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church of Rome. See Pope, and | Persian sea. Other geographers POPERY.

have placed it in Armenia, bePARABLE, a fable or allego-tween the sources of the Tigris, rical instruction founded on some-| the Euphrates, the Araxes, and thing real or apparent in nature the Phasis, which they suppose or history, from which a moral to be the four rivers described by is drawn, by comparing it with || Moses. But concerning the exact something in which the people are place, we must necessarily be vemore immediately concerned: | ry uncertain, if, indeed, it can be such are the parables of Dives and thought at all to exist at present, Lazarus, of the prodigal son, of considering the many changes the ten virgins, &c. Dr. Blair ob- which have taken place on the surserves, that “of parables which face of the earth since the creaform a part of allegory, the pro- tion. See Man. phetical writings are full; and if PARAPHRASE, an explanato us they sometimes appear ob- tion of some text in clearer and scure, we must remember, that, more ample terms, wherein more in those early times, it was uni- regard is had to an author's meanversally the mode throughout alling than his words. See COMMENthe eastern nations to convey sa- | TARY. cred truths under some mysteri. PARDON, the act of forgiving ous figures and representations." an offender, or removing the guilt

PARACLETE, an advocate of sin, that the punishment due to or comforter; generally applied to it may not be inflicted. Of the nathe third person in the Trinity, ture of pardon it may be observed, John xv, 26.

that the scripture represents it by PARADISE, the garden of various phrases: a lifting up, or Eden, in which Adam and Eve taking away, Psa. xxxii, 1; a cowere placed. It is also used to devering of it, Ps. lxxxv, 2; a nonnote heaven, Luke xxiii, 44. As imputation of it, Ps. xxxii, 2; a to the terrestrial paradise, there blotting it out, Is. xliii, 25; a nonhave been many enquiries about remembrance of it, Heb. viii, 12. its situation. It has been placed in Is. xliii, 25. 1. It is an act of free the third heaven, in the orb of the grace, Psa. li, 1. Isa. xliii, 25.moon, in the moon itself, in the 2. A point of justice, God having middle region of the air, above received satisfaction by the blood the earth, under the earth, in the of Christ, ist John i, 9.-3. A place possessed by the Caspian sea, complete act, a forgiveness of all and under the arctic pole. The the sins of his people, 1st John i, learned Huetius places it upon the 7. Psal. ciii, 2, 3.-4. An act that river that is produced by the con-|will never be repealed, Mic. vii, junction of the Tigris and Eu-19. The author or cause of parphrates, now called the river of|don is not any creature, angel, or the Arabs, between this conjunc-man; but God. Ministers are said tion and the division made by the to remit sin declaratively, but same river before it falls into the not authoritatively; that is, they

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preach and declare that there is | than the most perfect works of
remission of sins in Christ; but || man could inerit; therefore they
to pretend to absolve men is the must be what the scriptures de-
height of blasphemy, 1st Thess. clare—“the gift of God.”
ii, 4. Rev. xiii, 5, 6. See Abso After all, however, though these
LUTION, INDULGENCES. There is two may be distinguished, yet
nothing that man has, or can do, they cannot be separated ; and, in
by which pardon can be procured: | reality, one is not prior to the
wealth cannot buy pardon, Prov. other; for he that is pardoned
xi, 4; human works or righteous by the death of Christ is at the
ness cannot merit it, Rom. xi, 6; same time justified by his life,
nor can water baptism wash away Rom. v, 10. Acts xiii, 38, 39.
sin. It is the prerogative of God See Grace, Mercy. Charnock's
alone to forgive, Mark ii, 7; the Works, vol. ii, p. 101; Gill's Body
first cause of which is his own of Div., art. Pardon; Owen on
sovereign grace and mercy, Eph. Psalm cxxx; Hervey's Works, vol.
i, 7. The meritorious cause is the || ii, p. 352.
blood of Christ, Heb. ix, 14. 1st PARENTS, a name appropri-
John i, 7. Pardon of sin and jus-ated to immediate progenitors, as
tification are considered by some father and mother. The duties of
as the same thing: and it must be parents to children relate to their
confessed that there is a close con- health, their maintenance, their
nexion; in many parts they agree, education, and morals. Many
and it is without doubt that eve- rules have been delivered respect-
ry sinner who shall be found par- ing the health of children, which
doned at the great day will like- cannot be inserted here ; yet we
wise be justified; yet they have shall just observe, that, if a parent
been distinguished thus : 1. An wishes to see his progeny healthy,
innocent person, when falsely ac- he must not indulge them in every
cused and acquitted, is justified, thing their little appetites desire;
but not pardoned; and a criminal not give them too much sleep,
may be pardoned, though he can- nor ever give them strong liquors

