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its primitive splendour and feli- || towards the greater, there must city.

of necessity be something analo4. That at the resurrection of gous to this in the intellectual systhe dead we shall be clothed with || tem; and since the spirits created etherial bodies. For the elements | by God are 'emanations and of our terrestrial compositions are streams from his own abyss of such as almost fatally entangle usbeing, and as self-existent power in vice, passion, and misery. The must needs subject all beings to purer the vehicle the soul is united itself, the Deity could not but with, the more perfect is her life & impress upon her intimate natures operations. Besides, the Supreme and substances a central tendency Goodness who made all things as- | towards himself; an essential prinsures us he made all things best || ciple of re-union to their great oriat first, and therefore his recovery ginal. of us to our lost happiness (which 6. That the earth after its conis the design of the Gospel) must | Aagration shall become habitable restore us to our better bodies again, and be the mansion of men and happier habitations, which is and animals, and that in eternal evident from 1st Cor. xv, 49. 20 vicissitudes. For it is thus exCor. v, 1, and other texts of scrip-pressed in Isaiah: Behold, I make ture.

new heavens, and a new earth, &c.; 5. That, after long periods of|and in Feb. i, 10, 12. Thou, Lord, time, the damned shall be released in the beginning hast laid the founfrom their torments, and restored | dations of the earth; as a vesture to a new state of probation. For shalt thou change them, and they the Deity has such reserves in his shall be changed, &c. Where there gracious providence as will vindi- is only a change the substance is cate his sovereign goodness and not destroyed, this change being wisdom from all disparagement. only as that of a garment worn Expiatory pains are a part of his out and decaying. The fashion of adorable plan; for this sharper kind the world passes away like a turnof favour has a righteous place in ing scene, to exhibit a fresh and such creatures as are by nature new representation of things;

and mutable. Though sin has extin- if only the present dress and apguished or silenced the divine lile, pearance of things go off, the subyet it has not destroyed the facul- stance is supposed to remain enties of reason and understanding, tire. consideration and memory, which

ORIGINAL SIN. See Fall, will serve the life which is most Sin. powerful. If, therefore, the vigor ORIGIN OF EVIL. See Sin. ous attraction of the sensual na ORTHODOXY, soundness of ture be abated by a ceaseless pain, doctrine or opinion in matters of these powers may resume the religion. The doctrines which are seeds of a better life and nature. generally considered as orthodox As in the material system there among us are such as were geneis a gravitation of the less bodies rally professed at the time of the

reformation: the fall of man, re- || to answer the end proposed, viz. generation, atonement, repent the preserving an uniformity of ance, justification by free grace, opinion, since persons of little in&c.

tegrity may satisfy their conSome have thought, that, in or- l sciences, in subscribing what they der to keep error out of the church, do not at all believe as articles of there should be some human form | peace, or in putting the most unas a standard of orthodoxy, where natural sense on the words. And in certain disputed doctrines shall whereas, in answer to all these inbe expressed in such determinate conveniences, it is pleaded, that phrases as may be directly levell- || such forms are necessary to keep ed against such errors as shall pre- | the church from heresy, and it is vail from time to time, requiring better there should be some hypothose especially who are to be pub-crites under such forms of ortholic teachers in the church to sub-| doxy than that a freedom of describe or virtually to declare their bate and opinion should be allowassent to such formularies. But,ed to all teachers; the answer is as Dr. Doddridge observes, 1.plain, that, when any one begins Had this been requisite, it is pro- to preach doctrines which appear bable that the scriptures would to those who attend upon him danhave given us some such formula- gerous and subversive of Christiries as these, or some directions as anity, it will be time enough to to the manner in which they should proceed to such animadversion as be drawn up, proposed, and re- the nature of his error in their apceived.--2. It is impossible that prehension will require, and his weak and passionate men, who relation to them will admit. See have perhaps been heated in the articles EstaBLISHMENT and Subvery controversy thus decided,SCRIPTION; Doddridge's Lectures, should express themselves with lec. 174; Watts's Orthodoxy and greater propriety than the apostles Charity united. did.-3. It is plain, in fact, that OSIANDRIANS, a denomithis practice has been the cause of nation among the Lutherans, great contention in the Christian which was founded in the year church, and such formularies have 1550 by Andrew Osiander, a cebeen the grand engine of dividing lebrated German divine, whose it, in proportion to the degree in doctrine amounted to the followwhich they have been multiplieding propositions. and urged.-4. This is laying a 1. That Christ, considered in his great temptation in the way of such human nature only, could not, by as desire to undertake the office his obedience to the divine law, of teachers in the church, and will obtain justification and pardon for be most likely to deter and afflict | sinners; neither can we be justifithose who have the greatest ten-ed before God, by embracing and derness of conscience, and there-l applying to ourselves, through fore (cæt. par.) best deserve en-faith, the righteousness and obecouragement.-5. It is not likely dience of the man Christ. It is on

