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to detect the errors that arise from ||tional practice; it is, in a moral heated temperament and intellec- view, the anatomy of the heart; tual excess; to know how to touch || it discovers why it beats, and how their various strings, and to direct it beats; indicates appearances in and employ them in the best of all a sound and healthy state ; detects services; I say, to accomplish these || diseases with their causes; and it ends, the study of the passions is is infinitely more fortunate in the of the greatest consequence. power it communicates of apply

“Amidst the numerous branches ing suitable rem«dies.” of knowledge,' says Mr. Cogan, See Hutcheson, IVatts, Le Brun, “ which claim the attention of the Cogan, and Davan on the Passions; human mind, no one can be more Grove's Moral Philosophy, vol. i, important than this. Whatever ch. 7; Reid's Active Powers of most intimately concerns our- | Man; Fordyce's Elements of Mor. selves must be of the first moment. Phil.; Burke on the Sublime and An attention, therefore, to the | Beautiful, p. 50. workings of our own minds; trac PASSOVER, a solemn festival ing the power which external ob- of the Jews, instituted in commejects have over us; discovering moration of their coming out of the nature of our emotions and Egypt; because, the night before affections; and comprehending the their departure, the destroying anreason of our being affected in algul, who put to death the first-born particular manner, must have a of the Egyptians, passed over the direct influence upon our pursuits, houses of the Hebrews, without our characters, and our happiness. entering therein; because they It may with justice be advanced, I were marked with the blood of the that the history of ourselves in lamb, which was killed the eventhis department is of much greatering before, and which for this reautility than abstruser speculations son was called the paschal lamb. concerning the nature of the See twelfth ch. Exod.; Brown's human soul, or even the most ac- | Dict., article Feast; and Mc. curate knowledge of its intellectual | Ewen on the Types, p. 172. powers; for it is according as the PASTOR, literally a shepherd; passions and affections are excited | figuratively a stated minister apand directed towards the objects pointed to watch over and instruct investigated by our intellectual a congregation. Of the qualifinatures that we become useful to cations of ministers we have alourselves or others; that wo rise | ready made some remarks under into respectability, or sink into that article ; but the following, contempt; that we diffuse or enjoy | taken from the works of a spirihappiness, diffuse or suffer misery. tual and useful writer, we hope, An accurate analysis of these pas- will not be found superfluous. sions and affections, therefore, is Jesus Christ's description of an to the moralist what the science of evangelical pastor, Matt. xxiv, 45. anatomy is to the surgeon. It con- includes iwo things, faithfulness stitutes the first principles of ra- and prudence, “If a minister be

faithful, he deceives not others; || “1. Prudence will direct us to and if he be prudent, he is not apt || lay a good foundation of knowto be deceived himself. His pru- | ledge in our people's souls, by dence suffers not deceivers easily catechizing and instructing them to impose upon him; and his faith in the principles of Christianity, fulness will not suffer him know- | without which we labour in vain. ingly to impose upon his people. -2. Ministerial prudence discoHis prudence will enable him to vers itself in the choice of such discern, and his faithfulness oblige | subjects as the needs of our peohim to distribute wholesome food ple's souls do most require and to his flock. But more particularly, call for.—3. It will not only direct

"1. Ministerial faithfulness in- us in the choice of our subjects, cludes pure and spiritual aims and but of the language, too, in which intentions for God, Phil. ii, 20, || we dress and deliver them to our 21.-2. Personal sincerity, or in- people.—4. It will shew us of what tegrity of heart, Neh. ix, 8. 1st great use our own affections are Cor. ii, 12.-3. Diligence in the for the moving of others; and will discharge of duty, Matt. xxv, 21. therefore advise us, that, if ever 1st Tim. iv, 2.-4. Impartiality in we expect the truths we preach the administrations of Christ's should operate upon the hearts of house, 1st Tim. v, 21.-5. Anothers, we must first have them unshaken constancy and perseve- impressed on our own hearts, Phil. rance to the end, Rev. ii, 10. But ii, 18.-5. It will direct us to be the Lord's servants must not only careful, by the strictness and gravibe faithful, but prudent, discreet, ty of our deportment, to maintain and wise. Fidelity and honesty our esteem in the consciences of make a good Christian; but the our people.-6. It will excite us to addition of prudence to fidelity seek a blessing from God upon makes a good steward. Faithful- our studies and labours, as knowness will fix the eye upon the righting all our ministerial success enend; but it is prudence must di- tirely depends thereupon,”1st Cor. rect to the proper means of attain-iii, 7. See Flavel's Character of ing it. The use of prudence to a Evangelical Pastor, in the second minister is unspeakably great: itVolume of his Works, p. 763, fol. not only gives clearness and per- | ed.; and books under article spicacity to the mind by freeing it MINISTRY. from passions and corporeal im PATIENCE, that calm and pressions, enabling thereby to ap- unruffled temper with which a prehend what is best to be done, ll good man bears the evils of life. but enables it in its deliberations Patience,” says an eminent about the means to make choice of writer; “is apt to be ranked, by the most apt and proper; and di- | many among the more humble and rects the application of them in obscure virtues, belonging chiefly the fittest season, without preci- to those who groan on a sick bed,