. not be justified or declared inno- He must accustom them to induscent. Pardon is of men that are try and moderate exercise. Their sinners, and who remain such, tood and clothing should be rather though pardoned sinners; but jus- light. They should go to rest soon tification is a pronouncing per and rise early; and, above all, sons righteous, as if they had || should, if possible, be inspired never sinned.-2. Pardon free's with a love of cleanliness. As to from punishment, but does not their maintenance, it is the parent's entitle to everlasting life; but|luty to provide every thing for justification does, Roin. v. If we them that is necessary until they were only pardoned, we should be capable of providing for themindeed, escape the pains of heli, selves. They; therefore, who live but could have no claim to the in habits of idleness, desert their joys of heaven; for these are more families, or by their negligent

conduct reduce them to a state || terity a nuisance?” But, while we of indigence and distress, are vio- would call upon parents to exerlating the law of nature and of cise their authority, it must not revelation, 1st Tim. v, 8. In re be understood that children are spect to their education and mo- to be entirely at their disposal rals, great care should be taken. under all circumstances, especiAs it relates to the present life, ally when they begin to think for habits of courage, application, themselves. Though a parent trade, prudence, labour, justice, have a right over his children, contentment, temperance, truth, yet he is not to be a domestic benevolence, &c., should be form- tyrant, consulting his own will ed. Their capacities, age, tem- and passions in preference to their per, strength, inclination, should interest. In fact, his right over be consulted, and advice given them is at an end when he goes suitable to these. As it relates beyond his duty to them. “ For to a future life, their minds parents," as Mr. Paley observes, should be informed as to the “have no natural right over the being of God, his perfections, | lives of their children, as was abglory, and the mode of salvation surdly allowed to Roman fathers; by Jesus Christ. They should be nor any to exercise unprofitable catechized; alluded to a cheer- severities; nor to command the ful attendance on Divine worship; commission of crimes: for these instructed in the scriptures; kept rights can never be wanted for from bad company; prayed with the purpose of a parent's cluty, and for; and, above all, a good Nor have parents any right to sell example set them, Prov. xxii, 6. their children into slavery; to shut Eph. vi, 1, 2. Nothing can be up daughters and younger sons in more criminal than the conduct | nunneries and monasteries, in orof some parents in the inseriorder to preserve entire the estate classes of the community, who and dignity of the family; or to never restrain the desires and use any arts, either of kindness passions of their children; suffer or unkindness, to induce them to them to live in idleness, dishones- make choice of this way of life ty, and profanation of the Lord's themselves; or, in countries where day, the consequence of which is the clergy are prohibited from often an ignominious end. So, marriage, to put 'sons into the among the great, permitting their church for the same end, who are children to spend their time and never likely to do or receive any their money as they please ; in- good in it sufficient to compendulging them in perpetual public sate for this sacrifice; nor to diversions, and setting before urge children to marriages from them awful examples of gamb- which they are averse, with the ling, indolence, blasphemy, drink- view of exalting or enriching the ing, and almost every other vice; family, or for the sake of conwhat is this but ruining their chil. necting estates, parties, or interdren, and “bequeathing to pos- ests; nor to oppose a marriage in

which the child would probably || from those meats the use of which find his happiness, from a motive was prohibited under the Mosaic of pride or avarice, of family hos- || ceconomy, and celebrated the tility or personal pique." Paley's Jewish sabbath.-2. That Christ Moral Philosophy, vol. i, p. 345 was no more than the first and to 370; Stennett's Discourses on purest creature of God. This deDomestic Duties, dis. 5; Beattie's nomination had the utmost averElements of Moral Science, vol.sion to the cloctrine and discipline ii, p. 139, 148; Doddridge's Lec- l of the church of Rome. tures, lec. 74; Saurin's Sermons, PASSALORYNCHITES, a Robinson's translation, vol. v, ser. branch of the Montanists. They 1; Searle's Christian Parent. held that, in order to be saved, it

PARSIMONY, covetousness. was necessary to observe a perpeSee COVETOUSNESS.

tual silence; wherefore they kept PARSON (persona ecclesia), their finger constantly upon their one that hath full possession of all mouth, and dared not open it; the rights of a parochial church. even to say their prayers. Their He is called parson (persona), be- name is derived from the Greek cause by his person the church, Tapexos, a nail, and pop, a nostril, which is an invisible body, is re- because, when they put their finpresented, and he is in himself a ger to their mouth, they touched body corporate, in order to pro- | their nose. tect and defend the rights of the PASSIVE OBEDIENCE OF church, which he personates. CHRIST. See Obedience, and There are three ranks of clergy || SUFFERINGS OF CHRIST. men below that of a dignitary, viz.

