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kel there are the following rea- || which is the exact conformity of sons: 1. Perjury is a sin of great- our hearts and lives to the law of er deliberation.—2. It violates a God, without the least imperfecsuperior confidence.-3. God di- tion. This last is only peculiar to rected the Israelites to swear by a glorified state. The obligation his name, Deut. vi, 13. ch. x, 20., we are under to obedience arises, 1. and was pleased to confirm his From the relation we stand in to covenant with that people by an God as creatures, Psal. xcv, 6.-2. oath; neither of which it is pro- From the law he hath revealed to bable he would have done, had he us in his word, Ps. cxix, 3. 2d not intended to represent oaths as Peter i, 5, 7.-3. From the blesshaving some meaning and effect ings of his providence we are conbeyond the obligation of a bare stantly receiving, Acts xiv, 17. promise.

Psal. cxlv.-4. From the love and Promissory ouths are not bind- | goodness of God in the grand ing where the promise itself would work of redemption, 1st Cor. vi, not be so. See PROMISES. As oaths 20. As to the nature of this obediare designed for the security of ence, it must be, 1. Active, not onthe imposer, it is manifest that ly avoiding what is prohibited, but they must be interpreted and per- performing what is commanded, formed in the sense in which the Col. iii, 8, 10.–2. Personal; for imposer intends them.” Oaths, though Christ has obeyed the law also, must never be taken but in for us as a covepant of works, yet matters of importance, nor irre- || he hath not abrogated it as a rule verently, and without godly fear. of life, Rom. vii, 22. Rom. iii, 31. Paley's Mor. Phil., ch. 16, vol. i; 3. Sincere, Psal. li, 6. 1st Tim. Grot. de Jure, l. 11, c. 13, \ 21; | i, 5.-4. Affectionate, springing Barrow's Works, vol. i, ser. 15; from love, and not from terror, Burnet's Exposition of the 39th 1st John v, 19. 1st John ii, 5. 2d Article of the Church of England; | Cor. v, 14.-5. Diligent, not slothHerport's Essay on Truths of Im- | fully, Gal. i, 16. Psal. xviii, 44. portance, and Doctrine of Oaths; Rom. xii, 11.-6. Conspicuous and Doddridge's Lectures, lect. 189; open, Phil. ii, 15. Matt. v, 16.Tillotson's 22d Sermon.

7. Universal; not one duty, but all OBEDIENCE, the perform- must be performed, 2d Pet. I, 5. ance of the commands of a supe- 10.–8. Perpetual at all times, rior. Obedience to God may be places, and occasions, Rom. ii, 7. considered, 1. As virtual, which | Gal. vi, 9. See Holiness, SANCTIconsists in a belief of the Gospel,|| FICATION; Charnock’s l'orks, vol. of the holiness and equity of its xi, p. 1212; Tillotson's Sermons, precepts, of the truth of its pro- | ser. 122, 123; Saurin's Sermons, mises, and a true repentance of vol. i, ser. 4; Ridgley's Body of all our sins.-2. Actual obedience, Div., qu. 92. which is the practice and exercise OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST of the several graces and duties of is generally divided into active and Christianity.-3. Perfectobedience, passive. His active obedience im

plies what he did; his passive what | obligation is that which arises from he suffered, though, Dr. Owen reason, abstractly taken, to do or observes, that it cannot be clearly forbear certain actions.-2. Auevinced that there is any such thoritative obligation is that which thing in propriety of speech as arises from the commands of a passive obedience: obeying is doing, superior, or one who has a right to which passion or suffering doch or authority to prescribe rules to not belong. Of the active obedi-others.—3. Moral obligation is ence of Christ the scriptures as- that by which we are bound to sure us that he took upon him the perform that which is right, and form of a servant, and really be- to avoid that which is wrong. It came one, Is. xlix, 3. Phil. ii, 3. is a moral necessity of doing acHeb. viii. He was subject to the tions or forbearing them; that is, law of God. “He was made un such a necessity as whoever breaks der the law;" the judicial or civil through it, is, ipso facto, worthy law of the Jews; the ceremonial of blame for so doing. Various, law, and the moral law, Mait. xvii, however, have been the opinions 24, 27. Luke ii, 22. Ps. xl, 7, 8. concerning the ground of moral He was obedient to the law of na-obligation, or what it arises from. ture; he was in a state of subjec-One says, from the moral fitness tion to his parents; and he fulfill of things; another, because it is ed the commands of his heavenly conformable to reason and nature; Father as it respected the first another, because it is conformable and second table. His obedience, to truth; and another, because it 1. Was voluntary, Psal. xl, 6.–2. is expedient, and promotes the Complete, 1st Pet. ii, 22.-3. public good. A late writer has deWrought out in the room and fined obligation to be “a state of stead of his people, Rom. x, 4. mind perceiving the reasons for Rom. v, 19.–4. Well pleasing and acting, or forbearing to act.” But acceptable in the sight of God. I confess this has a difficulty in it See ATONEMENT; Death and Suf. to me; because it carries with it ferings of Christ.