pitation by too much hasie, or or who languish in a prison ; but hazard by too tedious delay. in every circumstance of life no VOL. II.


virtue is more important both to || ciples strongly inculcated, or by duty and to happiness. It is not long custom. Such was the apathy confined to a situation of continu- of the Stoics, who obstinately mained adversity: it principally, in- | tained that pain was no evil, and deed, regards the disagreeable therefore bore it with amazing circumstances which are apt to firmness; which, however, was occur; but prosperity cannot be very different from the virtue of enjoyed, any more than adversity Christian patience, as appears supported without it. It must en- from the principles from which ter into the temper, and form the they respectively proceeded; the habit of the soul, if we would one springing from pride, the pass through the world with tran- ||other from humility." Christian quillity and honour.” “Christian patience, then, is something difpatience,” says Mason," is essen- || ferent from all these. “It is not tially different from insensibility, | a careless indolence, a stupid inwhether natural, artificial, or ac- sensibility, mechanical bravery, quired. This, indeed, sometimes constitutional fortitude, a daring passes for patience, though it be stoutness of spirit, resulting from in reality quite another thing; for fatalism, philosophy, or pride:patience signifies sufferings. Now it is derived from a Divine if you inflict ever so much pain agency, nourished by heavenly on the body of another, if he is truth, and guided by scriptural not sensible of it, it is no pain to rules.” him; he suffers nothing; conse

“ Patience,” says Mr. Jay, quently calmness under it is no “must be displayed under provopatience. This insensibility is cations. Our opinions, reputasometimes natural. Some, in the tion, connexions, offices, businative temperament of their mind ness, render us widely vulneraand body, are much less susceptible. The characters of men are ble of pain than others are.- various; their pursuits and their

There are different degrees of in- ||interests perpetually clash: some sensibility in men, both in their try us by their ignorance, some by animal and mental frame ; so that their folly; some by their perversethe same event may be a greatness, some by their malice. Here, exercise of patience to one man, then, is an opportunity for the which is none at all to another, triumph of patience. We are as the latter feels little or no pain very susceptive of irritation; anfrom that wound inflicted on the liger is eloquent; revenge is sweet: body or mind which gives the but to stand calm and collected; most exquisite anguish to the for- ||to suspend the blow which passion mer. Again: there is an artifi- was urgent to strike; to drive the cial insensibility: such as is pro- reasons of clemency as far as they cured by opiates, which blunt the will go ; to bring forward fairly in edge of pain ; and there is an ac- view the circumstances of mitigaquired insensibility; or that which tion; to distinguish between suris attained by the force of prin- ||prise and deliberation, infirmity