ly through that eternal and essen- | no sin ; therefore, when it is pretial righteousness which dwells in sent with Christ in the hearts of Christ, considered as God, and the regenerate, they are on its acwhich resides in his divine nature, count considered by the Deity as that is united to the human, that righteous, although they be sinmankind can obtain complete jus- ners. Moreover, this divine and tification.

justifying righteousness of Christ 2. That man becomes a partaker excites the faithful to the pursuit of this divine righteousness by of holiness, and to the practice of faith, since it is in consequence of virtue. this uniting principle that Christ OSSENIANS, a denomination, dwells in the heart of man with in the first century, which taught his divine righteousness. Now, that faith may and ought to be dis wherever this divine righteous sembled. ness dwells, there God can behold

P.

PACIFICATION, edicts of, ||ed themselves of during the trouwere decrees, granted by the kings bles. Another, called the Edict of of France to the Protestants, for Lonjumeau, ordering the execution appeasing the troubles occasioned of that of Amboise, was publishby their persecution. The first ed March 27, 1558, after a treaty Edict of Pacification was granted of peace. This pacification was but by Charles IX, in January 1562, of short continuance; for Charles permitting the free exercise of the perceiving a general insurrection reformed religion near all the ci-of the Huguenots, revoked the ties and towns of the realm. said edicts in September, 1568, March 19, 1563, the same king forbidding the exercise of the granted a second Edict of Pacifi- Protestant religion, and commandcation, at Amboise, permitting ing all the ministers to depart the the free exercise of the reformed kingdom in fifteen days. But on religion in the houses of gentle-| the eighth of August. 1570, he men and lords high justiciaries made peace with them again, and (or those that had the power of published an edict on the eleventh, life and death) to their families allowing the lords high justiciaries and dependents only; and allows to have sermons in their houses ing other Protestants to have their for all comers, and granting other sermons in such towns as they Protestants two public exercises had them in before the seventh of in each government. He likewise March, obliging them withal to gave them four cautionary towns, quit the churches they had possess- viz. Rochel, Montaubon, Cognal,

of two years.

and La Charite, to be places of so that the Protestants had not the security for them during the space free exercise of their religion in

any place but where they were Nevertheless, in August 1572. masters, and had banished the Rohe authorised the Bartholomew mish religion. In April 1598,

the massacre, and at the same time is- king published a new Edict of Pasued a declaration forbidding the cification at Nantz, granting the exercise of the Protestant religion. Protestants the free exercise of

Henry III, in April 1576, made their religion in all places where peace with the Protestants; and they had the same in 1596 and the Edict of Pacification was pub-1597, and one exercise in each bailished in parliament May 14, per-liwick. mitting them to build churches This Edict of Nantz was conand have sermons where they | firmed by Lewis XIII, in 1610; pleased. The Guisian faction, en- and by Lewis XIV, 1652. But this raged at this general liberty, be latter abolished it entirely in 1685. gan the famous league for defence See HUGUENOTS, and Persecuof the Catholic religion, which be- TION. came so formidable, that it obliged PÆDOBAPTISTS, those who the king to assemble the states of | baptize their children. The word the kingdom at Blois, in Decem- comes from sais, infant, and Barber 1576, where it was enacted Tofuos, baptism. See BAPTISM. that there should be but one re

