righteousness Pharisees had many pagan notions drew after them the common peo- respecting the soul; but Bishop ple, who held them in the highest Bull, in his Harmonia Apostolica, esteem and veneration. Our Sa- has clearly proved that they held viour frequently, however, charges a resurrection of the body, and them with hypocrisy, and making that they supposed a certain bone the law of God of no effect through to remain uncorrupted, to furnish their traditions, Matt. ix, 12. Matt. the matter of which the resurXV, 1, 6. Matt. xxiii, 13, 33. rection body was to be formed. Luke xi, 39, 52. Several of these They did not, however, believe traditions are particularly men- that all mankind were to be raised tioned in the Gospel; but they from the dead. A resurrection had a vast number more, which was the privilege of the children may be seen in the Talmud, the of Abraham alone, who were all whole subject whereof is to dictate to rise on Mount Zion ; their unand explain those traditions which corruptible bones, wherever they this sect imposed to be believed might be buried, being carried to and observed.

that mountain below the surface The Pharisees, contrary to the of the earth. The state of future opinion of the Sadducees, held a felicity in which the Pharisees beresurrection from the dead, and lieved was very gross: they imathe existence of angels and spirits, gined that men in the next world, Acts xxiii, Ch. viii. But, according as well as in the present, were to eat

‘and drink, and enjoy the pleasures | devoted to traditions, or the oral of love, each being re-united to law, as their ancestors were. his former wife. Hence the Sad PHILADELPHIAN SOCI. ducees, who believed in no resur-ETY, a sect or society of the serection, and supposed our Saviour | venteenth century; so called from to teach it as a Pharisee, very | an English female, whose' name shrewdly urged the difficulty of was Jane Leadley. She embraced, disposing of the woman who had it is said, the same views and the in this world been the wife of se same kind of religion as Madam ven husbands. Had the resurrec Bourignon (see BOURIGNONtion of Christianity been the pha-Ists). She was of opinion that risaical resurrection, this difficulty all dissensions among Christians would have been insurmountable; would cease, and the kingdom of and accordingly we find the peo- the Redeemer become, even here ple, and even some of the Phari- below, a glorious scene of charity, sees themselves, struck with the concord, and felicity, if those who manner in which our Saviour bear the name of Jesus, without removed it.

regarding the forms of doctrine or This sect seems to have had discipline that distinguish particusome confused notions, probably lar communions would all join in derived from the Chaldeans and committing their souls to the care Persians, respecting the pre-exis- of the internal guide, to be intence of souls; and hence it was structed, governed, and formed by that Christ's disciples asked him his Divine impulse and suggesconcerning the blind man, John ix, tions. Nay, she went still farther, 2. "Who did sin, this man or his and declared, in the name of the parents, that he was born blind?"||Lord, that this desirable event And when the disciples told Christ would actually come to pass, and that some said he was Elias, Je- that she had a Divine commission remias, or one of the prophets, to proclaim the approach of this Matt. xvi, 14. the meaning can glorious communion of saints, who only be, that they thought he was were to be gathered in one visible come into the world with the soul | universal church or kingdom beof Elias, Jeremias, or some other fore the dissolution of this earthly of the old prophets transmigrated | globe. This prediction she deliinto him. With the Essenes they vered with a peculiar degree of held absolute predestination, and confidence, from a notion that with the Sadducees freewill; but her Philadelphian Society was the how they reconciled these seem- true kingdom of Christ, in which ingly incompatible doctrines is alone the Divine Spirit resided and no were sufficiently explained. reigned. She believed, it is said, The sect of the Pharisees was not the doctrine of the final restoraextinguished by the ruin of the tion of all intelligent beings to perJewish commonwealth. The great- fection and happiness. est part of the modern Jews are PHILANTHROPY,

comstill of this sect, being as much pounded of Pines and ar8wtos, which

signify the love of mankind. It dif- | the Christian religion. He found, fers from benevolence only in this; however, that associates would be that benevolence extends to every necessary; and from the numebeing that has life and sense, androus tribe of his admirers and disis of course susceptible of pain and ciples he chose D'Alembert and pleasure; whereas philanthropy! Diderot as the most proper percannot comprehend more than the sons to co-operate with him in his human race. It differs from friend- designs. But Voltaire was not saship, as this affection subsists only tisfied with their aid alone. He between a few individuals, whilst contrived to embark in the same philanthropy comprehends the cause Frederic II, king of Pruswhole human species. It is a calm sia, who wished to be thought a sentiment, which perhaps hardly | philosopher, and who, of course, ever rises to the warmth of affec- deemed it expedient to talk and tion, and certainly not to the heat write against a religion which he of passion.

had never studied, and into the PHILIPPISTS, a sect or party evidence of which he had probaamong the Lutherans, the follow-bly never designed to enquire.ers of Philip Melancthon. He had This royal adept was one of the strenuously opposed the Ubiquists most zealous of Voltaire's coadwho arose in his time; and the jutors, till he discovered that the dispute growing still hotter after Philosophists were waging war his death, the university of Wit- with the throne as well as with temberg, who espoused Melanc-| the altar. This, indeed, was no thon's opinion, were called by the originally Voltaire's intention. He Flacians, who attacked it, Philip- was vain; he loved to be caressed pists.

by the great; and, in one word, PHILOSOPHISTS, a name he was, from natural disposition, given to several persons in France,| an aristocrat, and an admirer of who entered into a combination to royalty. But when he found that overturn the religion of Jesus, and almost every sovereign but Freeradicate from the human heartderic disapproved of his impious every religious sentiment. The projects, as soon as he perceived man more particularly to whom their issue, he determined to opthis idea first occurred was Vol- || pose all the governments on earth taire, who being weary (as he said rather than forfeit the glory with himself) of hearing people repeat which he had flattered himself of that twelve men were sufficient to vanquishing Christ and his aposestablish Christianity, resolved to tles in the field of controversy. prove that one might be sufficient He now set himself, with D’Ato overturn it. Full of this pro- | lembert and Diderot, to excite ject, he swore before the year 1730 universal discontent with the esto dedicate his life to its accom-| tablished order of things. For this plishment; and, for some time, he purpose they formed secret sociefiattered himself that he should en-| ties, assumed new names, and emjoy alone the glory of destroying ployed an enigmatical language.

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