and crime; or if an infliction be || cations had Joseph received frem deemed necessary, to leave God to his brethren? but he scarcely menbe both the judge and the executions the crime; so eager is he to tioner; this a Christian should | announce the pardon. David savs, labour after : his peace requires. They rewarded me evil for good; it. People love to sting the pas- but as for me, when they were sick, sionate : they who are easily pro- my clothing was sackcloth.' Stevoked, commit their repose to the phen, dying under a shower of keeping of their enemies; they stones, prays for his enemies : lie down at their feet, and invite Lord, lay 'not this sin to their them to strike. The man of tem-charge.' But a greater than Joseph, per places himself beyond vexa- or David, or Stephen, is here. Go tious interruption. He that hath to the foot of the cross, and behold no rule over his own spirit, is like Jesus, suffering for us. Every a city that is broken down, and thing conspired to render the prowithout walls,' into which enter vocation heinous; the nature of over the ruins serpents, vagrants, the offence, the meanness and obthieves, enemies; while the man ligation of the offenders, the righwho in patience possesses his soul, teousness of his cause, the granhas the command of himself, pla- deur of his person; and all these ces a defence all around him, and seemed to call for vengeance. The forbids the enterance of such un creatures were eager to punish. welcome company to offendor dis- | Peter drew his sword: the sun recompose. His wisdom requires it. solved to shine on such criminals 'He that is slow to anger is of no longer; the rocks asked to crush great understanding; but he that them; the earth trembles under the is hasty of spirit, exalteth folly.'| sinful load; the very dead cannot Wisdom gives us large, various, remain in their graves. He suffers comprehensive views of things; them all to testify their sympathy, the very exercise operates as a di- but forbids their revenge; and, version, affords the mind time to lest the Judge of all should pour cool, and furnishes numberlesscir- forth his fury, he cries, • Father, cumstances tending to soften seve- forgive them, for they know not rity. His dignity requires it. "It what they do!'—2. Patience is to is the glory of a man to pass by albe displayed in suffering affliction. transgression.' The man provoked This is another field in which pato revenge is conquered, and loses tience gathers glory. Afiction the glory of the struggle; while he comes to exercise our patience, who forbears comes off victor, and to distinguish it. The trial crowned with no common laurels. of your faith worketh patience, A food assails a rock, and rolls off not only in consequence of the unable to make an impression; Divine Blessing, but by the natural while straws and boughs are borne operation of things: use makes off in triumph, carried down the perfect; the yoke is rendered easy stream, driven and tossed. Ex- by being worn, and those parts of amples require it. What provo- the body which are most in action

are the most strong and solid; and, || Jay's Sermons, ser. 2, vol. i; Matherefore, we are not to excuse son's Christian Morals, vol. i, ser. improper dispositions under af- 3; Blair's Sermons, vol. jij, ser. fliction, by saying, it was so try-11; Bishop Horne's Discourses, ing, who could help it?' This is io vol. ii, ser. 10; Bishop Hopkins's justify impatience by what God Death disarmed, p. 1, 120. sends on purpose to make you pa

PATIENCE OF GOD is his tient.-3. Patience is to be exer-long suffering or forbearance. He cised under delays. We as natu

is called the God of patience, not rally pursue a desired good as we only because he is the author and shun an apprehended evil: the object of the grace of patience, want of such a good is as griev-but because he is patient or long ous as the pressure of such an suffering in himself, and towards evil; and an ability to bear the his creatures. It is not, indeed, one is as needful a qualification as to be considered as a quality, acthe fortitude by which we endurecident, passion, or affection in the other. It therefore equally God as in creatures, but belongs belongs to patience to wait, as to to the very nature and essence of suffer. God does not always im- God, and springs from his goodmediately indulge us with an an-ness and mercy, Rom. ii, 4. It is swer to our praver. He hears, said to be exercised towards his indced, as soon as we knock; but chosen people, 2d Pet. iii, 9. Rom. he does not open the door: toiii, 25. Is. xxx, 18. 1st Tim. i, 16. stand there resolved not to go and towards the ungodly, Rom.is, without a blessing, requires pa- 4. Ecc. viii, 11. The end of his tience; and patience cries, "Wait forbearance to the wicked, is, that on the Lord; be of good cou- they may be without excuse ; to rage, and he shall strengthen thine make his power and goodness vi. heart: wait, I say, on the Lord."" || sible; and partly for the sake of

We have, however, the most his own people, Gen. xviii, 32.powerful motives to excite us to Rev. vi, 11. 2d Pet. iii, 9. His the attainment of this grace. 1. patience is manifested by giving God is a God of patience, Rom. warnings of judgments before he xv, 5.—2. It is enjoined by the executes them, Hos. vi, 5. Amos Gospel, Rom. xii, 12, Luke xxi, i, 1. 2d Pet. ii, 5. In long de19.-3. The present state of man laving his judgments, Ecc. viii, renders the practice of it abso- 11. In often mixing mercy with lutely necessary, Heb. x, 36.-4. them. There are many instances The mwifold inconvenience of of his patience recorded in the impatience is a strong motive, scripture: with the old world, Jon. iv. Psalm cvi.-5. Eminent Gen. vi, 3; the inhabitants of So. examples of it, Heb. xii, 2. Heb. dom, Gen. xii; in Pharaoh, Ex. vi, 12. Job i, 22.-6. Reflect that v; in the people of Israel in the all our trials will terminate in tri- wilderness, Acts xiii, 18; in the umph, James v, 7, 8. Rom. ii, 7.Amorites and Canaanites, Gen. Barrow's Works, vol. iii, ser. 10; | xv, 16. Lev. xviii, 28; in the

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