an idea that if a man should by OBLATI, secular persons who his habitual practice of iniquity be devoted themselves and their es so hardened as to lose a sense of tates to some monastery, into | duty, and not perceive the reawhich they were admitted as a sons why he should act morally, kind of lay brothers. The form then he is under no obligation. of their admission was putting the And thus a depraved man might bell ropes of the church round say he is under no obligation to their necks, as a mark of servi- | obey the laws of the land, betude. They wore a religious habit, cause, through his desire of living but different from that of the a licentious life, he is led to supmonks.

pose OBLIGATION is that by in my opinion, a difference should which we are bound to the perfor- be made between obligation and a mance of any action. 1. Rational sense of it. Moral obligation, I

think, arises from the will of God, the aim of the majority of the sect as revealed in the light and law of was to distribute the writings of nature and in his word. This is Voltaire, Diderot, and others and binding upon all men, because thus to eradicate from the minds there is no situation in which of the people all reverence for Dimankind have not either one or vine revelation. See Philosothe other of these. We find, how-PHISTS. ever, that the generality of men OFFERING, or OBLATION, are so far sunk in depravity, that denotes whatever is sacrificed or a sense of obligation is nearly or consumed in the worship of God. quite lost. Still, however, their | For an account of the various oflosing the sense does not renderferings under the law, the reader the obligation less strong. “Ob-is referred to the book of Levitiligation to virtue is eternal and cus. See also SACRIFICE. immutable, but the sense of it is OFFICERS CHURCH. See lost by sin.” See Warburton's Le-Church, Deacon, Elderi gation, vol. i, p. 38, 46, &c.: OFFICES OF CHRIST are Paley's Mor. Phil., p. 54, vol. i; generally considered as threefold. Robinson's Preface to the Fourth | 1. A prophet to enlighten and inVolume of Saurin's Sermons; Ma- struct, John vi, 14. John iii, 2.-2. son's Christian Morals, ser. 23, p. | A priest to make atonement for 256, vol. ii; Doddridge's Lect., lec. his people, Isaiah liji. Heb. vii. 52; Grove's Phil., vol. ii, p. 66. —3. A king to reign in and rule

OBSERVATION. See MIND. over them, Zech. xi, 9. Psal. ii,


MEDIATOR, &c. ECONOMISTS, a sect of phi OMEN is a word which, in its losophers in France, who have proper sense, signifies a sign or made a great noise in Europe, and indication of some future event, are generally supposed to have especially of an alarming nature. been unfriendly to religion. The Against the belief of omens, it is founder of this sect was Dr. Du-observed, that it is contrary to quesnoi, who had so well insinuat- every principle of sound philosoed himself into the favour of Louis phy; and whoever has studied the XV, that the king used to call him writings of St. Paul must be conhis Thinker. The sect was called vinced that it is inconsistent with Economists, because the economy | the spirit of genuine Christianity. and order to be introduced into We cannot pretend to discuss the finances, and other means of the subject here, but will present alleviating the distresses of the the reader with a quotation on people, were perpetually in their the other side of the question. mouths. The abbė Barruel admits “ Though it be true,” says Mr. that there may have been some few Toplady, “ that all omens of them who directed their specu- not worthy of observation, and lations to no other object; but he though they should never be so brings very suficient proof that regarded as to shock our fortitude, Vol. II.



or diminish our confidence in God, Il in every place. This may be arstill they are not to be constantly gued from his infinity, Ps.cxxxix; despisedSmall incidents have his power, which is every where, sometimes beer prelusive to great | Heb. i, 3; his providence, Acts events; nor is there any supersti-xvii, 27, 28, which supplies all. tion in noticing these apparent | As he is a spirit, he is so omnipreprognostications, though there sent as not to be mixed with the may be much superstition in being creature, or divided part in one either too indiscriminately or 100 place, and part in another; nor is decply swayed by them."-Top-he multiplied or extended, but is lady's Works, vol. iv, p. 192. essentially present every where.