PAGANISM, the religious ligion in France, and that the Pro- | worship and discipline of Pagans, testant ministers should be all or the adoration of idols and false banished. In 1577, the king, to pa- gods. The theology of the Pagans, cify the troubles, published an edict according to themselves, as Scæin parliament, October 8th, grant- vola and Varro, was of three sorts. ing the same liberty to the reform- The first of these may well be ed which they had before. How-called fabulous, as treating of the ever, in July 1585, the league ob- | theology and genealogy of their liged him to publish another edict, deities, in which they say such revoking all former edicts granted things as are unworthy of deity; to the Protestants, and ordering ascribing to them thefts, murders, them to depart the kingdom in six adulteries, and all manner of months, or turn Papists. This edict crimes; and therefore this kind of was followed by more to the same theology is condemned by the purpose.

wiser sort of heathens as nugatory Henry IV coming to the crown, and scandalous: the writers of this published a declaration, July 4, sort of theology were Sanchonia1591, abolishing the edicts against tho, the Phænician; and of the the Protestants. This edict was Grecians, Orpheus, Hesiod, Pheverified in the parliament of Cha- recyde, &c. The second sort, calllons; but the troubled preventeded physic, or natural, was studied the verification of it in the par- and taught by the philosophers liaments of the other provinces ; || who, rejecting the multiplicity

VOL. II.

of gods introduced by the poets, having no hope, and without God brought their theology to a more in the world; and, consequently, natural and rational form, and their theology was insufficient for supposed that th: re was but their salvation. See HEATHENS, one Supreme God, which they | IDOLATRY, POLYTHEISM. commonly make to be the sun; PAGODA, or Pagod, a name at least, an emblem of him, but given by the East Indians to their at too great a distance to mind temples, where they worship their the affairs of the world, and there- gods. fore devised certain demons, PANTHEISM, a philosophiwhich they considered as media- cal species of idolatry, leading to tors between the Supreme God atheism, in which the universe and man; and the doctrines of was considered as the Supreme these demons, to which the apos-God. Who was the inventor of te is tho:ight to allude in 1st this absurd system, is, perhaps, Tim. iv, 1. were what the philo- not known; but it was of early sophı rs had a concern with, and origin, and differently modified by who treat of their nature, office, | different philosophers. Some held and regard to men; as did Thales, the universe to be one immense Pythagoras, Plato, and the Stoics. animal, of which the incorporeal The third part, called politic, or soul was properly their god, and civil, was instituted by legislators, the heavens and the earth the bostatesmen, and politicians: the dy of that God; whilst others held first among the Romans was Nu-but one substance, partly active ma Pompilius: this chiefly re- and partly passive, and therefore spected their gods, temples, al- looked upon the visible universe tars, sacrifices, and rites of wor- as the only Numen. The earliest ship, and was properly their ido- Grecian pantheist of whom we latry, the care of which belonged read, was Orpheus, who called to the priests; and this was en- | the world the body of God, and its joined the common people, to several parts its members, makkeep them in obedience to the ci- ing the whole universe one divine vil state. Thus things continued animal. According to Cudworth, in the Gentile world, until the Orpheus and his followers believe light of the Gospel was sent ed in the immaterial soul of the among them: the times before world: therein agreeing with that were times of ignorance, as Aristotle, who certainly held that the apostle calls them: they were God and matter are co-eternal; ignorant of the true God, and of and that there is some such union the worship of him; and of the between them as subsists between Messiah, and salvation by him. the souls and bodies of men. See Their state is truly described, Eph. article SPINOSISM. ii, 12, that they were then with PANTHEOLOGY, the whole out Christ; aliens from the com- sum or body of divinity. monwealth of Israel; strangers

PAPIST, one who adheres to from the covenants of promises; the communion of the pope and

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