PASSIVE PRAYER, among parson, vicar, and curate. Parson the mystic divines, is a total susis the first, meaning a rector, or pension or ligature of the intelleche who receives the great tithes tual faculties, in virtue whereof of a benefice. Clergyman may im- the soul remains of itself, and, as ply any person ordained to serve to its own power, impotent with at the altar. Parsons are always regard to the producing of any priests, whereas clergymen are effects. The passive state, accordonly deacons. See CLERGY, Cu- ling to Fenelon, is only passive in RATE.

the same sense as contemplation; PASAGINIANS, a denomina- i. e. it does not exclude peaceable tion which arose in the twelfth disinterested acts, but only uncentury, known also by the name quiet ones, or such as tend to our of the Circumcised. Their dis- own interest. In the passive state tinguishing tenets were these, 1. the soul has not properly any acThat the observation of the law tivity, any sensation of its own. of Moses in every thing except It is a mere inflexibility of the the offering of sacrifices was obli- soul, to which the teeblest impulse gatory upon Christians. In con- of grace gives motion. See Myssequence, of which, hey circum-Tic. cised their followers, abstained PASSION, in its general im

port, signifies every feeling of the || the degrees to which they rise.mind occasioned by an extrinsic || 5. The usefulness of the passions cause. It is used to describe al is considerable, and were given us violent commotion or agitation of for a kind of spring or elasticity the mind; emotion, zeal, ardour, to correct the natural sluggishiness or eagerness, as opposed to that of the corporeal part. They gave state of ease wherein a man can birth to poetry, science, painting, conquer his desires, or hold them music, and all the polite arts, which in subjection. 1. As to the number | minister to pleasure ; nor are they of the passions, Le Brun makes less serviceable in the cause of rethem about twenty. 1. Attention; ligion and truth.-" They,” says 2. admiration; 3. astonishment; Dr. Watts, “when sanctified, set 4. veneration; 5. rapture; 6. joy, the powers of the understanding with tranquillity; 4. desire; 8. at work in the search of divine laughter; 9 acute pain; 10. pains, | truth and religious duty; they simply bodily; 11. sadness ; 12. keep the soul fixed to divine things; weeping; 13. compassion; 14. render the duties of holiness much scorn; 15. horror; 16. terror or casier, and temptations to sin fright; 17. anger; 18. hatred; 19. much weaker; and render us more jealousy ; 20. despair. All these like Christ, and fitter for his premay be represented on canvass by sence and enjoyment in heaven.” the pencil. Some make their num-1-6. As to the regulation of the ber greater, adding aversion, love, passions: to know whether they are emulation, &c. &c.; these, howe- under due restraints, and directed ver, may be considered as includ- to proper objects, we must enquire ed in the above list. They are di- whether they influence our opi. vided by some into public and nions; run before the understandprivate ; proper and improper; so-ing, engaged in trifling and neglectcial and selfish passions.—2. The ful of important objects; express original of the passions are from themselves in an indecent manner, impressions on the senses; from and whether they disorderour conthe operations of reason, by which | duct. If this be the case, they are good or evil are foreseen; and out of their due bounds, and will from the recollections of memory. become sources of trial rather -3. The objects of the passions than instruments of good. To have are mostly things sensible, on ac-them properly regulated, count of their near alliance to the should possess knowledge of our body; but objects of a spiritual duty, take God's word for our rule, nature also, though invisible, have be much in prayer and dependence a tendency to excite the passions: on the Divine Being.–7. Lastly, such as the love of God, heaven, we should study the passions. To hell

, eternity, &c.-4. As to the examine them accurately, indeed, innocency of the passions: in them- requires much skill, patience, obselves they are neither good nor servation, and judgment; but to evil, but according to the good or form any proper idea of the human ill use that is made of them, and mind, and its various operations ;

we

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