OMNIPOTENCE OF GOD From the consideration of this atis his almighty power. This is es-tribute, we should learn to fear sential to his nature as an infinite, and reverence God, Ps. Ixxxix, 7. independent, and perfect Being. To derive consolation in the hour The power of God is divided into of distress, Is. xliii, 2. Ps. xlvi, 1. absolute, ordinate or actual. Absolute To be active and diligent in holy is that whereby God is able to do services, Psalm cxix, 168. See that which he will not do, but is Charnock's Works, vol. i, p. 240; possible to be done. Ordinate is Abernethy's Sermons, ser. 7; that whereby he doth that which || Howe's Works, vol. i, p. 108, 110; he hath decreed to do. The power | Saurin's Sermons, vol. i, ser. S; of God may be more especially Gill's Body of Div., b. 1; Spect. seen, 1. In creation, Rom. i, 20. vol. viii, No. 565, 571; Tillotson's Genesis i.--2. In the preservation Sermons, ser. 154. of his creatures, Heb. i, 3. Col. OMNISCIENCE OF GOD i, 16, 17. Job xxvi.-3. In the re- is that perfection by which he demption of men by Christ, Luke knows all things, and is, 1. Infinite i, 35, 37. Eph. i, 19.-4. In the knowledge, Ps. cxlvii, 5.2. Eter. conversion of sinners, Psal. cx, 3. nal, generally called foreknow. 2d Cor. iv, 7. Rom. i, 16.-5. In ledge, Acts xv, 18. Isa. xlvi, 10. the continuance and success of the Eph. i, 4. Acts ii, 23.-3. UniGospel in the world. Matt. xiii, 31, versal, extending to all persons, 32.–6. In the final perseverance times, places, and things, Heb. ir, of the saints, 1st Pet. i, 5.-7. In 13. Psalm 1, 10, &c.-4. Perfect, the resurrection of the dead, 1st relating to what is past, present, Cor. xv.-8. In making the righte- and to come. He knows all by his ous happy for ever, and punishing own essence, and not derived from the wicked, Phil. iii, 21. Matt. any other; not successively as we XXV, 34, &c. See Gill's Body of do, but independently, distinctly, Div., vol. i, oct. edit., p. 77; Char- infallibly, and perpetually, Jer. x, nock's Works, vol. i, p. 423; Sau-6, 7. Rom. xi, 33.-5. This knowrin's Sermons, vol. i, p. 157; Til ledge is peculiar to himself, Mark lotson's Sermons, ser. 152. xiii, 12. Job xxxvi, 4o, and not

OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD communicable to any creature. is his ubiquity, or his being present 6. It is incomprehensible by us

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how God knows all things, yet it look very much like the contriva is evident that he does; for to ances of artful priests to disguise suppose otherwise is to suppose their villany; the medium of him an imperfect Being, and di- || priests, speaking images, vocal rectly contrary to the revelation groves, &c., seem much to conhe has given of himself, 1st John firm it. On the other hand, if we üi, 20. Job xxviii, 24. Job xxi, 22. may credit the relation of anSee Charnock's Works, vol. i, p. cient writers, either among Hea271; Abernethy's Sermons, vol. i, thens or Christians, this hypothepage 290, 306; Howe's Works, vol. | sis will hardly account for many i, p. 102, 103, Gill's Divinity, vol. of the instances they mention. i, p. 85, oct.

and since it cannot be proved eiOPHITES. See SERPENTINI- | ther impossible or unscriptural, is

it not probable that God might OPINION is that judgment sometimes permit an intercourse which the mind forms of any pro- with infernal spirits with a design, position, for the truth or falsehood in the end, to turn this and every of which there is not sufficient other circumstance to his own evidence to produce absolute be- glory? lief.

Respecting the cessation of these · ORACLE, among the Hea- oracles there have been a variety thens, was the answer which the lof opinions. It has been generally gods were supposed to give to held, indeed, that oracles ceased those who consulted them upon at the birth of Jesus Christ; yet any affair of importance. It is also some have endeavoured to mainused for the god who was thought tain the contrary, by shewing that to give the answer, and for the they were in being in the days of place where it was given. Learned Julian, commonly called the apos men are much divided as to the tate, and that this empeior himself source of these oracles. Some sup- consulted thems; nay, farther, say pose that they were only the inven- they, history thrikes mention of tion of priests; while others con- several laws published by the ceive that there was a diabolical Christianos, Theodosius, agency employed in the business. Gratian, and Valentinian, to puThere are, as one observes, seve- nish persons who interrogated ral circumstances leading to the them, even in their days; and former hypothesis ; such as the that the Epicurçans were the first gloomy solemnity with which ma- who made a jest of this superstiay of them were delivered in cavesion, and exposed the roguery of and subterraneous caverns; the nu- | its priests to the people. merous and disagreeable ceremo But on the other side it is obnies enjoined, as sometimes sleep-served, 1st, l'hat the question, ing in the skins of beasts, bathing, I properly stated, is not, Whether and expensive sacrifices; the am- oracles became extinct immediatebiguous and unsatisfactory an-ly upon the birth of Christ, or from swers frequently returned: these the very moment he was born ?

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